Scientia Africana 2023-10-10T07:53:53+00:00 Prof. Francis S. Ire Open Journal Systems <!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables ></w:BreakWrappedTables> <w:SnapToGridInCell ></w:SnapToGridInCell> <w:WrapTextWithPunct ></w:WrapTextWithPunct> <w:UseAsianBreakRules ></w:UseAsianBreakRules> <w:DontGrowAutofit ></w:DontGrowAutofit> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --><!-- [if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]--> <p><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;"><em>Scientia Africana</em> seeks to encourage communication among scientists all over the world through regular publication of their research findings. The journal publishes results of original research in all aspects of biological, chemical, earth, mathematical, physical and applied sciences including basic medical and engineering sciences. It also publishes review articles, book reviews, research notes and other short communications on all aspects of pure and applied sciences and accepts advertisements in related fields.</span></p> Aspartame induced dyslipidemia and plasma hyperviscosity in Albino Wistar rats 2023-10-03T05:16:32+00:00 B.O. Eiya J.O. Osunbor <p>Aspartame is a low-calorie sweetener that has been used for decades in place of sugar. However, there has been conflicting reports on the use and safety profile of aspartame associated with several diseases especially cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This study therefore aims to determine the effects of aspartame on some cardiovascular indices. Thirty seven (37) young Albino Wistar rats weighing between 110g-140g were used for this study. The rats were divided into five groups; control (5) received 5 ml of distilled water. Group 1 (<em>n</em>=8) received 5 ml of diet soda, group 2 (<em>n</em>=8) received 5 ml diluted (1:1) diet soda, Group 3 (<em>n</em>=8) received 5 ml aspartame 45 mg/kg b.w, Group 4 (<em>n</em>=8) received 5 ml of aspartame 22.5 mg/kg b.w. The various doses of aspartame and diet soda were administered orally daily for ten weeks. Weight of the rats were taken weekly, at the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples collected into plain sample bottles and tri sodium citrate bottles. Lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C &amp;.triglyceride) were analyzed spectrophotometrically, fibrinogen and blood viscosity were also measured. Results showed that the aspartame and diet soda significantly increased total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, fibrinogen and plasma viscosity and significantly decreased HDL cholesterol. In conclusion, consumption of aspartame as a sweetener can impact negatively on cardiovascular haemodymic factors. Therefore, its intake should be discouraged.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Morpho-molecular identification of fungi associated with <i>fufu</i> 2023-10-03T05:25:32+00:00 C.G Ikechi-Nwogu B.A. Odogwu N. I. Udongwo <p>Millions of people in Nigeria, Cameroon, Ghana, and other countries throughout the world eat <em>fufu</em>, which is produced from fermented cassava (<em>Manihot esculenta</em>). Despite being a one-stop shop for carbohydrates, it has been found to be a host for fungal pathogens. Based on morphology and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, a study was done to isolate and identify the common fungal infections linked to fufu in storage. The most prevalent fungal isolate, FU-01, was examined under a microscope for the morphological investigation and was determined to be <em>Geotrichum</em> sp. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 4 (ITS-1F and 4R) regions of the isolate were sequenced and aligned with the sequence with accession number MG833313.1, which showed maximum similarity of 99% with Galactomyces candidum, also known as <em>Geotrichum candidum</em> sequences available at National Center for Biotechnology Information. This finding demonstrated that one of the fungi associated with preserved fufu is <em>Geotrichum candidum</em>, an environmental and acid-tolerant mold found in soil, water, air and as part of the human flora. This pathogen may have gotten into <em>fufu</em> as a result of contamination during pre-processing of cassava. It is strongly advised that fufu processors and handlers practice good personal hygiene and sanitation, heat the fufu before eating it, and closely monitor the production operations by the appropriate agencies.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Chemical composition, sensory and microbial analysis of yoghurt-like product from breadfruit, coconut and soybean extract 2023-10-04T05:45:03+00:00 B.U. Akwasiam B. J. O. Efiuvwevwere O. C. Eruteya <p>Yoghurt, a dairy product with established nutritional and health benefits. However, food security coupled with high cost of animal milk and its products has prompted the need for the use of plant milk, hence the need for alternative products. This research is aimed at investigating the chemical, microbial and sensory attributes of yoghurt-like products made from breadfruit (B), coconut (C), and soybean (S) extract in the ratio: B20:C20:S60, B20:C30:S50, B30:C20:S50 and B30:C30:S40 fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus using standard methods. The percentage proximate composition of the yoghurt-like product revealed the following ranges for moisture (70.06+0.01 to 78.02+0.11), crude protein (11.08+1.32 to 20.87+0.02), crude fat (2.01+0.31 to 3.01+0.31), crude fiber (4.37+0.03 to 6.01+0.16) and carbohydrate (3.10+0.02 to 5.51+0.03). There