Trends in the Prevalence and Associated Contributing Factors of Stunting in Children Under Five Years of Age. Secondary Data Analysis of 2005, 2010 and 2014-2015 Rwanda Demographic and Health Surveys
Stunting affects more than 161 million children under five years of age worldwide. Rwanda has a high prevalence of stunted children under five years of age (~38%) according to the 2014-2015 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey.
The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence rates of stunting in Rwanda using the Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data of 2005, 2010 and 2014-2015.
The three Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey cross-sectional studies into consideration were conducted in 2005, 2010 and in 2014-2015. Stunting prevalence rates from those surveys were compared using Pearson's chi-squared tests and Marascuilo procedure using STATA (StataCorp. 2013. Stata Statistical Software: Release 13. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.).
The Pearson's chi-squared tests and Marascuilo procedure used in this research confirmed a significant difference between the reported three RDHS stunting prevalence rates. The trends in the stunting prevalence rates among children under five years of age showed a decrease of 13% in stunting prevalence rate, falling from 51%in 2005 to 38%in 2014-15.
A statistical analysis based on2005, 2010 and 2014-15 RDHS surveys datasets confirmed that there is a statistically significant reduction in stunting prevalence rates over that decade(from 51% in 2005 to 38%in 2014-2015). The main persistent associated factors with stunting were the age, sex, size at birth, residence place of the child, and the mother’s educational level and household wealth index.
Keywords: Stunting; children under five years; demographic and health survey; nutrition; Rwanda
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