Research Journal of Health Sciences <p>The <em>Research Journal of Health Sciences</em> is dedicated to promoting high quality research work in the field of health and related biological sciences. It aligns with the mission of the Osun State University, which is “to create a unique institution, committed to the pursuit of academic innovation, skills-based training and a tradition of excellence in teaching, research and community service”. The Journal acts as a medium of improving the quality of health care and medical education particularly in the context of developing countries with limited resources.</p> <p>The <em>Research Journal of Health Sciences</em> aim to make a substantial contribution towards providing high quality publications in health sciences and related biological sciences. It publishes manuscripts from basic and clinical sciences that have not been submitted for publication/or under consideration for publication elsewhere. The Journal ensures a rigorous review process.</p> <p>Research Journal of Health Sciences journal is a peer reviewed, Open Access journal. The Journal subscribed to terms and conditions of Open Access publication. Articles are distributed under the terms of Creative Commons License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). (<a href=""></a>). All articles are made freely accessible for everyone to read, download, copy and distribute as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.</p> Osun State University ( en-US Research Journal of Health Sciences 2360-7793 <h3>By submitting manuscripts to RJHS authors of original articles are assigning copyright to the College of Health Sciences, Osun State University. Authors may use their own work after publication without written permission, provided they acknowledge the original source. Individuals and academic institutions may freely copy and distribute articles published in RJHS for educational and research purposes without obtaining permission.</h3><p>CREATIVE COMMONS ATTRIBUTION-NONCOMMERCIAL-NODERIVATIVES 4.0 INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC LICENSE By exercising the Licensed Rights (defined below), You accept and agree to be bound by the terms and conditions of this Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public License ("Public License"). To the extent this Public License may be interpreted as a contract, You are granted the Licensed Rights in consideration of Your acceptance of these terms and conditions, and the Licensor grants You such rights in consideration of benefits the Licensor receives from making the Licensed Material available under these terms and conditions. Section 1 – Definitions. 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The Licensor shall not be bound by any additional or different terms or conditions communicated by You unless expressly agreed. Any arrangements, understandings, or agreements regarding the Licensed Material not stated herein are separate from and independent of the terms and conditions of this Public License. Section 8 – Interpretation. For the avoidance of doubt, this Public License does not, and shall not be interpreted to, reduce, limit, restrict, or impose conditions on any use of the Licensed Material that could lawfully be made without permission under this Public License. To the extent possible, if any provision of this Public License is deemed unenforceable, it shall be automatically reformed to the minimum extent necessary to make it enforceable. If the provision cannot be reformed, it shall be severed from this Public License without affecting the enforceability of the remaining terms and conditions. No term or condition of this Public License will be waived and no failure to comply consented to unless expressly agreed to by the Licensor. Nothing in this Public License constitutes or may be interpreted as a limitation upon, or waiver of, any privileges and immunities that apply to the Licensor or You, including from the legal processes of any jurisdiction or authority.</p> Association between blood pressure dipping patterns and hypertension-mediated organ damage among Nigerians with newlydiagnosed hypertension <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Abnormal blood pressure (BP) dipping patterns are associated with increased cardiovascular risk among Africans. This study determined the association between BP dipping patterns and hypertension-mediated organ damage among patients with newly-diagnosed hypertension.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Ambulatory BP monitoring and echocardiography were carried out on 120 participants. Participants were categorized based on the ratio of night-time to day-time systolic BP into 4 patterns: Normal dipper (≥ 10% but &lt; 20%), non-dippers (≥ 0% but &lt; 10%), reverse&nbsp; dippers (&lt;0%) and extreme dippers (≥ 20%).<br><strong>Result:</strong> Fifty-one (42.5%) were males, the mean age and body mass index were 44.2±9.8years and 27.1±4.4kg/m2 respectively. The non-dipping pattern was the most prevalent while the reverse dipping had the lowest mitral E/A ratio. Office systolic blood pressure was the only predictor of left ventricular hypertrophy (OR=1.050, 95% CI=1.004-1.098; p-value = 0.034).