The Rwanda Journal Series E: Agricultural Sciences (RJAS) is the official journal of University of Rwanda, College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (UR-CAVM). Formerly it was published by the former National University of Rwanda (NUR) but after the merger of all public universities in Rwanda leading to formation of University of Rwanda in 2013, the journal management was transferred to UR-CAVM. RJEAS publishes high quality scientific articles and is supported by a highly competent Editorial Board composed of internationally recognized scientists. The journal accepts papers of relevance to African tropical agriculture and global advances in agricultural research with significant scientific and technological impact on tropical agriculture.
Scope of the Journal
The RJEAS publishes articles in the fields of Agricultural Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Veterinary Medicine, Animal and Crop Sciences, Forestry, Agricultural mechanization, Food science and Nutrition, Agricultural Economics, Aquaculture and fisheries. Articles describing application of mathematical modeling, ICT, genomics, climate change, informatics, remote sensing and geographic information systems in agriculture and environment are highly welcome.
Submission of manuscripts
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out. If accepted, the article will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. If an article has previously been published, it will be retracted from the journal and a notice of retraction issued. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication. Submission of the manuscript also implies the authors agree to the following: (i) The work is original and free from plagiarism; (ii) All authors have agreed on the on the authorship order. The corresponding order shall be responsible for settling disputes. After publication of the final article, it will no longer be possible to change the authorship order. (iii) Conflicts of interest must be explicitly stated at the end of the manuscript.
For all accepted articles, authors will be requested to complete, a RJAS publishing agreement. An email will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with the journal publishing agreement. Copyrights for articles published in our journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.
Peer Review Process
(i) On receiving the manuscripts, an acknowledgement letter shall be sent to the corresponding author within 7 working days. (ii) The manuscript will be checked for completeness, relevance to the journal scope and adherence to the author guidelines by the Managing Editor. Articles that do not comply with the journal requirements will be sent back to the author without undergoing the peer-review process. The process of peer review may take 1-2 months. Authors will be able to trace the process by contacting the Managing Editor through email. (iv) The Editor-In-Chief will inform the corresponding author through email indicating if the manuscript has or has not been for publication. The authors may be requested to revise manuscripts in accordance to reviewers and editors’ comments before a decision to either accept or reject a manuscript. (v) For revised manuscripts, authors are requested to highlight the changes by underlining and using blue text color. (vi) Receipt of revised manuscript will be confirmed by sending an email to the corresponding author. (vii) After publishing, the authors may download the copies of the articles from the journal website.
Preparation of manuscripts
RJEAS accepts the following types of articles: (a) Original research articles. (b) Review articles. (c) Editorials (d) Short communications. (e) Letter to editor.
Original Research Articles: These articles describe original observational or interventional research concerning all agricultural related fields. Organize manuscript text into Abstract, Key words, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion (results and discussions may be combined, Conclusion, Acknowledgements, and References. Please proof read the Abstract carefully to assure that all results and conclusions mentioned in the Abstract are also reported in the main body of the text, figures or tables of the manuscript. Original research articles should have a detailed description of the study design and analysis. They should not exceed 4, 000 words (not including title page, abstract, references, tables, figures, figure legends, or appendices). If needed, authors are encouraged to submit additional supporting material for publication on the RJAS website
Review articles: Reviews include meta-analyses of randomized trials, systematic reviews (without quantitative meta-analysis), and narrative reviews. Reviews of agricultural based topics should include references to relevant practice guidelines. Reviews should follow the general format of original articles, and not exceed 7,000 words
Editorials: Editorials are solicited by the Editors and provide commentary on articles selected for publication. Editorials should be 1200-1500 words in length and be accompanied by no more than 10 references. Solicited Editorials should be submitted as a MS Word document to the Editorial official e mail
Short communication: Short Communications are urgent communications of important results that are very original, of high interest and likely to have a significant impact on the agriculture and Veterinary medicine related fields. Short Communication should be no more than 2500 words, and could include two figures or tables. It should have at least 8 references. Short communications must report completed work, not preliminary findings: they are an alternative format for describing smaller pieces of work
Letter to the Editors: Letter to the Editors are considered for publication (subjected to the editing
and abridgment) provided they do not contain the material that has been submitted or publishe
elsewhere. The letter must be typewritten and double-spaced. Its text, not including reference, must not exceed 350 words. The author of the work concerned is given the opportunity to submit a reply for publication together with the Letter. Both the letter and reply may be sent to reviewers for scientific assessment prior to publication. Publication takes place after all parties concerned had an opportunity to respond appropriately.
