Cost Analysis of Current Distribution and Redesigned Distribution Systems for Vaccines in Rwanda

  • Evodie Mudaheranwa Rwanda Biomedical Centre, Kigali, Rwanda
  • Stany Stany EAC Regional Centre of Excellence for Vaccines, Immunization, and Health Supply Chain Management, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda
  • Hassan Sibomana Rwanda Biomedical Centre, Kigali, Rwanda
  • Regis Hitimana Rwanda Social Security Board, Kigali, Rwanda
  • Manassé Nzayirambaho College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda
Keywords: Cost analysis, distribution system design, vaccines



Immunization supply chain management is among the components of immunization program, making vaccines delivery possible to reach every child. Nevertheless, it has been found to be static with rapid changes linked to the introduction of new vaccines. The success of Rwanda immunization program with coverage of 94.3% was attributed to human resource and capital investment from both the Ministry of Health and its development partners. However, the current distribution system design does not contribute to self-financing of the program in the long-run considering the distribution mode and frequency applied. The cost analysis study has never been done before and is expected to address the issue of long-term sustainability of the program as it will inform the system re-design activities.  


Assessing how much the program would save if the system is re-designed by changing distribution mode and frequency from the Central Vaccine Store to District Vaccine Stores.


Administrative and financial records were reviewed to determine the cost of the current vaccine distribution system to be compared to estimated cost of a proposed distribution system with reduced frequencies between Central Vaccine Store and District Vaccine Stores.


By comparing the costs of the two systems, applying the proposed distribution model with less distribution frequencies reduced the current cost by 37%.


The findings confirm a huge opportunity of getting the current vaccine distribution costs reduced when the distribution system is redesigned, hence contributing to financial sustainability of the vaccination program.

Rwanda J Med Health Sci 2021;4(2): 207-221


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2616-9827
print ISSN: 2616-9819