was no significant difference (p&gt;0.05) in the protein values of B20: C20: S60 when compared with the commercial (100%) cow milk yoghurt. All the yoghurt-like products contained appreciable ranges of essential minerals, namely: Ca (30.02+0.05 to 40.31+0.03), Mg (1.22+0.22 to 11.2+ 36), Na (2.80±0.12 to 12.38+0.03) and P (5.15+0.62 to 20.02+ 0.52). The microbial results under refrigeration temperature at 4oC showed that the microbial load increases with the blend with high percentage of breadfruit. The sensory attributes of the yoghurt-like products composed of B20:C30:S50 was rated closest to the control (100% cow milk yoghurt). The results obtained from this research has shown that its feasible to produce non-dairy yoghurt derived from blend of breadfruit, coconut, and soybean extract of comparable nutritional and health benefits with the whole milk yoghurt.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Excess parameters of binary mixtures of acetonitrile- dimethyl sulphoxide 2023-10-10T07:33:40+00:00 SI Orjiocha NM Orjioke MU Ibezim-Ezeani <p><em>The excess parameters associated with liquid mixes of acetonitrile-dimethyl sulphoxide were </em><em>analyzed to estimate the degree of intermolecular interactions in the binary system. The viscosities and densities of the binary system were determined at temperatures of 298.15, 303.15, 318.15, 328.15, and 338.15K, respectively, with a percentage composition of 0 to 100 percent. Using the experimental density and viscosity measurements, the excess molar volumes (V</em><em><sub>m</sub><sup>E</sup></em><em>), excess viscosity (n</em><sup><em>E</em></sup><em>), excess Gibbs' free energy of activation of viscous flow (G*</em><sup><em>E</em></sup><em>), and Grunberg-Nissan interaction parameters were calculated. Deviations from these parameters studied in the composition of the mixtures and temperature were discussed in terms of molecular interactions in these mixtures. A comparison of several interaction characteristics was expressed to better understand the intermolecular interactions between acetonitrile and dimethyl sulphoxide. As the temperature of the system and the mole fractions of acetonitrile rise, the viscosity and density of the experimental values drop. According to the findings, the excess parameters were mostly negative, indicating that dipoledipole interactions predominated in the acetonitrile-dimethyl sulphoxide solvent mixture.</em></p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Effect of crude oil spillage on some soil physical properties within Ovia North East Local Government in Edo State. 2023-10-04T05:57:30+00:00 C.O. Udinyiwe E.S. Aghedo <p>The release of crude oil into the environment by oil spill is currently receiving a worldwide attention due to the high risk it portends to the health of the environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of crude oil spillage on some soil physical properties. Eight (8) soil samples were collected from eight sampling locations around the flow station at Gelegele River, Edo State. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) recorded were above the 1,000 mg/kg permissible limit by World Health Organization (WHO) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The physiochemical studies were carried out according to the methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemist (A.O.A.C) for the determination of the soil physicochemical parameters. The physiochemical parameters obtained were pH (6.01 ± 0.02 – 6.49 ± 0.07), Electrical Conductivity (EC) (416.00 ± 10.70 – 656.45 ± 11.65) mS/m, Carbon (2.13 ± 0.03 – 3.70 ± 0.01a) %, Nitrogen (0.04 ± 0.01 – 1.67 ± 0.02ab) %, Phosphorus (1.33 ± 0.06 – 2.91 ± 0.04ab)%, Water holding capacity (WHC) (82.48 ± 0.82 – 92.48 ± 0.82) %, Bulk density (0.70 ± 0.02ab – 2.79 ± 0.05) %. There is a current concern of environmental pollution and this study showed that the area of study currently of concern that needs to be monitored.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Comparative assessment of biofertilizer potentials of fungal and rhizobacterial isolates 2023-10-05T05:22:17+00:00 G.C. Agu E. Ezaka E.A. Ejigbo A.A. Adesuyi S. Aforijiku T.E. Odunjo C.O. Mosaku A.F. Arogundade P. O. Agoi S. O. Arasi <p>Pollution and degradation of soil due to continuous use of chemical fertilizers has led to the screening of microorganisms for use as bio-fertilizer by reason of their cost effectiveness and eco friendliness. This work investigated the ability of microorganisms to enhance crop growth using <em>Zea mays</em> as a case study.<em> Pantoea eucaria, Bacillus wiadmanii</em> and <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> isolated from rhizosphere of maize and identified molecularly were tested. Soil samples were obtained from Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor plantation, Ibadan. Ability of the isolates to produce growth promoting factors were assessed using pikovskaya, Alecksandrouv and glucose nitrogen free media before inoculated into the seed of the maize. Three pots in replicates, each contained 5 kg of soil were seeded. Isolates were applied separately and in combination with two controls. They were allowed to stand for six weeks under green house conditions, agronomic parameters were measured at interval. Result showed ability of the isolates to solubilized Phosphorus, potassium and fix nitrogen. <em>Pantoea eucaria</em> and <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> had P-solubilization index of 1.02 and 0.551 respectively. Indole acetic acid and gibberellic acid production was observed for <em>Bacillus wiadmanii</em> (2.6 mg/l) and <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> (F1) (0.56mg/l) respectively. Height (260 cm) was observed in seeds with NPK fertilizer, (206 cm) for seeds treated with the two bacteria, seeds with <em>Bacillus wiadmannii</em> had the least. The leaf area was not significantly different (P≤0.05) at different treatment. Plant biomass for NPK fertilizer seeds (118.91g) while the control was 35.32g. The isolates tested can be useful in the formulation of fertilizers, their utilization would help to reduce loss of soil fertility and pollution resulting from continuous use of chemical fertilizers.