Impact of aerosol on respiratory symptoms among adults (above eighteen years) in an urban area of Nigeria
Over the past two decades there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and to relate these measures to the degree of air pollution in an urban area (Sapele) and to establish a relationship between peak flow rate and the anthropometric measurements among the respondents in an urban area. Four hundred respondents were administered on the frequency and duration of cough, production of phlegm (viscid mucous secreted in abnormal quantities in respiratory passages and sputum) (saliva discharge from respiratory passages), shortness of breath and occurrence of chest illness. The expiratory flow rate was recorded in a standing position using a mini-Wright peak flow meter (Clements Clarke-London UK). Anthropometric measurements; (weight and height) were also done. The aerosol was captured using SKC Air CheckXR5000 high volume Gravimetric Sampler. The mean concentration range of inhalable particle was 132.58-568.18μg/m3and the mean concentration range in respirable particle was 107.17---331.44μg/m3.The non-smoker had a better peak flow ratethan the smoker and there was prevalence of respiratory symptoms in which cough had the highest percentage. The mean concentration of inhalable and respirable particles obtained in this study were significantly higher than the regulatory limits set by the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS).
Key words: Air Pollution, Respiratory Symptom, Urban Area, Peak Flow Rate Meter, High Volume Gravimetric Sampler.