Rwanda Journal <div><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>The individual series of this journal are currently being separated into individual journals on AJOL. </strong></span></div><div> </div>The journal publishes original works on both fundamental and applied research. Such works either demonstrate a significant new discovery or other contribution that has been established to fairly rigorous scientific standards. The Journal will publish articles written in standard British English. However, articles on a specific subject matter will be published in the language of the subject matter and will contain an abstract in British English.<p>The Journal publishes under a different subject category in each volume, for example:</p><p>Rwanda Journal, Series A: Arts and humanities</p><p>Rwanda Journal, Series B: Social Sciences</p><p>Rwanda Journal, Series C: <strong>Mathematical Sciences, Engineering and Technology and Rwanda Journal, Series D: Life and Natural Sciences have merged to form the <em>Rwanda Journal of Engineering, Science, Technology and Environmen</em>t and can be found here: <a title="" href="/index.php/rjeste/index" target="_blank"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><span lang="EN-US"></span></span></a></strong></p><p>Rwanda Journal, Series E: Agricultural Sciences - <strong>This series is now a separate journal on AJOL and can be found here: <a title="" href="/index.php/rjeas" target="_blank"></a></strong></p><p>Rwanda Journal, Series F: Medicine and Health Sciences - <strong>This Journal has merged with the <em>Rwanda Journal of Health Sciences</em> and can be found here: <a title="" href="/index.php/rjmhs/index" target="_blank"></a></strong></p><p>Rwanda Journal, Series G: Law</p><p>Rwanda Journal, Series H: Economics and Management</p><p><strong>Series A, B, G and H have merged to form the <em>Rwanda Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities and Business</em> and can be found here: <a title="" href="/index.php/rjsshb/index" target="_blank"></a></strong></p> en-US Copyright is owned by the journal (Prof. Verdiana Grace Masanja) (Ntaganda Mucyo Cyprien) Tue, 20 Feb 2018 11:29:28 +0000 OJS 60 A literature review of mammalian research respective to the Akagera ecosystem in Rwanda <p>The Akagera NP (and the Mutara GR) in north-eastern Rwanda are considered part of the most complex and biodiversity rich savannah ecosystem in eastern Africa. Following the violent past of Rwanda, the park has recovered from civil war, poaching and overgrazing, counting today more than 12,000 large mammals. Since proclamation in 1934, a wealth of ecological research was carried in these protected areas. This literature review summarizes the available literature and puts it into a historical context, compiling more than 90 books, book chapters, and journal articles but also unpublished theses and reports respective to the ecology and conservation of mammals.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> literature review, Akagera ecosystem, conservation history, mammals</p> P Sun, J.D. Bariyanga, T Wronski Copyright (c) Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Riboflavin induced tolerance against the root-knot nematode <i>Melopidogyne graminicola</i> in rice <p>The role of plant hormones such as Salicylic acid, Jasmonic acid and Ethylene in plant defense has been largely investigated particularly in dicotyledonous plants. Riboflavin has also shown effects on plant physiology but its role in plant defense/tolerance is yet to be elucidated.</p><p>Rice plantlets were randomly grown in laboratory, sprayed with hormones and riboflavin 24 hours before their infection by the nematodes <em>meloidogyne gramicola</em> juvenile 2. Two types of infection experiments were done. The normal rice nipponbare susceptible to <em>M. gramincola</em> infection was used in the first while in the second series experiments four transgenics/mutants were used. The shoots length, roots length and the roots weight were measured. The numbers of galls per plant were counted under a stereomicroscope. The relative expression of the genes <em>Osein2b</em>, <em>Oswrky 45</em>,<em> OsJAmyb</em> and <em>OsNPR1</em> was evaluated using the qRT-PCR method.</p><p>It was noticed that the plantlets treated with BTH significantly developed less galls compared to control (P = 0.000&lt;0.05). This was also observed with ETHEPHON and MeJA spray (P =0.001 and P = 0.000 &lt;0.005 respectively). The treatment with riboflavin didn’t show a significant effect (P = 0.61&gt;0.05) in comparison with the control. However these plants grew taller enough with a strong roots system except for OsNPR1antisense line which developed more galls than others tested plants.</p><p>The foliar supply of riboflavin on rice significantly upregulated<em> OsNPR1</em> in leaves and roots of rice plantlets. <em>OsWRKY45</em> was also upregulated in both leaves and root samples.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Riboflavin, systemic tolerance, transgenics/mutants, gene expression</p> Joseph Nsengimana, Elijah Miinda Ateka, Antoine Nsabimana, Aggrey Bernard Nyende Copyright (c) Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Volatile aroma compounds and sensory characteristics of traditional banana wine “Urwagwa” of Rwanda <p>Urwagwa, produced mainly from the fermentation of banana juice, is the oldest and popular Rwandan traditional alcoholic beverage. In the present paper, the aroma profiles of Urwagwa wine samples collected from the districts of Rulindo and Ngoma were investigated. Headspace/ Solid-Phase Micro Extraction (HS- SPME) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were applied for the analysis of volatile aroma compounds. Odour Active Values (OAVs) and sensory analysis were also performed to define the aromatic profile of Urwagwa wine. The findings showed that the aroma profiles of two types of Urwagwa wines analyzed were not significantly different. Forty eight volatile aroma compounds, including esters, higher alcohols, acids, terpenes, furan and phenol were identified and quantified in Urwagwa wines. Among them, ethyl caprylate, ethyl caproate, ethyl caprate, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, phenethyl acetate, phenethy alcohol, caprylic acid, 1-octanol and isovaleric acid exhibited OAVs ˃ 1, and are considered as the major contributors of aromatic character of Urwagwa wine; described as fruity, floral, banana, sweet and fatty notes. However, the overall aroma profiles of the investigated Urwagwa wines were dominated by the fruity note due to the high amount of ethyl caprylate, ethyl caprate and ethyl caproate in this Rwandan traditional banana wine.</p><p><br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: Aroma compounds; Sensory analysis; Banana wine, Urwagwa</p> François Lyumugabe, Innocent Iyamarere, Michel Kayitare, Joseph Rutabayiro Museveni, Emmanuel Bajyana Songa Copyright (c) Mon, 09 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0000