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Malachite green sequestration from aqueous system by untreated <i>Dacryodes edulis</i> seed 2023-10-05T05:36:21+00:00 L.C. Overah C. Ebite A. Ujor <p>This paper presents an assessment of the kinetics and thermodynamics of malachite green (MG) abstraction from an aqueous system onto untreated pear seed (<em>Dacryodes edulis</em>) biomass as an adsorbent at pH 12. The experiments were conducted in batches at 25 °C, with a biomass dose of 0.5 g, and at different durations (5 to 240 minutes) using a 50 mg/L malachite green dye solution. The kinetics data were examined using four models: pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intraparticle, and Elovich models. The fallouts indicated that the pseudo-second-order model represented the process’ kinetics well, with R<sup>2</sup> values of 0.9998, rate constant, 0.346 g/mg/min, and a 90% adsorption efficiency. Thermodynamics study revealed a negative free energy change, ΔGº, indicating a feasible and spontaneous process that is endothermic, having a positive ΔHº. Comparing the findings with the findings of others reveals that malachite green adsorption onto various adsorbents is usually endothermic and follows the Pseudo-second-order mechanism most times. Overall, untreated pear seed biomass has the potential as an alternative to traditional adsorbents for extracting malachite green from an aqueous medium.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Detection and diagnosis of Salmonella typhi from stool and blood samples using Widal, Tubex<sup>-tf</sup> and polymerase chain reaction 2023-10-05T05:43:23+00:00 D.V. Zige F. I Omeje <p>There are currently no effective, quick, and sensitive techniques for identification of <em>Salmonella serovar Typhi</em>. Typhoid fever is difficult to diagnose clinically in highly endemic areas, since the symptoms are vague and similar with other febrile disorders such as malaria, and dengue fever. Considering the challenges involved with typhoid diagnosis by blood culture and serology, the PCR approach has lately been used, however it is not the gold standard for typhoid diagnosis. The aim of this study is to determine the best diagnostic method used for detection of typhoid fever using Widal test, Tubex<sup>-tf</sup> and fecal culture for the detection of typhoid. Blood and stool samples were collected from febrile patient and were screened by Widal and Tubex-tf tests, while stool samples were screened for <em>Salmonella Typhi</em> by culture and PCR for confirmation. The results of stool samples obtained after screening by culture, biochemical tests and confirmation by PCR did not confirm <em>Salmonella Typhi</em> bacteria. The 28 blood samples have a corresponding rate of 0% Tubex<sup>-tf</sup> and Widal was 93.3%. Therefore, this study suggests that Tubex-tf should be offered in typhoid-endemic areas and also recommends its use in the diagnosis of typhoid fever because the results obtained correlate with stool culture leading to PCR Confirmation. Accurate diagnosis before establishing a case of febrile typhoid fever is very important, similarly, sensitivity should dictate the best of antibiotics to be used for treatment.</p> 2023-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Screening of bacteria isolates from earthworm cast for antibacterial activities 2023-10-06T17:18:53+00:00 I. U Nwankwo K. C. Edward C. G. Udensi <p>The healthy operation of the soil ecosystem is significantly influenced by earthworms. Various medical treatments have included the use of earthworms. This study isolated and screened bacterial species from earthworm cast for antibacterial activities. Two (2) bacteria species were isolated from the earthworm cast by culturing on starch casein agar using pour plate techniques. The isolates were identified as <em>Streptomyces</em> and <em>Actinomadura</em> species while the test isolates include <em>Klebsiella specie</em>, <em>Salmonella shigella</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> strains. This study revealed that Streptococcus and Actinomadura metabolite exhibited variable degrees of antimicrobial activities against the test isolates. The highest in-vitro antimicrobial activity is (12.0mm) was exhibited by the Streptococcus metabolite at the highest concentration of 100mg/ml against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, while the least antimicrobial activity (8.0mm) was exhibited at the concentration of 80mg/ml and 40mg/ml against Salmonella species and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. Actinomadura metabolite was effective against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> at the highest concentration of 100mg/ml. However there was significant difference observed in antibacterial activity of the metabolites when compared to the standard antibiotic (Gentamicin) (p&lt;0.05). From the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test result, Streptococcus metabolite demonstrated greater activity on Salmonella specie at the range of 3.12mg/ml and a lower activity on <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Klebsiella specie</em> at the range of 12.5mg/ml each. The Actinomadura metabolite demonstrated greater activity on Salmonella species at the range of 1.56mg/ml. Based on the findings of this research, earthworm (Pheretima posthuma) is a good source of antibacterial agents that can be identified and extracted as source of cheap medicines to control serious infections.