Scientia Africana 2023-01-29T07:49:50+00:00 Prof. G. O. Avwiri Open Journal Systems <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning /> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas /> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables /> <w:SnapToGridInCell /> <w:WrapTextWithPunct /> <w:UseAsianBreakRules /> <w:DontGrowAutofit /> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--> <!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]--><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;" lang="EN-GB"><em>Scientia Africana</em> seeks to encourage communication among scientists all over the world through regular publication of their research findings. The journal publishes results of original research in all aspects of biological, chemical, earth, mathematical, physical and applied sciences including basic medical and engineering sciences. It also publishes review articles, book reviews, research notes and other short communications on all aspects of pure and applied sciences and accepts advertisements in related fields.</span> Determination of groundwater potential using electrical resistivity survey and borehole logging in sites I and III of Delta State University, Abraka Nigeria 2023-01-29T07:43:10+00:00 J.E. Okonkwo J.E. Okonkwo J.C. Egbai <p>This study examines the aquifer properties and lithological structure of Abraka, Nigeria, specifically the Delta State University Site I and III environs. Ten Schlumberger geoelectric soundings, geophysical well logging and pumping test method were employed using an ABEM Terrameter. A drilled water well and existing borehole data were used for this study. The result of the lithological study revealed that the subsurface formations consist of topsoil, lateritic sand, fine and medium grain sand mixed with clay. The topsoil is brownish with thickness of 2 m, the laterite is reddish with thickness of 4 m, the fine sand is whitish with thickness of 10 m, and the medium sand is also whitish with thickness &gt;12 m. The results of the evaluation of the geoelectric data using curve matching and Win Resist computer iteration was in strong agreement with that of the well record, with a subsurface that is composed of 4 to 6 geo-electric layers. The depth ranges from 13.5m to 97.8m while the resistivity ranges from 1021.2 Ωm to 9092.4 Ωm. A core soil sample collected at an interval of 5m, spontaneous potential and resistivity logs were carried out on the well. The hydraulic conductivity, well's transmissivity, storativity, and specific capacity are 102.7m<sup>2</sup>/day, 5.14 m/day, 0.00062 and 0.39 m<sup>3</sup>/m respectively. It is recommended that a drill depth of 30 m and above should be accessed for potable water in the area. From the result of this survey, we infer that this aquifer is confined and capable of supplying the people with adequate and good quality drinking water.</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Sequence stratigraphy and tectonic framework of the Gabo Field, Niger Delta, Nigeria 2023-01-29T07:44:01+00:00 T.C. Iheaturu R.U. Ideozu S. Abrakasa A.E. Jones <p>This research examines the sequence stratigraphic and structural framework of the Gabo Field Niger Delta, Nigeria. Materials used in this research include 3D seismic volume in Seg-Y, ditch cuttings and wells logs. The methods applied are standard methods in addition to using the Frazier and Galloway approach for genetic sequences. The tectonic framework was interpreted in terms of deformational, depositional and post-depositional structures. The deformational structures are faults F1 and F2 – which are closely spaced normal faults and F3 is a syn-depositional growth fault. The depositional structures are pinchouts and interbedded sand/shale sequences whereas the postdepositional structures are compaction and smearing or flexure of the shales. The well correlation shows the sequences are cyclic and the facies analysis of T4 – T9 sands are very fine to medium grained, light to dark brown, texturally mature and moderate to well sorted. The facies associations are fluvial distributary channel, tide dominated fluvial channels, abandoned channel or switching and flood plain deposits. While the depositional environments are upper delta plain, lower delta plain and delta front. Sequence stratigraphic analysis explained the observed increase in shale thickness in the intermediate sections and showed sediment deposition occurred in three (3) systems tracts- Lowstand Systems Tract (LST), the Transgressive Systems Tract (TST) and Highstand Systems Tract (HST). The sedimentological model showed the environments of deposition had a tidal influence and ranged from fluvial to estuarine. The findings of this research may be applied to similar deltaic basins around the world in planning of oilfield development. In addition it may correlate cyclic successions and predict facies distributions of similar depositional patterns.