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Scientia Africana

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Single effect green house type solar still for portable water supply

CU Okujagu, E Osarolube, SC Abia

Abstract


A Single Effect Symmetrical Green House Type Solar Still which can be used as a model for the supply of portable water in rural communities was constructed from locally available materials.
Water quality profile tests performed on a brackish water sample before and after purification in the still indicate that the Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) decreased from 1268 to 487 ppm while the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) decreased from 2.5x10-3 to 15.1x10-3g/l. The Hydrogen ion concentration (pH) increased from 5.79 to 6.93 while the electrolytic conductivity decreased from 1.38x10-8 to 7.16x10-8Ωm-1 and resistivity increased from 7.03x108 to 8.87x108Ωm. A comparison of the values of these parameters for the purified water from the solar still with that expected for standard pure water shows that the values are very comparable. For example, water in its purest form has TDS and BOD less than 500ppm and 8x10-3 g/l respectively with a pH of 7, conductivity of 1.0x10-9Ωm-1 and resistivity of 1.0x109Ωm. The values obtained for the purified water from the still for these parameters are 478ppm, 15.1x10-3g/l, 7, 7.16x10-8Ωm-1 and 8.87x108Ωm for TDS, BOD, pH, Conductivity and Resistivity respectively. This level of purity profile for the water purified by the still is close enough to that of standard pure water. The still is also found to be capable of producing enough quantity of water to meet the consumption need of small rural families. Community water supply can be achieved by constructing several stills and coupling them together. Therefore THE SINGLE EFFECT SOLAR STILL can be used to purify water for portable water supply for the communities in the Riverine areas of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria where there is abundance of brackish water with no safe water for drinking, and also in semi urban and urban centres where utility is non-existent or not functional.



http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sa.v7i2.46024
AJOL African Journals Online