Using Dirac’s Principle of Superposition of Evolution of Time in restoring determinacy in quantum mechanics

  • Godwin J. Ibeh
  • Godfrey E. Akpojotor


A foundational problem of quantum mechanics is that measurement of quantum systems seems to affect them in an indeterminate manner. This indeterminacy has been the bane of interpretation of quantum mechanics. The Dirac's principle of superposition is a collection of all possible measurement outcomes of a quantum system. It is proposed here that for a linear evolution of time, there will be four possible motions in time and they are the motion from past time, the motion backward to past time, the motion forward in future time and the motion backward from future time. It follows then that since the laws of physics are usually based on evolution of physical systems with time, this special case which is referred to as the Dirac's principle of superposition for evolution of time (DPSET) predicts the four possible processes of the dynamic evolution of a system. Our formulation of the DPSET resulted into a subtle geometrization of time which in principle is applicable to quantum systems in all dimensions, thereby restoring the determinacy in quantum measurement. The DPSET is then successfully used to naturally account for the electron hopping in the beryllium atom resulting in both ionic and covalent bonding as well as neutron decay and decay by electron capture.


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1118-1931
print ISSN: 1118-1931