<br><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The non-dipping pattern was the most prevalent abnormal dipping pattern while the reverse dippers had the highest risk of hypertension-mediated organ damage. Office blood pressure was the only predictor of left ventricular hypertrophy. Hence, office BP measurement as well as ambulatory blood pressure measurements are potentially important tools in risk stratification in resource-poor settings of sub-Saharan Africa.<br><br></p> B.F. Dele-Ojo J.A. Ogunmodede O.D. Ojo P.M. Kolo I.A. Katibi A.B. Omotoso M.A. Adeoye A. Adesokan Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 9 3 197 206 10.4314/rejhs.v9i3.1 Pregnant women's knowledge, perception and attitudes towards caesarian section among obstetrics unit attendants in a teaching hospital <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study investigated pregnant women's knowledge level, perception and attitudes towards caesarean section in the&nbsp; Obstetrics Unit at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: We employed a descriptive cross-sectional survey design to conduct the study.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The findings of the study revealed that majority (82.2%) of pregnant women have considerable knowledge about conditions that predisposes a woman for caesarean section as well as the risk of complications. Factors which significantly encouraged respondents to undergo caesarean section deliveries were they being necessary to protect the health of their babies (85.8%), having more knowledge about caesarean section procedures and risks and trusting in the competence of the doctor (53%). On the other hand, the study identified some inhibiting factors such as 67% of women perceive that caesarean sections take away the joy of a woman, while giving birth. Respondents (56%) however, indicate that caesarean sections were not unnatural nor only reserved for those with medical issues or those who fear pain; they are not embarrassing to reveal to family, friends, etc.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In the case of a tertiary hospital in Ghana, women attending antenatal clinic have acquired adequate knowledge and fairly good attitudes and perceptions about caesarean section, its benefits and possible complications. The findings of this study have important policy and practical implications for other levels hospitals.<br><br></p> J.E. Dorkenoo P.A. Abor Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 9 3 207 220 10.4314/rejhs.v9i3.2 Characteristics of patients with acute heart failure in North Central Nigeria <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: Heart failure (HF) is an important cause of hospital admission in Nigeria. HF is increasingly prevalent because the population is aging and HF epidemiology is changing. We aimed at profiling the socio-demographic, clinical and echocardiographic (Echo)&nbsp; characteristics of patients admitted for acute HF. This is one of the largest cohorts of HF patients profiled in Nigeria so far.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Cross sectional design. Socio-demographic, clinical and Echo data were collected from 455 patients admitted for AHF at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, North central, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Mean age of patients was 58.9± 15.7years, (men were older than women, P= 0.006). 265(58.2%) were males, most patients were aged &gt;60 years, 4.8% had pre-existing Type2 Diabetes mellitus. 53.2% of patients presented in New York Heart Association Stages III and IV. Median duration of admission was 11days (IQR, 6-17), intrahospital mortality- 11.6%. Hypertension was the commonest aetiological factor (62.4%), followed by dilated cardiomyopathy 17.6%, rheumatic heart disease (6.6%), Peripartum cardiomyopathy (5.3%), and others.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: AHF patients in our study are older than those in previous studies in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa. Hypertension is main driver of AHF, and patients largely present with clinically advanced disease necessitating stronger public health education about risk factors and early presentation.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> J.A. Ogunmodede P.M. Kolo M.O. Bojuwoye B.F. Dele-Ojo A.J. Ogunmodede A.B. Omotoso Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 9 3 221 235 10.4314/rejhs.v9i3.3 The prevalence of anxiety symptoms and associated factors among Nigerians newly posted for National Youth Service Corps programme in North-Western Nigeria <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This study was done to determine the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and assess the associated factors among new&nbsp; members of national youth service corps (NYSC) programme in North-Western Nigeria.<br><strong>Method:</strong> A clinic-based descriptive cross-sectional study with convenient sampling method using selfadministered questionnaires was done among 157, 2018 Batch-C, corps members at Dakingari orientation camp in Kebbi State, over a period of three weeks. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was determined using anxiety subset of Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 and<br>Chi-square was used to assess the degree of association between anxiety symptoms and certain factors. Pvalue of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 50.0% among the respondents. There was a significant association between the presence of anxiety symptoms and age of the respondents (P-value= 0.006).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The high prevalence of anxiety symptoms among the new NYSC members suggests the need to take preventive measures such as incorporation of subjects on what should be expected during service year into the undergraduate learning curriculum. Doctors attending to youth corps members, especially when on camp, should routinely screen them for anxiety symptoms.<br>&nbsp;</p> A. Amoko A.O. Ayodapo T.O. Dele H. Abitare Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 9 3 236 244 10.4314/rejhs.v9i3.4 Sun-protection strategies amongst people living with Albinism in Benin-city, Southern Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an inherited disorder of generalized hypopigmentation. Dermatological care and protection from UV radiation are necessary for individuals with OCA. We assessed the patterns of protection strategies amongst persons living with albinism in Benin-city, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Snow ball sampling methods were employed to investigate sun protection strategies amongst albinos in UBTH, Benin-city,&nbsp; Nigeria. Avoidance of sun peak hours, sun-protection clothing and sunscreen preparations used were analyzed during semi-structured face to face interviews conducted in the outreach clinics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 73 participants living with albinism were studied. The mean age of the participants was 24.1years± 11.3 years. The predominant activity type was out-door occurring in 62(84.9%) of the population observed. Participants with albinism in this study were exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation throughout the year. They all reported being unable to avoid sun-peak hours. Sunscreens were used in 15 (20.5%) albinos studied while sun-protection clothings were worn in 13(17.8%) respondents. Sunscreens were used more in those who engaged principally in out-door activities. This was observed in 10(13.7%) clients studied (p=0.04).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: People leaving with albinism who attended UBTH outreach skin clinic had insufficient sun protection strategies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> C.R. Madubuko A.N. Onunu Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 9 3 245 253 10.4314/rejhs.v9i3.5 A double blind, placebo controlled randomized evaluation of the efficacy of a Polyherbal Preparation (FaradinR) in treating sickle cell anaemia in Nigerian children <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The goal of management of sickle cell anaemia (SCA), for many years, has been to manage acute intermittent crises and&nbsp; slow down chronic end organ damage. In the past few decades, with increasing understanding of its pathophysiology, compounds primarily preventive in action are being investigated and used. Faradin® (a poly-herbal traditional supplement mixture) has been used as<br>preventive measure against painful episodes by SCA patients as an over the counter medication and anecdotal evidence suggests that it reduced the frequency and severity of painful crises as well as transfusion requirements. Alternative medications that are both affordable and available should be considered viable alternatives provided safety and efficacy are assured because of the high disease burden in Nigeria.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a double controlled randomized study was carried out on twenty children. Each enrolled patient was randomized into either the herbal mixture or placebo after permission to participate in the study was obtain from the parents/guardian for children below 15 years or from both parents/guardian and the patients where the latter are older than 15 years. The main exclusion criterion was prior use or exposure to Faradin. Primary end points were pain alteration, death during study and blood transfusion frequency. Secondary endpoints were hemoglobin levels, neutrophil count, platelet count, hemoglobin F and A2 levels, serum bilirubin, nitric oxide&nbsp; concentration, drug toxicity and severe complications of sickle cell anemia reported during the study.<br><strong>Results:</strong> There was no severe adverse event, deaths or transfusion recorded in the two groups throughout the duration of the study. Mean hematocrit was increased in the Faradin group and reticulocyte count was increased by 12 %. Faradin reduced the total white cell count to half its baseline level and increased hemoglobin F levels by 10%. Weight and appetite were reported to increased and engenders a general<br>feeling of wellbeing.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Faradin appears to be an efficacious, nontoxic, available and affordable remedy for treating SCA patients in our setting.