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Activities of leaves extracts of <i>Vernonia amygdalina</i> and <i>Abrus precatorius</i> against selected antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens 2023-10-07T13:48:09+00:00 E.E. Nmema A.O. Oladimeji R.F. Akinmade P.O. Akinnusi <p>Ethanol and methanol extracts of <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> and <em>Abrus precatorius</em> leaves were screened respectively against multi-antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates of <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica</em> var.<em> Typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Streptococcus pneumoniae</em> by agar-well diffusion method using graded concentrations of extract (200 mg/mL, 100 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 25 mg/mL, 12.5 mg/mL). Inhibition zone sizes (IZDs) produced by decreasing concentrations of V. amygdalina were recorded as <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> (20 mm, 20 mm, 13 mm, 10 mm and 0 mm); Salmonella enterica var. Typhi (18 mm, 18 mm, 13 mm, 0 mm and 0 mm);<em> Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (18 mm, 18 mm, 13 mm, 0 mm and 0 mm); <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (15 mm, 15 mm, 10 mm, 0 mm and 0 mm); <em>Streptococcus pneumoniae</em> (17 mm, 17 mm, 15 mm, 0 mm and 0 mm). A. precatorius produced IZDs against <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> (15 mm, 11 mm, 10 mm, 0 mm and 0 mm); S. enterica var. Typhi (16 mm, 13 mm, 9 mm, 0 mm and 0 mm); <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (13 mm, 11 mm, 10 mm, 0 mm and 0 mm); S<em>taphylococcus aureus</em> (13 mm, 11 mm, 9 mm, 0 mm and 0 mm); <em>Streptococcus pneumoniae</em> (17 mm, 13 mm, 10 mm, 0 mm and 0 mm). The results suggest that extracts of <em>V. amygdalina</em> and <em>A. precatorius</em> leaves exert broad spectrum antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These findings support the widespread use of the plants as local remedy for a variety of ailments, and indicate the potential roles of the plants in drug development programs of the pharmaceutical industry.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Effects of parasites on growth pattern of African catfish (<i>Clarias gariepinus</i>) in Omi Dam, Omi, Yagba West Local Government Area, Kogi State 2023-10-07T14:06:41+00:00 C.K Olubiyo P.A. Audu L.K. Adang G.T. Olubiyo <p>The study was carried out using 506 <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> specimens over a period of one year, from Omi Dam (Latitudes 8o34’N – 8o38′N, Longitudes 6o37′E – 6o42′E) Omi, Kogi State, Nigeria. Standard methods were used to determine length-weight relationship, condition factor, and parasitic infestation of the fish in the dam. Generally, fish growth for non-parasitized fishes was positively allometric and condition factor is &gt;1.5, while parasitized fishes had negative allometric growth and condition factor is &lt;1.The negative allometry for parasitized shows the fish weight decreases less quickly than the length while positive allometry for non-parasitized fish mean the fish weight increases than the length of the fish. The effect of parasites in the life of parasitized <em>C. gariepinus </em>was found to probably be a major factor responsible for the loss of weight in parasitized fishes and this affected morphometric values(b) in which body weight was an index.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Association of multidrug resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> and <i>Escherichia coli</i> with specific naira denominations 2023-10-07T14:50:37+00:00 K. Otokunefor A. T Akiode, I. Ademola-Fagbure D. O. Perewari <p>Currency serves as a global tool for commerce but is notorious for its association with potentially pathogenic bacteria. This has been further complicated by the growing evolution and emergence of drug resistance among bacteria, with various currencies associated with multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. This could be a silent factor in the current scourge of multidrug resistance. This study therefore set out to explore the presence of multidrug resistance <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> in specific denominations of Naira, the Nigerian currency in Rivers State, Nigeria. A total of 50 naira notes comprised of two commonly used denominations (₦50 and ₦100) made up of two different materials (polymer and paper) were analyzed for microbial load, presence of key bacteria and drug resistance using standard tests. Results of the study revealed high bacterial loads with Log10 values ranging from 4.52 to 5.39 for the ₦100 notes and 4.52 to 5.31 for ₦50 notes. Samples had a higher occurrence of <em>S. aureus</em> (26) than<em> E. coli</em> (8). These isolates were associated with very high rates of resistance though the Gram-positive organisms were more resistant. Both<em> S. aureus</em> and <em>E. coli</em> had high rates of MDR (96.2% and 100% respectively). This study reveals an association of the Nigerian currency, Naira, with a variety of drug resistant bacteria and high levels of multidrug resistance in key pathogens and primarily underscores the need for continuous hand washing as the first key step in disease prevention.