Diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis among primary school pupils in Patigi local government: Haematuria Vs Microscopy
Objectives: To establish the reliability of haematuria in diagnosing Urinary Schistosomiasis infection.
Methodology: The research was a cross sectional study. Information on demographic characteristics and history of haematuria was collected from 2000 primary school pupils aged 5-15 years. Urine samples were collected for microscopy. The data from completed questionnaires were sorted and edited manually to detect omissions and error. Analysis of data was done using SPSS software version 20.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) using simple frequency counts, sensitivity and specificity analysis and chi square test.
Results: Prevalence of Schistosomiasis by haematuria was 34.5% while that of microscopy was 35%. Diagnosis by haematuria compared to microscopy had 94.7% sensitivity and a specificity of 97.6%. About 94.6% of urine samples that were positive for haematuria were also positive for ova of Schistosoma haematobium on microscopy. The two diagnostic methods for urinary schistosomiasis showed strong positive relationship (p<0.001). Visible haematuria alone and history of haematuria alone had high positive predictive value (99.1% and 85% respectively) in diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis.
Conclusion: This study has shown that haematuria is as good as microscopy in diagnosing urinary schistosomiasis in endemic areas and should be used routinely.
Keywords: Diagnosis, Haematuria, Microscopy, Urinary schistosomiasis, Patigi
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