Please write your text in good English. British usage is accepted, Use decimal points (not commas); use a space for thousands (10 000 and above). We only accept manuscripts in English language.
All manuscripts should be prepared in MS-Word and PDF format and submitted online or through the journal’s E-mail address.
Page size: A4; Margins: Normal standard 1 inch
Pages should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals. All lines from the beginning to the end of the manuscript must be numbered.
The title page should be a separate page before the main body. Provide the following informat ion on the title page (in the order given). It should include:
Times New Roman; Size-20; Line Spacing: Double; Paragraph Spacing: Before paragraph-1 line; after paragraph-1 line; Center
The title should be concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible, and do not exceed 45 words.
Author names and affiliations
Please indicate the given name and family name clearly. The given name should be in front of the family name. Present the authors' affiliation (where the actual work was done) below the names.
Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name. Then, list the e-mail address, and, if available, the telephone and fax number of each author.
Clearly indicate who is willing to handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publicat io n, also post-publication. Please add the words “corresponding author” into parentheses after his/her name. The details of the corresponding author should be presented as a footnote
A concise and factual abstract is required (maximum length 250 words). The abstract should state briefly; (i) the purpose of the research, (ii) the methodology (study design, place and duration of study, procedures and analytical techniques, (iv) the principal results providing specific data and their statistical significance and (iv) major conclusions that emphasize new and important aspects of the study. An abstract is often presented separate from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. References should therefore be avoided but, if essential, they must be cited in full, without reference to the reference list.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 8 keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible.
General Rules for Text
Please use the following rules for whole text (except for the title), including abstract, keywords, headings, tables, references, acknowledgement, glossary and appendixes.
Front: Times New Roman; Size: 12; Paragraph Spacing: An empty line will denote a paragraph. Line Spacing: Double
Main Body of Manuscripts
Full papers should be structured as follows:1, Title page; 2, Abstract; 3, Introduction; 4, Material and Methods; 5, Results or Results and Discussion combined; 6, Discussion; 7, Acknowledgements (optional but brief); 8, References; 9, Tables; 10, Figure legends; 11, Figures; Illustrations, tables and figures should be limited to six; Appendices are not permitted. Results and Discussion chapters can be combined at the discretion of the author.
Subdivision of the article
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered
1, 2. (Then 1.1, 1.1.1, 1.1.2; 1.2, etc.) (The abstract, acknowledgement, references, glossary and appendix are excluded from the section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross - referencing: do not just refer to 'the text.' Authors are urged to write as concisely as possible, but not at the expense of clarity.
Tables should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals according to their appearance in the text. Place descriptions of tables below the table body. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables does not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.
Tables should be:
Integrated into the submitted document, Captioned above the table, Should NOT be submitted as an image, but as MS Word-Table, Subtitled with all units of measurement (metric units).
Borders setting: all; width: 1/2 pt, Cited in the text as e.g. Table 1.
Figures, Photos, Illustrations
Figures, photos, illustrations and so forth should be of reproducible quality and attached in TIF format or in JPG format. They should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi and inserted at the appropriate place in the manuscript. A clear legend should be inserted inside the figure, Presented with metric units, Captioned below the figures. Cited in the text as e.g. Figure 1.
Formulae and units
The text size of formulae should be the same as normal text size. All measurements must be in SI units.
Scientific Names of Plants and Animals
Authors requiring detailed guidance should consult Scientific Style and Format as provided by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) whose guidelines are followed in the botanical examples below, and International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). Note that authors in the field of virology have slightly different rules. They should try to follow the standards established in those fields. The Latin names of species of plant and anima ls are always italicized. Do not confuse these names with phyla, orders and such which are not italicized (e.g. the Pike, Esox lucius, is valued for food as well as sport
Domestics and horticulture names
Either a dictionary or the guides to nomenclature IC ZN and ICBN should be consulted for the proper spelling of breeds of domestic animals and broad horticultural categories (e.g. German shorthaired pointer) in some horticulture publications, such names are enclosed in single quotation mark any following punctuation is placed after the closing quotation mark.