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Essential oil compositions and antioxidant activity of the fresh leaves of <i>Talinum triangulare</i> (Jacq.) Willd from Nigeria 2023-10-07T15:05:04+00:00 A.O. Ogunmoye A.A. Ibikunle N.O. Sanyaolu S.A. Ogundare S.T. Yussuf M.A. Hashimi I.B. Onajobi <p>Essential oils from the fresh leaves of <em>Talinum triangulare</em> (100 g) growing along Ijesha road, Ago Iwoye, Ijebu north local government area of Ogun State, Nigeria were obtained by hydrodisitllation in an all-glass clevenger type apparatus and the chemical constituents determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity of the essential oils was tested with 1,1 diphenyl 2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The yield of the essential oils was 0.060% (v/w). A total of thirteen constituents representing 100% of the essential oil were identified from the GC-MS analysis. The major components of<em> T. triangular </em>eessential oil were γ-terpinene (26.34%), dlimonene (16.08%), β-pinene (13.91%), β-bisabolol (12.62%), cyclotrisiloxane hexamethyl (8.18%) and caryophyllene (5.65%). Monoterpenes (61.30%), sesquiterpenoids (14.14%), sesquiterpenes (11.72%) and organosilicon (12.84%) were the classes of compounds identified from the essential oil. The leaves essential oil of <em>T. triangulare</em> displayed potent antioxidant activity with percentage inhibition values of 51.886, 54.209, 58.447, 62.137 and 66.648 at varying concentrations. <em>T.</em><br><em>triangulare</em> exhibited the highest inhibition (66.648) at concentration of 0.5 mg/mL as against the standard of 70.36 at similar concentration which also makes it a good antioxidant agent.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Coexistence of hypertension with diabetes mellitus and its pharmacotherapy 2023-10-07T15:23:46+00:00 E.G. Moke W.E. Demaki T.M.E. Daubry O.M. Ataikiru E. Agbonifo-Chijiokwu O.O. Ofulue B. Ekuerhare O. Akpoyovwere K.E. Edje N.P. Isibor <p>Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are common comorbidities, as hypertension is reported to be twice as frequent in diabetic patients as people who are non- diabetics. In diabetic condition, the risk and progression of cardiac disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, retinopathy, and nephropathy is greatly increased in the presence of hypertension. Persistent increase in blood pressure termed hypertension, can be either primary hypertension (essential hypertension) or secondary hypertension in nature. Primary or essential hypertension is characterized by elevated blood pressure caused by inherited factors which are characteristic of essential hypertension whereas identifiable causes such as chronic kidney diseases, endocrine disorders, constriction of the kidney arteries, or the use of drugs are among the etiology of secondary hypertension. Diabetes causes hyperinsulinemia which increases the risk of hypertension. This condition increases the amount of sodium that the body absorbs. It also promotes the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Treatment of both conditions is crucial as they are considered risk factors for coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, renal failure and congestive heart failure. In any age group, a considerable increase in systolic blood pressure causes a significant increase in cardiovascular disease. To achieve sufficient blood pressure control, most people with hypertension and diabetes require more than one medication. This review is aimed to discuss hypertension and diabetes mellitus comorbidities and their treatment.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Perception of arable crop farmers on agro-forestry practices in selected local government areas in Ekiti State, Nigeria 2023-10-07T15:43:38+00:00 O. S. Oke A.O. Ajala A. S., Adeoye F.A. Odediran O.O. Olawale C. T. Adara <p>This study examined the arable crop farmers’ perception on Agroforestry practices in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from two hundred and forty (240) respondents. Descriptive and ordinal measured statistics were used in data analysis. The results showed that 93% of the respondents were educated, whereas, 59.2%, 62.9 and 72.9% of the respondents were married, male and Christians respectively and made up of farmers with age bracket between 31 – 50 years old, majority of the respondents had household size between 6 and 10 persons.<br>The study also showed that respondents who cultivated less than 1 ha of farmland were 49.6% while<br>those that had no access to formal credit were (84.2%). The results from Likert scale on farmers<br>perception based on the mean scores of (3.0) showed that 67.9% of the respondents affirmed that<br>Agroforestry practices was profitable and favourable. However, the major constrains to Agroforestry<br>practices in the study area based on the average mean score of 2.5 were fire outbreak with severity<br>index of 3.10, non-availability of seeds/seedlings (2.81), time consuming (2.65), Pest/rodents and<br>diseases (2.64), whereas , land tenure and long gestation period had mean severity index of 2.6%<br>and 2.59% respectively. Conclusion drawn from the study is that the agroforestry systems was an<br>alternative agricultural practices adopted by some arable crops farmers to increase their income<br>and forest products in the study area, while incident of fire out-break should be checked to prevent<br>loss of crop, land and farmers income.