&nbsp;</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Statistical analyses on the correlation of corruption perception index and some other indices in Nigeria 2023-01-29T07:44:45+00:00 T Onyeogulu U.P. Ogoke <p>This study investigated the statistical analysis of Corruption Perception Index (CPI) in Nigeria considering some other indices which are, Human Development Index (HDI), Global Peace Index (GPI) and Global Hunger Index (GHI). Data set was standardized using two different methods due to the different units and scales used in measuring the indices. Analyses were carried out on the two standardized data sets resulting in different covariance matrices but same correlation matrices, multiple and partial correlation coefficients. Hypothesis testing was carried out on both multiple and partial correlation coefficient at 5% level of significance. Result shows that a slight positive correlation exists between CPI and HDI, CPI and GHI (which implies that as CPI is increasing, HDI is also increasing, same for CPI and GHI) while a slight negative correlation exists between CPI and GPI (which implies a reverse). The partial correlation analysis carried out on the standardized data set indicates that a slight positive relationship exists between CPI and HDI holding GHI and GPI constant, a fair positive relationship exists between CPI and GHI holding HDI and GPI constant (which implies that without considering the effect of GPI, as CPI is decreasing, GHI and HDI are&nbsp; also decreasing) , a fair negative relationship exists between CPI and GPI holding HDI and GHI constant (without considering the effect of HDI and GHI, as CPI is decreasing, GPI is also decreasing) holding CPI constant a fair positive relationship exist between HDI and GHI(without considering the effect of CPI, as HDI is increasing, GHI is also increasing, a moderate positive relationship exists between HDI and GPI and a substantial positive correlation exists between GHI and GPI. Multiple correlation analyses were also carried out on the standardized data set which indicates a moderate positive relationship. Generally, CPI and HDI have dominant effect on the national economy.</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Relating statistical methods to machine learning predictive models 2023-01-29T06:32:35+00:00 S. C Agu F. Elugwu <p>The paper reviewed the probabilistic feature of binomial distribution in the operation of machine learning (ML) classifications. It also examined a normal distribution and the concepts for approximating the binomial distribution to a normal distribution in estimating generalization error and its role in machine learning model selection. Again, it studied the confident interval and hypothesis testing and their estimations in the evaluation and comparison of the Performance metrics (Accuracy) of the learning algorithms. The paper highlighted their statistical significance to the ML models and classifiers as well as the differences in their utilization in statistics and machine learning.&nbsp;</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk assessment of some heavy metals in carrots selected from Wudil, Kano, Nigeria 2023-01-29T07:46:11+00:00 C. C Onoyima F. G. Okibe A. Y. Ibrahim E. E. Nwoye <p>Fruits and vegetables contaminated with heavy metals can pose health risks to humans. Noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of some metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni) in carrots cultivated in Wudil, Kano, Nigeria was investigated by calculating the chronic daily intake (CDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), hazard index (HI), and carcinogenic risk (CR) of the metals. The mean concentrations of the metals were in the following decreasing order: Cu&gt;Cr&gt;Ni&gt;Pb&gt;Cd. The levels of all the metals were below the maximum tolerable limit set by FAO/WHO. The THQ for the heavy metals were all less than one (THQ &lt; 1), showing that these metals did not constitute a noncarcinogenic risk to the population through the consumption of carrots. The percentage contributions of the metals to the total non-carcinogenic risk were in the following order: Cr&gt;Pb&gt;Cu&gt;Cd&gt;Ni. Cr was the major contributor to the total non-carcinogenic risk and accounted for 57.61% of the total risk, while Pb, Cu, Cd, and Ni contributed 15.64%, 12.76%, 7.41%, and 6.58% respectively. The CR were all below the upper limit of 1×10-4, suggesting that lifetime exposure to these metals through the consumption of carrots did not pose a cancer risk to the population. The levels of the investigated metals in carrots in the area did not pose any risk to the consumers. However, there is a need to monitor the metals on regular basis to ensure the safety of the consumers.