E.g. The hybrid agastache’ Apricot Sunrise ‘best growing in zone 6, mingles with sheaves of cape fuchsia (phigelius ‘Salmon Leap’)
Names of genes, or genes symbols, including any Arabic numerals that form a part of such symbols, are usually italicized.( italicization helps differentiate genes from entities with similar names.) Symbols for genes contain no Greek characters or roman numerals. Human gene symbols are set in full capitals, as are the gene symbols for other primates. Mouse and rat genes symbols are always spelled with the initial capital letter.
Human Genes: BRCA1; GPC3
Mouse Genes: Cmv1; Fgf12; Rom1…..
Writers and editors working in geological studies should consult US Geological Survey, suggestions to authors of the Reports of the United States Geological Survey, and Scientific Style and Format.
It is important for the integrity of science and the appropriate attribution of effort that only persons who have had an active role and significant impact on conceptualizing, funding, performing, analyzing, or writing up research be included as authors. Every person who contributed to the writing of a manuscript must be listed as an author. RJAS reserves the rights to question the role that co-authors have played on the work being reported.
To qualify as an author one should: (i) Have made substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of the data, or analysis and interpretation of the data, (ii) Have been involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (iii) Have given final approval of the version to be published, (iv) Agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy of integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved,(v) Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate operation of the content. Acquisition of funds, collection of data or general supervision does not justify the authorship. Additiona l guidelines can be obtained from the following website;
Change to Authorship
Normally there should not be any change in authorship after the manuscript is submitted. But in case this happens, a letter requesting to rearrange, add or to remove the author should be sent to the Journal Manager by corresponding author and must include the following: (a) The reason the name should be added or removed or the authors names should be rearranged, (b) written confirmation (e mail, fax or letter) from all authors that they agree with the change. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this include confirmation letter of the author to be added or removed. For proper handling the authorship issue, Journal Manager will inform the Journal Editors of any such request and publication of the accepted manuscript will be suspended until authorship has been agreed upon by the Editor.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
Summarize and disclose all conflicts of interest by all authors in a paragraph, immedia te ly following the References section. Additionally, the corresponding author must submit as a Word document a Conflict of Interest statement (online provided at (www.rwoj.ur.ac. rw) Include a line for each author, even if there are no conflicts of interest. Conflicts of interest are defined as all relationships or interests that could influence or bias the work. Although an author may not feel there are conflicts, disclosure of relationships and interests affords a more transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed.
Every manuscript submitted to RJAS is immediately assessed by an editor for initial process (internal peer review)
Depending on the potentiality of an article, based on the quality, novelty and relevance for publication, the article should be sent to two external peer reviewers to evaluate the suitability of article. The corresponding author is requested to nominate at least three potential reviewers. However, the Editor will have the overall authority on selection of reviewers. A time frame of 8 weeks maximum will be given to a reviewer to go through a manuscript and send his or her suggestion to the editor. If a reviewer is unable to meet the time frame, the article is given to other relevant reviewer. The Editor may establish a rapid review system of special manuscripts. Reviewers are advisors of authors and editors. The Editor may asking reviewers to make recommendations regarding acceptance or rejection of manuscripts, and should be careful to the provided recommendations; however the final decision belongs to editor. The editor may reject manuscripts without review, for example if the subject matter is outside the purview of the journal, a manuscript on the same topic is just about to be published, the quality of the manuscript is poor or criteria for the submission of manuscripts are not met.
Decision making and communication to Authors
The editor will make a decision about the manuscripts (accept, invite a revision or reject) based on a consideration of all reviewer comments, his own critique and external factors. The comments and recommendations of the reviewer should be considered in the decision making, however the judgment of the editor is the most important regarding the suitability of the manuscripts for the journal. Decisions are communicated to authors by the Editor.
