Rwanda Journal of Agricultural Sciences <p>The RJEAS &nbsp;publishes &nbsp;information about advances and their applications in making better use of the Rwandan and regional end environment &nbsp;in&nbsp; the fields &nbsp;of Agricultural &nbsp;Sciences, &nbsp;Environmental &nbsp;Sciences, Veterinary &nbsp;Medicine, &nbsp;Animal &nbsp;and &nbsp;Crop&nbsp; Sciences, &nbsp;Forestry, &nbsp;Agricultural&nbsp; &nbsp;mechanization,&nbsp;&nbsp; Food science and Nutrition, &nbsp;Agricultural Economics, Aquaculture and fisheries. Articles describing application&nbsp; &nbsp;of &nbsp;mathematical&nbsp; &nbsp;modeling,&nbsp; &nbsp;ICT, &nbsp;genomics,&nbsp; &nbsp;climate&nbsp; &nbsp;change,&nbsp;&nbsp; informatics,&nbsp; &nbsp;remote sensing&nbsp; and geographic &nbsp;information&nbsp; systems in agriculture &nbsp;and environment but not limited to, &nbsp;are highly&nbsp; welcome. RJAS is meant to be national, regional and international both in the source of articles and its readership.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US <p> For all accepted articles, authors will be requested to complete, a RJAS publishing agreement. An email will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with the journal publishing agreement. Copyrights for articles published in our journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author. The findings, interpretations and conclusions reached in the report do not necessarily reflect the views of the Editor and /or the Editorial Board of RJAS.</p> (Dr. Srinivasan R. Thoppe) (Jean Baptiste Muhinyza) Tue, 27 Oct 2020 15:16:19 +0000 OJS 60 Editorial Message <p>No Abstract</p> Srinivasan R. Thoppe Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of seed germination and seedling growth of <i>Vachellia sieberiana</i> under different soil moisture regimes <p>This study aimed at investigating causes and prescribe appropriate seed treatments of <em>Vachellia sieberiana</em>. Ten trees were selected in Songa pastures and surveyed for the presence of seeds and saplings under and nearby the canopy. Seeds were collected from tree floor and were treated using hot (500<sup>o</sup>C) wire scarification, roasting for 30, 40, 50, 60 and 90 minutes and soaking in cold and hot water for 24 hours. Seed germination was tested on sound seeds from February-May, 2010 and seedlings assessed for growth and survival under different watering regimes, by applying 60ml of water/seedling daily, once or twice a week. Seedlings were raised as bare-rooted in open nursery or as potted in a greenhouse. The effect of watering regime on seedling growth and survival, height, number of leaves, leaflets and thorns, root collar diameter, root length and total biomass were observed during the experimental period. More than 50% of <em>V. sieberiana</em> seed on the canopy flow retained viability. Seed germination was sporadic and differed very significantly between treatments. Scarification gave the highest germination rate followed by soaking in hot and cold water. Soaking in hot water gave a more uniform germination and is thus recommended for seed treatment in this species. Growth in all traits except root length increased significantly with watering frequency. High root length was positively correlated with fine root density and may indicate ecological strategy to increase water uptake by <em>V. sieberiana</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Seed dormancy, survival strategy, early seedling growth, root length, fine root</p> C.P. Mugunga, D Sahinkuye Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Does contract farming improve Cassava production, price determination and farmer’s income in Ruhango district in Rwanda? <p>This study analyses the impact of contract farming on cassava production, price determination and farmer’s income in Ruhango district in Rwanda. It uses a participatory assessment method using an interactive tool commonly named “it takes two to tango”. Data were collected from cassava farmers and a Cassava Processing Plant employees. The findings show that the contract farming did not contribute to cassava production improvement. The contract farming did not help in the availability and accessibility of agricultural inputs such as planting material and fertilizer used in cassava farming. Findings of the study also show that the contract farming did not lead to mutual cassava price determination. Regarding the income, farmers indicated that the contract farming did not lead to the increase in income. The Cassava Processing Plant should support the farmers in improving cassava production through the training on land preparation, management of the planting material, fertilizing, cropping, weeding and harvesting. The price of fresh cassava should be fully determined together by the farmers and the Cassava Processing Plant. Improvement in cassava production and mutual price determination should help the farmers to have consistent income.