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Bioremediation of a crude oil contaminated soil using water lettuce (<i>Pistia stratiotes</i>) 2023-10-08T14:32:03+00:00 G. E. Agu A. I. Hart <p>Laboratory-scale studies were carried out using a nutrient formula produced from <em>Pistia stratiotes</em> plant to achieve bioremediation of crude oil impacted loamy soil. This study assessed the efficacy of powdered <em>Pistia stratiotes</em> as potential bio stimulant in the remediation of crude oil contaminated soil using three test treatments (20ml, 60ml and 100ml) at three test concentrations (20g, 40g and 60g) of nutrient and a control (0g). The remediation process was monitored by assaying the total hydrocarbon content (THC) and soil pH before and after amendment with the powdered <em>P. stratiotes </em>for 90 days. The result showed increase in soil pH and THC in comparison with the control due to soil contamination by crude oil. However, there was a significant reduction (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) in soil pH and THC with the introduction of powdered <em>P. stratiotes</em> at different concentrations. Contaminated soil amended with 40g of <em>P. stratiotes</em> had the highest THC loss of (30%) on the final day of remediation. In a 90 day study, the control set-up had its total culturable heterotrophic bacterial population of the<em> P. stratiotes</em> recipe increase from 1.4×10<sup>7</sup> Cfu/g to 2.8×10<sup>7</sup> Cfu/g, while the total culturable heterotrophic fungal count in the <em>P. stratiotes</em> treatment ranged from 7.0×10<sup>4</sup> Cfu/g to 4.0×10<sup>4</sup> Cfu/g. Statistical analyses showed significant difference at p ≤ 0.05 level for the two conditions (<em>Pistia stratiotes</em> nutrient treated soil and control). The total culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria in<em> P. stratiotes</em> treated polluted soil increased from 1.0×106 Cfu/g to 6.8×105 Cfu/g, while the total culturable hydrocarbon utilising fungal counts increased significantly from 1.9×10<sup>4</sup> Cfu/g to 4.8×10<sup>4</sup> Cfu/g for <em>P. stratiotes</em> treatment. The results from this research demonstrated that powdered P. stratiotes is an effective agent that can be used to decrease the pH of contaminated soil and improve soil properties, hence aids in remediating a crude oil contaminated soil.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Textural characteristics and sediment transport dynamics of the sandstones of the Nkporo group, Southern Anambra Basin (Nigeria): evidence for the upper cretaceous sea-level lowstand 2023-10-08T14:45:04+00:00 C.U. Ugwueze K.O. Okengwu <p>The Anambra sedimentary basin is one of the major inland basins in Nigeria. It covers an area of approximately 30,000 square kilometres and is named after the Anambra River, which traverses the basin. The geology of the basin is characterized by a complex sequence of sedimentary rocks that record a long history of deposition and tectonic activity. Detailed and systematic field investigation of its rock sequences exposed at Leru junction and adjoining localities revealed five dominant lithologic units consisting of massive sandstone facies, argillaceous sandstone facies, fissile black shale and mudstone facies, planar and ripple laminated sandstone facies, and massive and pebbly sandstone facies. The area is dominated by transgressive facies characterized by alternating sequences of thinly and parallel laminated fissile black shales, mudstones, and argillaceous sandstones overlain by regressive deposits dominated by massive and partly pebbly sandstones. The transgressive sequences perhaps represented shelf mud sedimentation that was probably interrupted by episodic influxes of sands rich in argillaceous materials transported down the shelf probably by shoreface waves or gravity-driven flows, while the regressive facies may have probably been emplaced by liquefied sand flows of the frontal slope of an advancing mouth bar. The erosion of the shelf deposits by the pebbly sandstones possibly reflected seaward migration of shallow distributary channels during sea-level low stand. Thus, facies transition from argillaceous sandstones to massive and pebbly sandstones within the continental shelf perhaps signified a fall in the relative sea level possibly triggered by the erosion of the shelf or perhaps a high rate of sediment supply.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Subsurface structural and stratigraphical evaluation of Sapele Shallow field, Niger Delta, Southern Nigeria 2023-10-08T15:03:48+00:00 B. J. O. Mujakperuo O. J. Airen <p>This research presents the results of the subsurface structural and stratigraphical evaluation of the Sapele Shallow field of the Niger Delta. 3D seismic cube and well log data were used in carrying out this research work. Analysis of the three horizons' structural maps showed the subsurface's structural geometry and the presence of a possible trapping mechanism, which controls the accumulation of hydrocarbons in the studied area. Interpretations of faults that described the structural setting of the field showed three major faults trends from East to West whiles dipping southward with other minor faults. The stratigraphy of the study area thickens from north to south (basinward). Also, the rootmean-square (RMS) amplitude maps analysis of the various horizons reveals that all horizons mapped in the studied area have bright spots (Sweet Spot) except horizon 7.