Rwanda Journal of Health Sciences <p><strong>This Journal has merged with the <em>Rwanda Journal: Series F: Medicine and Health Sciences</em> and can be found here: <a title="" href="/index.php/rjmhs/index" target="_blank"></a></strong></p><p>The <em>Rwanda Journal of Health Sciences,</em><em></em> a publication of Kigali Health Institute, publishes original research, short communications, and review articles on current topics of special interest and relevance in various health related fields including public health, allied health sciences, nursing, environmental health, nutrition, health policy and planning for wider sharing of results.</p> en-US Copyright belongs to the journal (Prof. Kato J Njunwa) (Malachie Tuyizere) Wed, 11 Dec 2013 10:14:12 +0000 OJS 60 Public Knowledge, Perceptions and Practices in Relation to Infectious and other Communicable Diseases in Tanzania: Lessons Learnt from Babati District <p><strong>Background</strong>: We report public knowledge, perceptions and practices on selected infectious diseases in Tanzania using a study done in Babati district, and identify policy related messages in light of health promotion strategies instituted for communicable disease control. <strong></strong></p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with individual household members and focus group discussions with other residents in several villages; in-depth interviews with health workers, local government leaders, and district health managers.</p><p><strong> Results:</strong> Many villagers associated malaria transmission with people’s exposure to intense sunrays; TB and brucellosis with people drinking raw-milk, animal blood and meat; sharing a bed or utensils with TB/brucellosis patients; TB with smoking or inhaling cigarette smoke; leprosy with witchcraft; and lymphatic filariasis and schistosomiasis with people contacting dirty-water or through sexual intercourse. Occasional shortage of drugs and laboratory services, lack of reliable transport facilities, low public use of latrines, unaffordable bednet prices, and common sale of counterfeit drugs by unregulated retailers were perceived to perpetuate the existence and widespread communicable diseases. Use of traditional medicines to treat these diseases was reported to be a common practice.<strong> </strong></p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Culturally rooted knowledge and beliefs about diseases influence people’s health care seeking practices and may perpetuate prevalence and transmission of diseases. There should be educational policy program considerations among the strategies aimed at effective disease control.</p><p><strong>Key words</strong>: Communicable diseases; psycho-social, health care-seeking behaviour; Tanzania</p> GM Mubyazi, VK Barongo, ML Kamugisha, KJ Njunwa Copyright (c) Wed, 11 Dec 2013 00:00:00 +0000 Factors that Hinder Parents from the Communicating of Sexual Matters with Adolescents in Rwanda Parent-adolescent communication about sexual matters is one of the means that encourages adolescents to adopt responsible sexual behaviour. However, parents do not discuss sexual matters with adolescents and those who discuss to some extent; little information about sexuality is provided. This study, was, therefore aimed to find out the factors that hindered parents from communicating with their adolescent children on sexual matters. A descriptive, cross sectional study employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches was utilized. Simple random sampling was used to select households of parents/caretakers with adolescents and face to face interviews were used to collect data in February 2011. Out of 388 respondents, majority (81%) reported that they do not discuss sexual matters with the adolescents due to socio-demographic, cultural, individual and socio-environmental factors/barriers. Being male (p=0.04), parents’ age over 44 years (OR&lt; 1 at 95% CI), lower levels of education (≤primary) and income (farming and remittance) was significantly associated with “not communicating” sexual matters with the adolescents (p&lt;0.05). These findings strengthen the need for continued sensitization of parents/caretakers to involve themselves in discussing sexual matters with the adolescents. Furthermore, guidance of parents/caretakers on how to approach the subject of sexuality and sustenance of discussions with the adolescents is paramount.<br /><br /><strong>Key words</strong>: Communication, Sexual matters, Parents/ Caretakers, Adolescents E Bushaija, FX Sunday, D Asingizwe, R Olayo, B Abong’o Copyright (c) Wed, 11 Dec 2013 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Oral and Maxillofacial Injuries among Patients Managed at a Teaching Hospital in Rwanda <p><strong>Background</strong>: Oral and maxillofacial injuries have been shown worldwide to be a major cause of disability and orofacial deformity. The magnitude and causes of oral and maxillofacial injuries varies from one country to another or even within the same country depending on prevailing conditions such as socioeconomic, cultural and environmental factors.