Plagiarism is the most and serious ethical violation in publication. To avoid this, author must acknowledge the work of others. Intellectual contribution and originality of every articles are to be defined by the authors and it is the responsibility of authors to be aware of various forms of plagiarism like; the plagiarism of ideas, text, paraphrasing, self-plagiarism which include duplicate publication, splitting data etc.…. Ignorance of plagiarism and its various form will not be tolerated. If any form of plagiarism is suspected, Editorial Board will immediately stop the processing/publication of the article and seek the explanation from the author(s), and the corresponding author will be asked to provide the response within 30 calendar days, of receiving the letter from the editor. All accepted manuscripts will be screened using plagiarism detection software. Failure to provide acceptable explanation, the RJAS Editorial Board will determine the fate of the article and the author including actions may be effected; Rejection of the manuscripts, Withdrawal of already published article, and restricting the author(s) from further publication in the RJAS for one year or permanent depending upon the nature of offence
If there is any claim of intellectual, idea or data theft of a publication work, proof must be provided in the claim for further handling. More guidance on plagiarism can be obtained from the follow ing
Acknowledgement and Sponsoring information
Put the acknowledgement or sponsoring information after the main body and before the references.
Responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic citations lies entirely with the authors. RJEAS uses the APA style citation system (American Psychological Association). Authors are advised to consult to the “Publication Manual of the American Psychologica l Association (www.apa.org).”
Details concerning the APA-style citation system can also be found at http://linguistics.b yu.ed u/fac ulty/he nric hse nl/apa/apa01. html
Citations in the text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). . Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publicat io n.
Citing and listing of web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given. Any further information if known (author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.) should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or they can be included in the reference list.
Citations in the text should follow the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association (APA).
E.g.: Bazerman, C. (1981) ‘What Written Knowledge Does: Three Examples of Academic Discourse’, Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Vol. 11, No.3, pp. 361–388.
References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication.
Digital object Identifiers (DOIs) in References
The journal/publisher encourages authors to cite those items (journal articles, conference proceedings, book chapters, technical reports, working papers, dissertations, etc.) that have DOIs. When the cited items have DOIs, the authors should add DOI persistent links to the regular references. The DOI persistent links should be the last elements in the references. The persistent links should be active.
Format of persistent link: http://dx.doi.org/+DOI (without “doi :”)
Example of persistent link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/2.901164
The authors or editors may retrieve articles’ DOIs at: http://www.crossre f.o rg/S imp le Te xtQue ry/
Reference to a journal publication:
Kornack, D. Rakic, P. (2001). Cell Proliferation Without Neurogenesis in Adult Primate Neocortex. Science. 294 (5549). 2127-2130. http://dx.do i.o rg/10.1126 /sc ie nce.1065467
Reference to a book:
Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style. (3rd ed.). New York: Macmilla n. p.12.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Mettam, G. R., & Adams, L. B. (1994). How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In B. S. Jones, & R. Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the electronic age (pp. 281-304). New York: E- Publishing Inc.
Reference to a web source:
Smith, Joe, (1999). One of Volvo's core values. [Online] Available : http://www.volvo.com/environment/index.htm (accessed on July 7, 1999)
Please be sparing in the use of appendices unless they are absolutely necessary,. The appendixes should be numbered as, e.g. Appendix 1, Appendix 2, etc.
The names and E-mail addresses entered in this journal’s site will be used exclusively for the purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.
The journal will not accept for publication papers that describe experiments of concern for present ethical and welfare standards. The Editor’s decision in this regard is final. RJAS follow guidelines and standards established by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE: http://pub lica tio ne thic s.org).
Article processing fee
RJEAS does not charge authors directly for publications. However, authors with research grants above US$ 5,000 are required to pay a publication fee of US$ 200 per article.
For further information, please contact
Dr. Srinivasan R. Thoppe, Editor in Chief
E-mail: EDITOR.RJSEAS.CAVM@ur.ac.rw; email@example.com
Professor, Department of Crop Sciences, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences,
College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, University of Rwanda
p.o. box 210, , Busogo campus, Musanze district, Northern Province, Rwanda
Please e mail your manuscript on:
Mr. NYABYENDA Jean Paul, College Publication Officer
College Publication Officer …
College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, University of Rwanda
p.o. box 210, , Busogo campus, Musanze district, Northern Province, Rwanda
For all accepted articles, authors will be requested to complete, a RJAS publishing agreement. An email will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with the journal publishing agreement. Copyrights for articles published in our journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author. The findings, interpretations and conclusions reached in the report do not necessarily reflect the views of the Editor and /or the Editorial Board of RJAS.
Privacy StatementThe names and email addresses entered here will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of AJOL. We take your privacy seriously and we protect your personal information, which will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.