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Measurement of leakage radiation dose to patients undergoing chest x-ray in some x-ray facilities in Warri Town. Nigeria. 2023-10-08T15:14:05+00:00 S.O. Ovwasa A.F. Akpolile G.K. Agbajor C.E. Mokobia <p>The increase in the application of x-ray in health management has necessitated the need to determine the risk associated with its use. This study is aimed at measuring the leakage radiation dose to patients undergoing chest x-ray in twenty (20) radiological facilities in Warri, Delta State. A portable GMC-600 digital Geiger Muller Counter (serial number: 36311386254310) was used to examine the facilities. The leakage radiation was measured from both the cathode and anode terminals of the machines across the facilities studied and their mean exposure readings were obtained. The leakage radiation (mR/hr) values for the cathode terminal ranges from 0.21 – 100.27 mR/hr with an average of 26.46 mR/hr while the anode terminal is from 0.21 – 99.70 mR/hr with an average of 24.88 mR/hr. From the obtained results, it was observed that only one machine, A10 (100.27 mR/hr) exceeded the recommended limit (100 mR/hr) for leakage radiation as stipulated by American Association of Physicist in Medicine (AAPM). This indicates that the workers and members of the public in the said facility could be exposed to some level of harmful radiations.&nbsp;</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Levels and safety assessment of pesticide residues in selected vegetables and fruits sold in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria 2023-10-08T15:29:27+00:00 T.O. Yahaya U.F. Magaji A. Abdulazeez M.N. Musa A.B. Yusuf C. Obi A.B. Yusuf A.S. Muhammad <p>Pesticides are widely used to boost agricultural output, thus making food consumption a major route of human pesticide exposure. This study was aimed at determining the safety of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits sold in Ikorodu Markets, Lagos, Nigeria. The vegetables analyzed were lettuce (<em>Lactuca sativa</em>), spinach (<em>Spinacia oleracea</em>), cabbage (<em>Brassica oleracea</em>), cucumber (<em>Cucumis sativus</em>), and onion (<em>Allium cepa</em>), while the fruits were orange (Citrus aurantium), mango (<em>Mangifera indica</em>), and guava (<em>Psidium guajava</em>). Samples of the vegetables and fruits were subjected to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, and the values obtained were compared with the minimum risk levels (MRLs) recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Thereafter, the estimated daily intake (EDI) and health risk index (HRI) of the detected pesticide residues were calculated and compared with the acceptable daily intake. The GC-MS analysis of the vegetables detected chlorepyrifos-ethyl beyond the MRLs in lettuce, spinach, and cucumber; metalaxyl exceeded the MRLs in cabbage; while cyhalothrin, emamectin, acetaprid, carbendazime, and cypermethrin were detected within the MRLs. The analyses of the fruits revealed non- tolerable levels of chlorepyrifos-ethyl in orange; imidacloprid exceeded the MRLs in mango; and carbon disulfide was above the MRLs in guava. The EDI and HRI of the pesticides were within acceptable limits, but the HRI of cyhalothrin in lettuce and carbon disulfide in mango were not. The results suggest that the vegetables and fruits may predispose consumers to health hazards, with spinach and mango posing the greatest risk. Farmers need to comply with safety guidelines on pesticide use.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana First serological prevalence of dengue virus IgG antibody among pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria 2023-10-09T05:14:35+00:00 I. O Okonko H. C. Innocent-Adiele O. V. Njoku E. A. Eugene <p>Dengue is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and is considered a public health problem worldwide. Pregnant women and infants are at risk of developing severe dengue, which has been linked to poor outcomes. This study sought to determine the prevalence of Dengue Virus IgG antibodies among pregnant women attending antenatal care at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 94 pregnant women were enlisted, and after gaining consent, approximately 5 ml of whole blood was taken. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to detect the presence of IgG antibodies to the dengue fever virus. IgG antibodies prevalence to the dengue fever virus was found to be 2.1%. Women who were within 16 to 20 years (6.7%), single (2.6%), employed (3.8%), had primary education (5.3%) and resided in urban areas (4.8%) all had higher incidence rates. Although this study reported a low prevalence of dengue virus among pregnant women, intensive enlightenment on the preventive measures which include the use of insect repellant and wearing of long-sleeved shirts, among others, should be sustained.&nbsp;</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Testosterone modulates atrazine-induced cytotoxicity in testicular cell lines 2023-10-09T05:28:18+00:00 C. J. Mgbudom-Okah M. O. Wegwu <p>Testosterone greatly influences healthy growth and development of male sex organs. Testosterone has been demonstrated to possess antioxidant and anti-cytotoxic effects in cells. The present study examine the protective effect of testosterone on ATZ-induced cytotoxicity using TM3 Leydig and TM4 Sertoli cell lines as testicular in vitro models. TM3 Leydig and TM4 Sertoli cell lines were treated with atrazine (ATZ) 232 μM with varying concentrations of testosterone (0.1. 