Rwandan Journal of Education <p>The <em>Rwandan Journal of Education</em> (Rwandan j. educ) is a scholarly, peer-reviewed, and annual journal dedicated to education.&nbsp; Its primary goal is to publish and advance knowledge and research in the field of education. The journal is based at the University of Rwanda – College of Education (former Kigali Institute of Education) and it publishes articles that critically explore research and theoretical issues, as well as innovation that inform education policy, planning and practice.</p> <p>RJE encourages submission of unpublished manuscripts on pertinent educational issues that stimulate and / or enrich discussion forums on improving quality in all aspects of education including teaching and learning processes, programs, governance, management and others.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>&nbsp;</p> UNIVERSITY OF RWANDA - COLLEGE OF EDUCATION (UR – CE) en-US Rwandan Journal of Education 2312-9239 <p>Kigali Institute of Education (KIE) was issued<strong> </strong>with copyright registration Certificate No. Rw-C10000866 by the Office of the Registrar General in accordance to the Rwandan IPR Law No. 31/2009. </p><p> </p><p>N.B<em>.: </em><em>KIE is now a College of Education, constituent of the University of Rwanda in accordance to the Rwandan Law </em><em>No. 71/2013 of 10/09/2013 establishing the University of Rwanda (UR), and the College of Education as shown on its website:</em><em> </em><a href="" target="_blank"><em></em></a></p><p> </p> Editorial Message No Abstract Evariste Karangwa Copyright (c) 2018-07-25 2018-07-25 4 2 2 2 The impact of teaching approaches on effective physics learning: an investigation conducted in five Secondary Schools in Rusizi District, Rwanda <p>The Current Rwandan educational policy fosters the teaching of sciences as a means towards building a knowledge-based economy. This paper describes a research conducted firstly to investigate the current status of teaching and learning physics in Rwandan secondary schools and secondly, to evaluate the impact of teaching approaches on effective learning and performance in physics secondary school classrooms. This study first tested students’ understanding of basics concepts and physics problem solving skills. In the second step, the focus of the study analysed to what extent various teaching approaches contribute to improve physics conceptual understanding and problem solving skills among learners. The outcomes of the study revealed the close link between identified difficulties in physics among learners with still commonly used traditional teacher-cantered approaches in teaching physics. In this study, some teaching practices are proposed which can considerably improve the quality of teaching and learning physics in Rwanda.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Physics problem solving, misconceptions in physics, multiple representations, physics teaching and learning approaches</p> Daniel Uwizeyimana LakhanLal Yadav Theophile Musengimana Jean Uwamahoro Copyright (c) 2018-07-25 2018-07-25 4 2 4 14 Plagiarism in higher education environment: causes and solutions <p>In the academic arena, plagiarism is on the rise. As a consequence, Higher Learning Institutions are putting in place severe punitive measures. Most of these measures are more reactive than preventive because they focus on plagiarism detection and the kinds of punishments to administer to students who plagiarize. In fact, these measures fail to address particular or primary reasons for plagiarism in students’ works. This may be one of the reasons why such measures have done little to reduce the incidents of plagiarism. Using a desktop research pathway, this paper discusses the concept and practices of plagiarism and raises a number of issues which need to be considered in framing measures to address it. Among other workable strategies proposed in this paper include the (i) strengthening of reading and academic writing skills, (ii) institutionalization and dissemination of anti-plagiarism policy and (iii) using technology in detecting plagiarism among students’ work.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Plagiarism, anti-plagiarism policies, academic, research skills development, higher education</p> Emmanuel Sibomana Irenee Ndayambaje Emmanuel Uwambayinema Copyright (c) 2018-07-25 2018-07-25 4 2 15 23 Every Supervisor tells me his or her own things: a personal lived experience with working with two PhD Supervisors <p>Various studies have explored PhD supervision worldwide, but with a paucity of studies on experiences with two supervisors. This paper recounts the personal lived experience with working with two supervisors at the PhD level to inspire fresher PhD candidates locally, regionally and globally. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis framework, the paper retells both positive and negative experiences, focusing on three ambivalent types of experience with working with two PhD supervisors: (i) balanced attitudes and perseverance with seniority,(ii) matching the supervisors-supervisee working pace, and (iii) handling two supervisors’ diverging content orientations, which led to timely completion of PhD studies. The paper argues that experience with two PhD supervisors is both enjoyable and challenging, but candidates have to be equipped with strategic interpersonal skills. It informs fresher PhD candidates about tips on strategies to deal with two supervisors and lessons for timely completion of PhD journey.