<br><br></p> D.G. Gbadero T.A. Olutogun K.J. Olufemi-Aworinde L.P. Oluwadare A.T. Abolarin L. Farayola M.C. Adeyeye Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 9 3 254 263 10.4314/rejhs.v9i3.6 Investigating the efficacy of meaning-centred therapy among a sample of individuals with substance use disorders <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study investigated the efficacy of meaning-centred therapy (MCT) in the management of substance use disorders (SUD) in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A pre-test post-test control group experimental study was conducted among young individuals with substance use disorders.&nbsp; Participants were purposively selected and randomly assigned to treatment (MCT) and control groups. Participants' mean age was 22.05±2.14 years. Assessments of both groups were done at intake, immediately after completion of the therapy (which is 10-weeks), and at 1-month follow-up. Independent-sample t-test and one-way repeated measure of analysis of variance were used for analyses at 0.05 significant level.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Individuals in the MCT group reported significantly lower substance use disorder symptoms compared to those in the control group. There was an overall significant difference between the SUD means of participants that received MCT at pre-test, post-test, and 1-month follow-up.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It was concluded that MCT provided effective treatment of substance use disorder among the Nigerian population; its utilization is therefore recommended.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> S.F. Agberotimi C. Oduaran Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 9 3 264 272 10.4314/rejhs.v9i3.7 <i>in vivo</i> antibacterial and therapeutic properties of <i>P. ostreatus</i> against <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The use of natural products is embraced by a larger percentage of the world population. Most species of fungi including mushrooms produce useful secondary metabolites that stimulate the immune system against infection and diseases. Investigations were conducted to assay the therapeutic potentials of <em>P. ostreatus</em> against pathogenic staph infection.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: The methanol extract of P. ostreatus was prepared using the cold extraction method. Thirty Wistar albino rats weighing 82.0 g to 99.2 g were distributed into 6 groups of 5 and inoculated orally with actively growing <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> suspension. <em>P. ostreatus</em> methanol extract LD &gt; 5000 mg/kg 50 was used to determine the graded doses for the study. Graded doses of the extract 625 mg, 1250 mg, and 2500 mg were administered orally to the experimental animals for seven days.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The negative control and 625 mg had skin ulceration while 1250 mg to 2500 mg produced apparently healthy skin. Bacterial count after 7 days post-treatment was significantly high in the negative control and 625 mg dose (32.00 x 104 ± 6.10b; 43.40 x 104 ± 6.20b Cfu/ml) P&lt; 0.05. Haematological and serum biochemical values were not significantly P &lt; 0.05 affected. <em>Pleurotus ostreatus</em> administration at 1250 to 2500 mg produced a statistically low colony count that was comparable with 13.33 mg Ciprofloxacin and placebo.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Pleurotus ostreatus at 1250 to 2500 mg was able to produce clinical recovery from <em>S. aureus</em> infection while 625 mg could not. The extract had no deleterious effect on the blood parameters, liver enzymes, and kidney biomarkers.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> B.A. Oyekanmi A.K. Onifade I.B. Osho O.T. Ajayi Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 9 3 273 281 10.4314/rejhs.v9i3.8 The impact of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone on oestrous cycle and reproductive hormones in female wistar rats (<i>Rattus norvegicus</i>) <p><strong>Aim of Study</strong>: The study was aimed at evaluating the impact of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from mobile phones on the oestrous cycle and reproductive hormones in female Wistar rats.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Twenty-one Mature female Wistar rats weighing 180 to 250 grams were acclimatized for 2 weeks and divided into control (A), 4hrs (B) and 6hrs (C) groups and were exposed to RE-EMF for a period of 28 days. Oestrous cycle was monitored daily and hormonal level was determined using standardized enzymatic colorimetric methods. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the mean values of variables among the groups accepting statistical significance at p≤ 0.05.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Oestrous cycle was deranged in experimental group compared to the control. Mean serum level of Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in control group remained low compared to the exposed groups. Luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in group A were almost double that of the group B and C, while the serum level of Oestrogen was lowest in group A. Progesterone level in the control group was higher than the experimental group.