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Contract farming, Cassava production, Cassava Processing Plant, Rwanda</p> F.X. Sunday, F Niyitanga, V Mbarushimana, T Nyandwi, Innocent Hakizimana , Kato Jonas Njunwa Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Diversity of fungal endophytes associated with Rwandan <i>Brachiaria ecotypes</i> (<i>Brachiaria spp</i>) <p><em>Brachiaria</em> species are important tropical forage grasses of East Africa origin. It is known to produce palatable and nutritious biomass for livestock, enhances nitrogen use efficiency, sequesters carbon and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Despite significant potential of this grass; no information available on endophytic fungal associated with Rwandan <em>Brachiaria</em> ecotypes which can have impacts on plant protection under extreme environment. This study identified and characterized the <em>Brachiaria</em> associated fungal endophytes from the stems and leaves of 36 Rwandan <em>Brachiaria</em> ecotypes collected from three agro- ecological zone of Rwanda in 2014. DNA was extracted from the pure isolated fungal using PrepMan Kit and PCR amplification using 2ITS. Fungal endophytes were characterized <em>in vitro</em> by conducting bio-chemical tests for Phosphate solubilization, Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) production, antagonism test, pathogenicity test and siderophores. The numbers of fungal species identified were 21species isolated from stems and leaves of 36 local <em>Brachiaria</em>. The most frequent species were <em>Epicoccum nigrum</em> followed by <em>Cladosporium cladosporioides</em> and <em>Coprinopsis atramentaria</em>.30.1% of total isolate fungal were positive for IAA (Auxins) , 47.3 % of the total isolates fungal were not pathogen to the plant host ;10.1% were antagonistic to <em>Nigrospora sphaerica</em> , 8.3% to <em>Phoma herbarum</em> and 5% to the <em>Aspergillus flavus</em>; 49 % of isolates fungal were able to produce siderophore, No of the ffungal isolates specieswas be able to solubilize Phosphate compound. Results showed that <em>Brachiaria</em> with associated fungal are diverse and contain significant number of endophytes, which need to be explored/conserved and applied to others forage crops in Rwanda.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Diversity, Fungal, endophytes, Brachiaria ecotypes, ITS,Rwanda</p> Marie Christine Dusingize, Mupenzi Mutimura, Collins Mutai, Sita Ghimire Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of oven and freeze drying on nutritional composition of pumpkin (<i>Cucurbita maxima</i>) processed flour <p>Pumpkin is very perishable and drying is one of methods to preserve it. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oven and freeze-drying methods on the nutritional composition of processed pumpkin flours. Pumpkin fruit samples (A, B, C, D and E) of <em>Cucurbita maxima</em> species were collected from local markets within the country. They were oven dried at 65°C for 8 hours and freeze dried at 30°C for 4 days, and then processed into flours. The moisture content, total ash, crude protein and total carotenoids were analyzed in both fresh samples and processed flours according to AOAC approved methods. Data obtained from laboratory analysis were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) at significant differences (<em>P &lt;0.05</em>) between the nutritional contents of fresh samples, and of flours processed by oven and freeze drying. The study revealed that mean values for moisture, total ash and crude protein contents were 85.33, 7.62 and 12.78% for fresh pumpkin respectively; flour obtained by freeze drying contained 3.21, 6.25, and 9.35% respectively while by oven drying it was 1.19, 1.81, and 2.36% respectively. For total carotenoids, values were 180.13, 164.92 and 143.43μg / g<sub>-1</sub> respectively for fresh pumpkin, flour made by freeze drying, and flour made by oven drying methods. Generally, the nutritional contents of fresh sample, flour made by freeze drying and flour obtained by oven drying methods were significantly different (<em>P &lt;0.05</em>). For the purposes of high yields of pumpkins flour, freeze drying could be the method of choice as it was found to give better results in terms of nutrients retention. The shelf life of the two flour batches should be studied in further research works.