1, 10, 20 nM) for 6 h, 12 h and 48 h. Administration of testosterone increased the viability of the cell lines for 12 h and 48 h exposure compared to ATZ values (p&lt; 0.005). Furthermore, testosterone reduced TM3 cell and TM4 cell GSH levels. Exogenous testosterone intake minimizes cell death and GSH levels in testicular cell lines exposed to ATZ. However, the lowest dose of testosterone attenuates the ATZ-induced increase of GSH levels in both TM3 and TM4 cells (p&lt; 0.005).</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Effect of heat and mass transfer on magneto-hydrodynamic flow with chemical reaction and viscous energy dissipation past an inclined porous plate 2023-10-09T05:39:07+00:00 O. R. Jimoh D. Abdullahi <p>In this paper, a mathematical model describing heat and mass transfer of magneto-hydrodynamic flow with chemical reaction and viscous energy dissipation past an inclined porous plate is presented. The governing partial differential equations which describe the phenomenon were nondimensionalized with the aid of some dimensionless quantities. The dimensionless coupled non-linear partial differential equations were solved using the harmonic solution technique. The results obtained were discussed graphically. Findings from the results obtained reveal that increase in Peclet number; Heat source parameter and Grashof number enhance the velocity profiles. Similarly, an increase in the Peclet energy number, Eckert number, Heat source parameter, angle of inclination, permeability parameter and Stuart number leads to an increase in the temperature profile.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Ameliorative effects of <i>Cnestis ferruginea</i> root extract on carbon tetrachloride nephrotoxicity in albino Wistar rats 2023-10-09T05:48:30+00:00 E. O. Okoro <p>The objective of this research was to assess the potential protective properties of ethanol extract derived from <em>Cnestis ferruginea </em>against the toxic effects by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in the kidneys of rats. In this study, male albino Wistar rats were pre-treated with <em>C. ferruginea</em> at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) on a daily basis for a duration of 14 days. Subsequently, a single dosage of CCl4 was administered intraperitoneally on the 7th day of the experiment. The rats were euthanized 24 hours after they were subjected to treatments using the extract on the 15th day. Subsequently, serum and kidneys were obtained and utilized for the analysis of biochemical parameters. Rats grouped as the control which were administered CCl4 experienced kidney damage, as indicated by a statistically significant increase (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.05) in the measured parameters (urea, creatinine, uric acid in serum and malondialdehyde in kidney tissue), and a significant reduction in the levels of oxidative stress marker enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase). It is worth noting that the administration of <em>C. ferruginea</em> to rats exposed to CCl4 resulted in a significant reversal of the aforementioned changes, bringing them closer to a state of normalcy. The result obtained from this study suggest that <em>C. ferruginea</em> possess therapeutic properties which could protect the kidney against renal deterioration and its associated dysfunction.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana Treatment of abattoir wastewater using <i>Moringa oleifera</i> seed and snail shell in Rivers State, Nigeria 2023-10-09T16:10:29+00:00 B. C. Anele P. O. Okerentugba H. O. Stanley O. M. Immanuel I. M. Ikeh C. C. Ukanwa I. O. Okonko <p>The practice of discharging abattoir wastewater into a receptacle without treatment is most likely to alter its physicochemical and microbiological properties. Against this background, this study is aimed at determining the efficacy of Moringa oleifera and snail shells as bio-coagulants for treatment of abattoir wastewater using the jar. The mean values of monitored physicochemical parameters were electrical conductivity (1227.7), total organic carbon (224.4%), biochemical oxygen demand (362.3 mg/l), chemical oxygen demand (1001.5g), total dissolved solids (462.5 mg/l), total suspended solids (1562.5) mg/l and turbidity (190.6 NTU). The mean total heterotrophic bacteria count (THBC) for untreated wastewater was 1.4 x 108 CFU/ml, total coliform count (TCC) was 5.6 x 10<sup>5</sup> CFU/ml, and total fungal count (TFC) was 1.6 x 10<sup>2</sup> CFU/ml. After treatment, the biocoagulants caused 82.5-84.2% reduction in EC, TOC (59-88.3%), BOD (90.8-93.7%), COD (94.4-95.3%), TDS (89.6-91.9%), TSS (93.3-94.5%) and turbidity (80.8-84.5%). The bio-coagulants were able to remove 92.2-95.4% of Zn, Pb (97-97.5%), Cr (97.2-98.8%) and Cd (86.7-89.3%). After treatment with the bio-coagulants, THBC dropped from 4.7 x 10<sup>3</sup>-5.3 x 102 CFU/ml to 8-10 CFU/ml on day 6, TCC dropped from 4.2 x 10<sup>2</sup> – 6.7 x 10 CFU/ml to 5-7 CFU/ml on day 6 while TFC dropped from 1.1 x 102 - 1.5 x 10 CFU/ml to 2-4 CFU/ml on day 6, representing approximately 99.9% reduction in microbial load. Thus, the bio-coagulants were as good at removing pollutants in water as alum, but with the added advantages of being natural, cost-effective, and readily available.</p> 2023-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Scientia Africana