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Personal lived experiences, PhD supervision, two supervisors, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, University of Rwanda</p> Epimaque Niyibizi Copyright (c) 2018-07-25 2018-07-25 4 2 24 32 Students’ motivations and socio-professional integration as drivers of doctoral program completion: a reflection on personal experience <p>Doctoral education allows individuals to acquire necessary skills needed to carry out research-related careers and/or creates the opportunity to show one’s potential to do research. To complete doctoral programs, much effort is needed by doctoral candidates. However, the completion of the program is not resolved to students’ effort and motivations; it is a combination of other factors operating within their working environment. The institutional frameworks on the requirements for the award, the scientific communities mainly comprising the supervisory team and the peers are key determinants of student’s success. Based on lived experience and on theories such as choice theory, self-determination and socialization, the present paper intends to provide insights into the nature of doctoral studies and how motivation and socio-professional integration determine successful completion of the program. Furthermore, the author’s experience serves to enlighten prospective and present doctoral students, supervisors and managers of doctoral programs on tips that support success into the program.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Doctoral Education, Motivations, Self-determination, Mentorship, Persistence</p> Florien Nsanganwimana Copyright (c) 2018-07-25 2018-07-25 4 2 33 43 Gender attitudes and perceptions towards mathematics performance and enrolment in Rwandan secondary schools <p>This study aimed at investigating the different gender attitudes and perceptions towards mathematics education. It used questionnaires, interviews and classroom observations to collect data from a sample of 150 participants including 60 females, 84 males’ students, as well as 6 male mathematics teachers, who were purposefully selected. The main findings from this study show, in general that, boys and girls demonstrate shared perceptions towards the importance of mathematics subjects. However, boys manifested more negative perceptions towards girls’ ability to perform well in mathematics. Besides, some few females also manifested negative perceptions, which can explain their low confidence in mathematics. A particular trend which was highlighted in this study indicates the role of the teacher in shaping gender differences that are observed in mathematics learning. Hence a more longitudinal study, particularly focusing on teachers’ classroom gender related practices, attitudes, beliefs with their impact on students’ performance can provide more generalisable findings.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Gender, attitudes, perceptions, mathematics performance</p> Innocente Uwineza Jolly Rubagiza Theoneste Hakizimana Jean Uwamahoro Copyright (c) 2018-07-25 2018-07-25 4 2 44 56 Effect of supervision on timely completion of PhD Programme <p>Although universities continue to attract students to register for Doctor of Philosophy Programme known as PhD, the challenge to complete these programmes on time has remained weighty. Hence, this paper aimed to explore supervision as a contributing factor. The study adopted Narrative Research Design and targeted international PhD graduates from Kenyatta University in Kenya. In total, the study dealt with six graduates of the 2015 and 2016 classes sampled by means of Snowball technique. An interview guide was developed. E-mail, Skype, WhatsApp chats and phone calls were used in data collection. Thematic analysis was used to analyze data which were reported in narrative form using direct quotes and/or paraphrase. The overall findings revealed three supervision defects that hinder the timely completion of PhD for international students. These are (i) limited level of supervisor-supervisee interaction, (ii) inadequate technical guidance from supervisors and (iii) poor or delayed feedback from supervisors.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Supervision, PhD programme, Timely completion, International Students, Kenyatta University</p> Irenee Ndayambaje Copyright (c) 2018-07-25 2018-07-25 4 2 57 70 What works in citizenship and values education: attitudes of trainers towards the <i>Itorero</i> training program in post-genocide Rwanda <p>The article contributes to the existing literature on the civic and citizenship contextual framework. It investigates ways in which trainers appreciate<em> Itorero</em>, a non-formal citizenship and values education program for high school leavers (hereafter HSLs) in the post-genocide Rwanda. The article also establishes the best predictor of the success of <em>Itorero</em> program according to trainers’ perceptions. The research reported here used a survey questionnaire and interviews. The article shows that learners’ motivation and ideological background are significant factors for the success of citizenship and values education. It also highlights a contradiction between<em> Itorero</em> teaching and home-based socialization particularly in relation to the question of ethnicity. While the <em>Itorero</em> training teaches that Rwandans are ‘one people’, parents tell their children that Rwandans have three ethnic groups: Hutu, Tutsi and Twa. The article argues that there is a need to look for civic influences beyond the civics classroom and the school.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Citizenship and values education,<em> Itorero</em>, post-genocide Rwanda, trainers</p> Sylvestre Nzahabwanayo Copyright (c) 2018-07-25 2018-07-25 4 2 71 84 Field research ethical challenges in a post–conflict Rwandan society: mistrust experienced in data collection in Kigali City <p>Field research in a post-conflict society brings about the concern of ‘mistrust’. Due to bad experiences endured, people in such a society are plagued with fear and suspicion to talk about some topics. This happens while the researcher is also required to adhere to research ethics and collect much-needed baseline data. From his experience while he was conducting his PhD research on the informal urbanization and modernization of the City of Kigali, the author explains how he managed to deal with the informants who feared to criticize urban development policies and implementation strategies. The study recommends researchers in a mistrust context, to use different types of data collection methods and to take enough time to gain trust and confidence of informants to discuss on presumed sensitive topics.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Fieldwork, research ethics, mistrust, good data, Kigali City</p> Vincent Manirakiza Copyright (c) 2018-07-25 2018-07-25 4 2 85 93