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Pumpkin, Pumpkin flour, oven drying, freeze drying, nutritional value</p> Marie Goretti Umuhozariho, Théoneste Hagenimana, Phenias Nsabimana, Celestin Sirimu, Nadine Uwobasa, Aimée Pascaline Uwineza Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of <i>Bacillus thuringiensis</i> var.galleriae Berliner and selected insecticides on cotton bollworm, <i>Earias vitella</i> <p>Cotton, an important cash crop of tropical world, is attacked by many insects.<em> Earias vitella</em> is a major pest in winter crop.Bio-efficacy of <em>B.t</em>, var galleriae as Spicturin<sup>®</sup>, was evaluated in comparison with insecticides. Two field experimentswere conducted winter and summer seasons with the cotton cultivar LRA- 5166 to assess the efficacy of <em>B.t.</em> on<em> Earias spp.</em> in combination with the insecticides like endosulfan (0.035 %), quinalphos (0.025%), fenvalerate (0.01%) and diflubenzuron (0.075%),endosulfan (0.035%) in combination with <em>B.t.</em>g. @ 3 l/ha was found to be the best in reducingthe boll damage.The damage to the larva tissues is illustrated with thin sections of diseased larva after fixing in blackwax, microtomy sectioning and light microscopy. Cracks in gut lining, damage to gut lumen, epidermis and epithelialcells, basement membrane, musculosa , peritrophic membrane were observed and support the successful pathogenesisand mortality of treated larvae.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cotton, boll worm, Earias,<em> Bacillus, squares</em>, pathogeneis</p> T.R. Srinivasan, Ganandhi Radhika Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of farmers’ satisfaction to plant health advice offered through plant clinics in Rwanda <p>Plant pest and diseases are one of the major constraints of agriculture production in Rwanda. Plant clinic is rapidly gaining popularity in the region including Rwanda, and it was reported to be among potential solutions to overcome this challenge. However, there is little information documenting the appreciation of farmers toward advice given through plant clinics in Rwanda. Therefore, this study was conducted in order to assess farmers’ satisfaction vis-à-vis the services rendered to farmers by plant doctors, and to document major source of plant health information. A survey with plant clinic users, non-users of plant clinics, service providers, key informants and focus groups were conducted. Participants were selected in locations of eight clinics launched from 2011 to 2013 and a structured questionnaire and group discussions were used to collect all data. The survey results showed that plant clinics were ranked by plant clinic users as the major source of plant health information at 97.5% while 79.5% of respondents mentioned that plant doctors had competence and they highly appreciated the advice received from plant doctors. Establishment of plant clinics and awareness creation for farmers’ participation can contribute to increased agricultural productivity through effective management of pest and diseases in Rwanda.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> diagnosis, diseases, disease, management, pest, plant doctor</p> Bellancile Uzayisenga, Jean de Dieu Nsabimana, Jean Pierre Kalisa, Joseph Bigirimana Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 GIS based aquifer vulnerability assessment in Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou plain, China <p>Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou plain is among the regions which faces the shortage of water due to its increasing population, industrialization, agriculture and domestic use; hence there is high dependence on ground water. In China, the exploitation of aquifers has been historically undertaken without proper concern for environmental impacts or even the concept of sustainable yield. In order to maintain basin aquifer as a source of water for the area, it is necessary to find out whether certain locations in this ground water basin are susceptible to receive and transmit pollution, this is why the main objective of this research is to find out the ground water vulnerable zones using Geographical Information System (GIS) model in Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou plain. GIS was used to create ground water vulnerability map by overlaying hydro-geological data. The input of the model was provided by the following seven data layers: Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone and hydraulic Conductivity. This study showed that Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou area is grouped into three categories: Highvulnerable zone with 27.4% of the total area, moderate vulnerable zone which occupy the greatpart of that area 60.5% and low vulnerable zone with 12.1%. This research suggests first theprioritization of high vulnerable areas in order to prevent further pollution to already pollutedareas; next the frequent monitoring of vulnerable zones to monitor the changing level ofpollutants; and finally suggests that this model can be an effective tool for local authorities whoare responsible for managing ground water resources in that area.