<strong></strong></p><p><strong> Objectives:</strong> To assess the magnitude and etiology of oral and maxillofacial injuries in relation to socio-demographic data among patients attending Kigali University Teaching Hospital (CHUK), Dental department. <strong></strong></p><p><strong>Methodology</strong>: A prospective cross-sectional study recruited a total of 182 subjects who were interviewed to obtained information on socio-demographic data and the cause of the inflicted injuries. Diagnoses of the different types of hard and soft tissue injuries were done by clinical examination of patient and where necessary radiographic investigations were requested to confirm hard tissue fractures. All collected information was recorded in the clinical form. Gathered data was coded and entered into a computer and analyzed using SPSS version 17. <strong></strong></p><p><strong>Results</strong>: Prevalence of oral and maxillofacial injuries was 16%. Most patients (53.8%) were in 21-30 age group with a male to female ratio of 2.2:1. The commonest hard tissue injuries sustained were dentoalveolar and mandibular fracture at 59.3% and 19.8% respectively, while trauma to the lip was the commonest (38.7%) soft tissue injury among the patients. Road traffic accident collectively accounted for 59.8% of all the etiological factors of oral and maxillofacial injuries.<strong></strong></p><p><strong> Conclusion</strong> <strong>and recommendations:</strong> The prevalence of oral and maxillofacial injuries was 16%. Road Traffic Accident accounted for most of the injuries in the study population. Prevention strategies of maxillofacial injuries among others should emphasize on reduction of road traffic accidents with particular attention to motorcycle and motor vehicle accidents.<br /><br /><strong>Key words</strong>: Prevalence, oral, maxillofacial, injuries, Rwanda</p> MH Majambo, RM Sasi, CH Mumena, G Museminari, J Nzamukosha, A Nzeyimana, E Rutaganda Copyright (c) Wed, 11 Dec 2013 00:00:00 +0000 Therapeutic Efficacy of Cervical Traction in the Management of Cervical Radiculopathy: A Control Trial <p><strong>Background:</strong> Severe pain and disability from cervical disorder is second to that of low back pain in musculoskeletal practice. <strong></strong></p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> Forty eight patients who met the inclusion criteria were placed into experimental (n=24) and control (n=24) group randomly. Participants in both groups received massage, cryotherapy and active exercises. Cervical traction was administered to experimental group for 15 minutes, thrice per week for four weeks while the other group served as control. Verbal rating scale (VRS) and Neck Disability Pain Index (NDI) were used as outcome measures. Data were analyzed using descriptive, dependent –t-test and independent-t-test. <strong></strong></p><p><strong>Results</strong>: There was a significant improvement in the pretreatment and post treatment pain intensity (t=10.75, p&lt; 0.001) and neck functional disability (t=2.42, p=0.03) of participants in experimental group. There was a significant difference (t=-3.98, p=0.006) in the post treatment pain intensity between the cervical traction and control group. <strong></strong></p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It could be concluded that application of continuous cervical traction can significantly reduce pain intensity of patients with cervical radiculopathy.<br /><br /><strong>Key words</strong>: Cervical traction, cryotherapy, neck disability index, and verbal rating scale.</p> AO Ojoawo, A Olabode, O Esan, A Badru, S Odejide, B Arilewola Copyright (c) Wed, 11 Dec 2013 00:00:00 +0000 Condom Use and Number of Sexual Partners among Secondary School Female Students in an Urban City of Cameroon <p><strong>Background:</strong> Although some studies in Cameroon have addressed the issue of condom use and multiple sexual partners separately, the association between multiple sexual partnership and condom use is limited.</p><p><strong>Objectives</strong>: This study examines information on the association between condom use and number of sexual partners among female students in an urban city of Cameroon.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from a probability sample of 210 female students. Statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> About 56.2% were sexually active, some of whom had multiple sexual partners. Condom use was low. Condom use was significantly negatively associated with multiple sexual partners, with respondents reporting multiple sexual partners less likely to use condoms. <strong></strong></p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The proportion of female students who engage in multiple sexual partners without using condoms are at risk of HIV transmission. Sexuality education and a friendly environment for condom availability are key in addressing the risky sexual behaviours of female students.</p><p><strong>Key words:</strong> Cameroon, condom use, HIV/AIDS, multiple sexual partners, secondary school female students</p> EE Tarkang Copyright (c) Wed, 11 Dec 2013 00:00:00 +0000