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: RF EMR showed an adverse effect on the weight and oestrous cycle but the effect on the reproductive hormones is not&nbsp; significant although the effect appeared to be related to the duration of exposure.<br>&nbsp;</p> A.O. Olarinoye A.O. Oyewopo J.K. Olarinoye B.A. Olagbaye Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 9 3 282 288 10.4314/rejhs.v9i3.9 Hepato-toxicological and lipid profile of male Wistar rats following chronic carbamazepine, gabapentin, and carbamazepine-gabapentin adjunctive treatment <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study evaluated the hepatotoxicity and lipid profiles of male Wistar rats following chronic carbamazepine (CBZ), gabapentin (GBP) and carbamazepine-gabapentin (CBZ+GBP) adjunctive treatment.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomized into 4 groups (n = 7) to receive daily oral administration of normal saline (0.2ml), or CBZ (25 mg/kg), or GBP (50 mg/kg), or the sub-therapeutic dose of CBZ (12.5 mg/kg) and GBP (25 mg/kg) combination for 56 days. Thereafter, blood and liver homogenate were subjected to biochemical analysis, while liver tissues were processed for the histomorphological investigation. Data were analysed statistically, while p&lt; 0.05 was taken as level of significance.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Activities of alanine phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase significantly increased in the CBZ and CBZ + GBP treated rat.&nbsp; CBZ and CBZ + GBP treatments increased the plasma concentration of low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol. The liver concentration of malondialdehyde increased significantly in all the treated groups relative to control. There were severe vascular congestions in the<br>liver of the CBZ treated rats, this was moderate in the GBP and CBZ + GBP treated rats.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Chronic use of CBZ may induce hepatotoxicity and lipid profile derangement, GBP and CBZ + GBP adjunctive treatment may be saver than treatment with CBZ.&nbsp; </p> O.S. Osuntokun O.O. Oladokun K.I. Adedokun T.G. Atere G. Olayiwola A.O. Ayoka Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 9 3 289 298 10.4314/rejhs.v9i3.10 Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary functions of firefighters in Ogun State, Nigeria: A preliminary report <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: This study was done to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and abnormal respiratory functions as well as the association between the respiratory functions and the duration of employment among fire fighters in Ogun State, Nigeria.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Forty seven (47) fire fighters were included in this study. Data was collected with MRCQ questionnaire and Spirometry was done with Spirolab III. Data collected was analyzed using IBM-SPSS 20.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age in this study was 44.09 ± 6.89 years. 43 (91.5%) were male while 4 (8.5%) were females. 46.8% and 48.9% had cough and breathlessness respectively. 44.7% had been firefighters for 21-25 years while 70.2% work 21-30-hours/week. Spirometry was normal in 37(78.7%), obstructive in 8(17%) and restrictive in 2(4.3%).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was high in the firefighters in this study. Cough and breathlessness were the most reported symptoms. Majority of the firefighters had normal spirometry.<br><br></p> J.O. Ogunkoya O. Ehioghae Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 9 3 299 307 10.4314/rejhs.v9i3.11 Abnormal biochemical parameters among term neonates with perinatal asphyxia and their non-asphyxiated controls in Osogbo <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal biochemical parameters among neonates with perinatal asphyxia in comparison to their non-asphyxiated controls.<br><strong>Methodology</strong>: This is a prospective case - control study involving 54 asphyxiated term neonates and 54 non-asphyxiated term babies at LAUTECH teaching hospital, Osogbo. Serum levels of Sodium, Bicarbonate, Chloride, Calcium and Potassium were determined daily for 72 hours in both groups using standard methods. The results were compared.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The overall prevalence of abnormal biochemical parameters namely hyponatraemia, hypocalcaemia, metabolic acidosis, hypochloraemia and hypokalaemia among the asphyxiated versus non-asphyxiated babies in the first 72 hours of life were 30.9% vs 19.8% (p &lt; 0.020); 28.4% vs 4.9% (p &lt; 0.000); 30.9% vs 3.1% (p &lt; 0.0001); 27.2% vs 25.9% (p &lt; 0.200) and 24.7% vs 3.1% (p &lt; 0.070) respectively.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Babies with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy stage III significantly showed the worst biochemical parameters; early estimation of serum electrolytes in neonates with perinatal asphyxia may be appropriate for timely intervention.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> O.V. Kayode O.J. Adebami O.A. Oyedeji S.O. Oninla S.B.A. Oseni A.O. Odeyemi Copyright (c) 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 9 3 308 319 10.4314/rejhs.v9i3.12