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou plain, Ground water vulnerability, GIS, DRASTIC model, shallow aquifer</p> Jean De Dieu Bazimenyera , Zhonghua Tang Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hydration and culinary profile of improved common bean (<i>Phaseolus vulgaris</i> L) cultivars <p>Fifteen improved bean cultivars were evaluated for their culinary properties against landrace (control) from different growth altitudes cultivated in Rwanda. Standardised methods were adopted to analyze properties of soaked and unsoaked beans: cooking time, water absorption capacity and percentage splitting of the seed coats, broth pigment and texture of the cooked beans. Cooking time for soaked beans (µ = 55.2 min) was less compared to unsoaked beans (µ = 133.3 min) across all growth altitudes. Water absorption during cooking by soaked bean (µ = 5.4 gm) was only slightly less than unsoaked beans (µ = 6.6 gm). Mean splitting of beans during cooking by soaked beans (µ = 29.8 %) was more than unsoaked beans (µ = 8.6%). Pearson correlation analysis was positive between soaked and unsoaked seed variants for cooking time, water absorption and splitting of seed coat and cotyledon but not significant at 5% level. Majority of the bean cultivars (93.75%) cooked well upon soaking. Yet, evaluation of soaked beans across different growth altitudes was not significant at 5 % level when compared with control for cooking time and water absorption. This concluded that the improved varieties did not influence the culinary properties of soaked beans irrespective of growth altitude. Texture of all soaked and cooked cultivars showed almost similar texture within 50min of cooking, except Gasirida which remained undercooked. Broths of all cultivars, irrespective of soaking, were pigmented (88%) except RWV3006 and CAB2.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Bean culinary, bean hydration, water absorption capacity, splitting of seed coat; finger press characteristics, growth altitude</p> Hilda Vasanthakaalam, Aurelia Karayire, Innocent Nyagahungu Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Intramuscular fatty acid profiles in farm animals vis-a-vis meat eating and nutritional quality: A Review <p>In regards with fast growing meat consumption in modernizing countries in the 20th Century, recommendations for a public healthier eating were formulated. It is assumed that an increasing consumption of meat whose fat composition is considered too high in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and too low in Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), constitutes a public health hazard. The main health risk associated with consumption of meat rich in SFA is that they are reported to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease in human. This paper aims to review the existing information on some of the most important aspects of intramuscular fatty acid composition and metabolism in farm animals. Trends in healthy eating resulted in selection for leaner animals that has characterized the meat production systems in developed countries, affecting <em>de facto</em> meat eating and technological indices. Similar predictions would be drawn for emerging societies thus; more reflections are needed to deal with human health aspects of meat, without affecting its eating quality and technological processing.