Cadastral Information and Erosion Modeling for Monitoring Gullies in Mpazi Catchment Area, Kigali City
Due to the lack of sediment load monitoring system, erosion model calibration is challenging in Rwanda. Based on the reports of parcels boundaries corrections from Rwanda Land Management and Use Authority, there are quite consistent losses of land due to gullies development in Mpazi River watershed. This study analysed the possibility of integrating cadastral information, erosion and hydrological modelling data for identifying potential gullies development in hilly urban area of Mpazi catchment. The orthophoto of 2008 coupled with ancillary data were used to delineate the shifts of parcel boundaries from 2012 to 2016. Hydrological modelling based on DEM was also applied to investigate geo-physical characteristics and potential gullies. The differential GPS was used to locate the potential gullies that were then uploaded into GIS. Gullies intersecting with rectified parcels boundary were measured with tape meter. The gully length was measured using hydrological modelling tools and GPS coordinates captured during the field verification. The results showed that gully system expanded from 7.5 to 20 meters while neighboring parcels shift was between 3 and 12.5 meters. The highest average rate of soil loss ranged between 100 and 150 tons/ha/year. The research findings from this study are salient for policy- and decision-makers who need to review the current land and environment policies and laws so that gully erosion can be assigned appropriate mitigation measures for ecologically sustainable management of hilly urban landscapes within Kigali City. More periodic data are required to feed the model and validating this approach brings the government institutions’ responsibility. The developed methodology has the potential to quantify the gully systems in urban context with scarce hydrological, soil and geomorphological data availability and where urban planning and environmental protection are constrained by limited financial and human resources.
Keywords: Cadastral Maintenance Data, Erosion Modelling, Gully, Urban Areas