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Intramuscular fat, fatty acid profiles, meat quality, modern eating trends</p> Martin Ntawubizi, Jean Baptiste Ndahetuye Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nutritional Potential of <i>Myrianthus holstii</i> Fruit of Rwanda <p><em>Myrianthus holstii</em> fruit has been a neglected edible fruit with limited nutritional information. This study evaluated the physical and chemical characteristics of <em>M. holstii</em> fruit of Rwanda. The physical parameters including fruit weight, fruit size, pulp content, seed weight and seed size are reported. The fruit pulp that is acidic pH (3.38±0.04) contained; protein (8.03±0.95 g/100g), dietary fibre (25.64±0.06 g/100g), vitamin C (19.80±2.13 mg/100g), beta carotene (0.99 mg/100g), iron (16.262±0.576 mg/100g), zinc (2.327±0.034 mg/100g) and copper (0.573±0.011 mg/100g). Assessment of these nutrient contribution to the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) showed 100g of pulp can meet 42%, 103%, 79%, 233%, 163%, 49% and 143% for children (4-8-year-old); and 18%, 103%, 22%, 133%, 90%, 29%, and 63% for adults (19-50years) respectively. The seeds had an oil yield of 37.67±1.53% with omega 6 fatty acid (78.92) being the most dominant. The total unsaturation in the oil was 90.91% with 78.92% poly unsaturated fatty acids. Based on the nutritional information, <em>M. holstii</em> can be a good source of beta carotene (vitamin A), iron, zinc and omega 6 fats that are essential in nutrition and health. Therefore, the fruit should be promoted for consumption as a snack and also processed into food products like fruit juice, wine, jelly, jam and vegetable oil to enhance the nutrition, health and income of households.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Myrianthus holstii</em>, fruit, nutritional composition, bioactive, proximate, chemical, physical, Rwanda</p> Francis Omujal , John Bosco Lamoris Okullo , Celestin Bigirimana , Prossy Isubikalu , Jacob Godfrey Agea , Eias Bizuru Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of snap beans varieties in lowland of Morogoro in Tanzania <p>Snap beans (<em>Phaseolus vulgaris</em> L.) are among the important vegetable crops grown in Tanzania, but the yield is low (2 to 8 t ha-1) as snap beans mostly are grown in highland of that country. The aim of the study was to evaluate the growth and yield of snap bean varieties in lowland areas of Morogoro, in Tanzania. The trial was conducted in 3 different seasons at Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) from 13<sup>th</sup> July 2010 to 25<sup>th</sup> June 2011. Four snap bean varieties (Serengeti, Teresa, HS 215 and HS 217) were tested in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Measurements were recorded including plant height, branches number, harvesting duration and pods weight per plant. Collected data were subjected to ANOVA, mean separation was done based on Student-Newman-Keuls using statistical software COSTAT6.4 (p≤5%). The results showed that seasons differed significantly (p≤ 0.001) and first season gave the tallest plant (49.65 cm), highest pods weight per plant (193.33g), longer harvesting duration (23.40 days) but branches number were equal in all seasons. Snap bean varieties also varied in their performance, with the tallest height, longest period of harvest and highest pods weight per plant observed in Teresa variety; while the contrast was observed in HS 217 in almost all seasons. From these results, growing snap bean especially Teresa variety in season one gave high yield and best pods quality compared to other seasons. Therefore, it is advised to the farmers of Morogoro to maximize their income and yield from snap bean varieties by growing them in season starting from July up to September.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Snap beans (<em>Phaseolus vulgaris</em> L.), high temperature, lowland, growth, yield</p> T Uwiringiyimana, M.P. Kusolwa, D.P. Mamiro, M.G. Umuhozariho, J.P. Niyonzima Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Proxy-based approach to wheat selection for photosynthetic efficiency <p>Approaches based on physiological understanding of yield are necessary for developing genotypes combining high yielding potential and agronomic traits of superior adaptation, and for understanding yield limiting factors. Yet, direct measurement of a particular physiological variable is often difficult. This study was set to develop a proxy-based approach to wheat selection for photosynthetic efficiency. After conceptualizing a theoretical framework of links between the traits of photosynthesis, water relations, leaf morphology and anatomy, and their likely proxies; a comparative screening of<em> 23 Eps</em> wheat cultivars was conducted in field at NIAB by means of photosynthetic gas exchange measurement, followed by isotopic measurements (of <em>Δ13C, δ15N, δ18O</em>) in the leaf matter, and morphological and anatomical measurement. Data were explored for parametric assumptions of normal distribution, and homogeneity of variance using Kolmogorov Smirnov and Levene’s tests respectively, and then were subjected to both partial Pearson correlation analysis and mixed analysis of variance (<em>Mixed ANOVA</em>) at p&lt;.01; and Bonferroni test. Having ranked a number of traits according to their likely association with particular proxy, the results showed that photosynthetic rate and WUE (Water Use Efficiency) were highly and statistically significant (<em>p&lt;.01</em>) associated with<em> SLA</em> (<em>Specific Leaf Area</em>). Based on these results, the study concluded that<em> SLA</em> would be potential proxy of both <em>A<sub>max</sub> </em>and WUE in wheat.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Proxy-based selection, photosynthesis, WUE, wheat,SLA</p> Celestin Ukozehasi Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the suitability of rice cultivation in Muvumba P-8 marshland of Rwanda using soil properties <p>This paper deals with the estimation of different soil properties of Muvumba P-8 marshland in Rwanda to assess the soil for its suitability for rice cultivation. The objective of the research is to determine the soil properties. Properties like texture, bulk density, total available water, infiltration rate, hydraulic conductivity and permeability were determined. Soil properties were estimated for different soil depths of 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60 cm. It was found that the layer of the soil with 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm is having the soil texture of sandy clay loam and the depth of 45-60 cm is having the texture of clay loam. The soil of the plots with depths like 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60 cm are having the clay content of 21, 25, 26 and 38% respectively and are having the bulk densities of 1.38, 1.29, 1.33 and 1.12 gm/cm<sup>3</sup>. It shows that clay content increases as the depth of the soil increases. The average total available water for three different depths mentioned are 8.5, 11.2, 15.5 and 16.5 mm and it varies from 4.5 mm to 26.4 mm. The data were analysed by using GENISTAT in order to get the difference of variation. The average infiltration rate of the field at Muvumba P-8 marshland was 12.8 mm/hour. It means that a water layer of 12.8 mm on the soil surface will take one hour to infiltrate. The experimental plot at Muvumba P-8 marshland was found to be moderately slow infiltration rate but it has rapid permeability. It indicates that there is slow entry of water in top soil surface but the percolation will be faster due rapid permeability. It is good for rice cultivation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Soil properties-weather parameters-marshland-assessment-rice cultivation</p> Rose Niyonkuru, M Sankaranarayanan, S.K. Pande, A Habimana, C Kayijuka Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of foliar spraying mixed with Fish Amino Acids (FAA) and Oriental Herbal Nutrient (OHN) extract on growth, yield and quality of watermelon (<i>Citrullus lanatus</i>) <p>Foliar spraying with mixed Fish Amino Acids (FAA) and Oriental Herbal Nutrients (OHN) extract are essential elements for watermelon (<em>Citrullus lanatus</em>) growth and development, production and significantly increase lycopene and total soluble solids content without degrading the natural resources. The mixture of F<sub>3</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (3ml.l<sup>-1</sup> of FAA + 3ml.l<sup>-1</sup> of OHN) shows the highest vine length, internode length and number of leaves with 601.6 cm; 27.4 cm and 129.3 at 60 DAT respectively,while the control (F<sub>0</sub>O<sub>0</sub>) was 402.8 cm; 23.4 cm and 97.2 respectively. Highest yield (ton.ha<sup>-1</sup>) and fruit length (cm) were recorded under F<sub>3</sub>O<sub>3</sub> with 82.0 ton.ha<sup>-1</sup> and 42.1 cm respectively, where the control (F<sub>0</sub>O<sub>0</sub>)was 53.3 ton.ha<sup>-1</sup> and 33.6 cm respectively. The high concentration of FAA in a mixture had negative effect on total soluble solids content but their effects were positive in lycopene content while the high concentration of OHN had a positive effect on the total soluble solids content in brix percentage and less effect on Lycopene content. The highest brix content were 14.2 in F<sub>1</sub>O<sub>3</sub> followed by 14.1 in F<sub>1</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, the least found in F<sub>3</sub>O<sub>1</sub> with 12.6. The lycopene content were high in F3O3 (105.91μg.g<sup>-1</sup>) followed by F<sub>3</sub>O<sub>2</sub> (105.04μg.g<sup>-1</sup>) where the least were (38.26μg.g<sup>-1</sup>) F<sub>3</sub>O<sub>3</sub> fresh weight.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Watermelon; Fish Amino Acids; Oriental Herbal Nutrients and Bio stimulant</p> Quenan G. Gasana, D.H. Kim Copyright (c) Tue, 27 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000