</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Multi-elemental analysis of free water obtained from water in oil emulsions from Niger Delta Region using ICP-OES 2023-01-29T07:47:04+00:00 B.J. Osiname U.J. Chukwu R.U. Duru <p>Disposal of produced water obtained from crude oil could be challenging and tough because of the effect it has on the environment. Produced water contains high levels of salt and toxic substances which must be treated before re-use or disposal to reduce their impact on the environment, people and assets. Hence, the characterization of produced water for its chemical composition is essential. This study presents the determination of heavy metals (Co, Cu, Pb, Fe, Zn, Ni, and Cd) in produced water obtained from crude oil emulsion samples via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The samples were subjected to treatment prior to analysis. The analytical curve obtained from the calibration gave excellent correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9995- 1.000 and the recovery values obtained were very good (95% - 105%). The result of the heavy metal analysis in μg/l (Co: &lt;DL to 14.3, Cu: 114.1 to 1553.2, Fe: 492.1 to 1576.4, Ni: 52.3 to 174.5, Pb: &lt;DL to 15.1, Zn: 92.4 to 432.9, Cd: 2.3 to 4.4) indicates that the concentrations of the metals evaluated in the produced water samples were above the recommended discharge limit ( Zn - 1.0 mg/L, Co - 0.02 mg/L, Fe - 1.0 mg/L, Cu - 0.02 mg/L, Cd - 0.01 mg/L, Ni - 0.03 mg/L and Pb - 0.05 mg/L).</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Antioxidant properties, antioxidant minerals and vitamins composition of sorghum-carrot agidi enriched with <i>Terminalia catappia</i> L seed flour 2023-01-29T06:42:00+00:00 A.J. Ujoh M.I. Yusufu D. Ahure <p>Agidi is a thick gel-like fermented food made from cereal pastes; it serves as a major complementary food for infants in many parts of West Africa. The aim of this work was to investigate the nutritional and antioxidant properties of sorghum-carrot agidi enriched with<em> Terminalia catappia</em> seed flours. The composition of minerals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn) and Vitamins (A, B1, B2, B12, D and E) in the sorghum based agidi samples were analyzed using standard protocol. The antioxidant properties of the agidi samples were determined by Ferric Reducing Properties (FRAP), Free Radical Scavenging Ability (DPPH), Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Ability (OH) and Fe2+ chelating (Fe2+). The results showed that iron content of the agidi samples ranged from 0.754±0.066 to 1.363±0.069ppm while the Zinc content of the samples were between 0.756±0.030 to 1.96±0.015 ppm. The Vitamin A content of the Agidi samples was between 21.77 – 41.78 mcg RAE while that of Vitamins B1and B2 were 0.0773 – 1.39μg/g. The enriched Agidi sample J5 had the highest values of Vitamins D and E, 1.20 and 1.35μg/g respectively. The antioxidant properties determined showed FRAP values ranged from 3.265±0.026 μg/g to 26.460±0.026 μg/g, DPPH values were between 78.976±0.168 to 87.976±0.168% and sample J4 had the highest Fe2+ chelation values 29.545±0.267%. The vitamins and minerals composition of the sorghum agidi samples were enhanced significantly (P&lt;0.05) by enrichment with carrot and tropical almond seed flours and this was reciprocated in their<br>antioxidant potencies.</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Incidence survey and severity of fungal diseases of rice in rice growing areas of South-Eastern Nigeria 2023-01-29T07:47:42+00:00 C.C. Iwuagwu C.I. Umechuruba C.C. Ononuju A.E. Obidiebube C.C. Obasi U.O. Aguwa <p>There has been a low productivity experienced by rice farmers in South Eastern Nigeria as a result of high infestation of pests and diseases caused majorly by fungal pathogens. This research was aimed at pulling together the fungi pathogens associated with rice plants through a comprehensive survey in such a way that one could see at a glance what the problems of fungi diseases look like in the zone. Two middle diagonal lines were drawn (in each plot of rice at distance of 20 cm) along the transverse and sampled. Disease incidence was assessed by visual observation of rice diseases in the fields. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA in RCBD using Gen Stat. 7.2 DE version (2007). Mean separation was done using Fisher’s Least Significant Difference (F-LSD) at 5% level of probability. Incdence and severity of rice diseases was as high as 98.60% and 3.20, respectively. The most important diseases were seed rot caused by <em>Fusarium moniliform</em>e followed by leaf rot caused by <em>Helminthosporium oryzae</em>. <em>Fusarium moniliforme</em> was the most frequently occurring. Out of the fungi belonging to nine genera Fusarium moniiforme was highest in Abia, <em>Helminthosorium oryzae</em> was highest in Anambra,State and <em>Trichoconis padiwickii</em> was highest in Ebonyi. <em>Phoma oryzae</em> occurred most in Enugu State while <em>Fusarium oxysporim</em> was highest in Imo state.&nbsp;</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Design and analysis of grid-connected energy systems for commercial buildings 2023-01-29T07:04:06+00:00 D.O. Akinyele O.E. Olabode I.K. Okakwu J.A. Adeosun M.A. Sulaiman A.P. Okediji <p>This paper presents the design of energy generation based on the national grid, solar photovoltaic (PV), and diesel-based supply systems for a commercial building in Obanikoro, Lagos with a total demand and peak load of ~56,000 kWh/yr and 13.5 kW, respectively. The grid is simulated based on the average daily supply of 6 hours being experienced in the study location, indicating that the building is not served for an average of 18 hours/day. The paper considers three design configurations: grid, grid + PV, and grid + PV + generator systems in HOMER Microgrid tool and their performances are compared in terms of the annual generation, load not served, and the emissions. A load demand of ~14,000 kWh/yr meaning that 75 % of total demand is not met. A 35.2 kW PV was added to the grid, with both supplying 49,687 and 13,826 kWh/yr, respectively. However, a 6.98% of the load is not served. A 15 kW generator is then added to form the grid + PV+ diesel generator configuration, and the participating energy sources supply 15,818, 49,723 and 4,834 kWh/yr, respectively. This configuration is able to meet the demand without any deficit. The CO<sub>2</sub>, CO, unburned hydrocarbons, particulate matter and SO<sub>2</sub> and nitrogen oxides emissions for the three configurations are 8.824, 0, 0, 0, 0.0383 and 0.0187 tonnes/yr; 8.192, 0, 0, 0, 0.0355 and 0.0174 tonnes/yr, and 11.833, 0.0259, 0.00113, 0.000157, 0.0435 and 0.0407 tonnes/yr, respectively. The study can help to mitigate the energy shortage in commercial buildings.&nbsp;</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Cycloartanes and pentacyclic triterpenes from Awka and ijebuode propolis and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity 2023-01-29T07:08:20+00:00 S.I. Iyen J.V. Anyam J.O. Igoli T.A. Tor-Anyiin <p>Chemical investigation of propolis samples from southern Nigeria led to the isolation of cycloartanetype triterpenes namely: 24-methylene cycloartanol and ambonic acid along with pentacyclic triterpenes: Lupeol and α, β-amyrins. All compounds were identified and structures elucidated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) spectroscopic data and comparison with literature.</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Preparation, functional and pasting behavior of starch phosphates of red cocoyam (<i>Colocosia esculenta</i>) and white cocoyam (<i>Colocosia antiquorum</i>): a comparative study 2023-01-29T07:48:30+00:00 S.T. Yussuf A.A. Ibikunle N.O. Sanyaolu S.A. Ogundare M.A. Adesanya C.O. Atewolara- Odule A.O. Ogunmoye A.A. Adeleke A.M. Hashimi O.O. Olubomehin <p>A contemporary strategy in the starch industries is the diversification of raw materials. However, the hydrophilic nature of starch limits its use as a raw material for food and packaging products, resulting in a low level of biodegradation. To address this issue, it is imperative that starch be chemically modified. Starch phosphates are among the most common and commonly used chemically modified starches. In this study, native red cocoyam starch (NRCS) and native white cocoyam starch (NWCS) were chemically modified with di-sodium hydrogen orthophosphate as phosphorylating agent to produce red cocoyam starch phosphate (PRCS) and white cocoyam starch phosphate (PWCS). The functional and pasting properties of the native and starch phosphates of both cocoyam species were evaluated and compared. The starch yield increased from ~ 17% for NRCS to ~ 25% for PRCS and from ~ 12% for NWCS to ~ 20% for PWCS. The water and oil absorption capacities were 97.00 &amp; 143.00% for NRCS and 78.00 &amp; 164.00% for NWCS, whereas for PRCS it was 160.00 &amp; 153.00% and for PWCS it was 127.00 &amp; 173.00% respectively. NRCS and PRCS had a foam capacity of 8.80 and 9.00% while NWCS and PWCS had 8.00 and 10.00% respectively. Phosphorylation had a significant impact on the pasting properties leading to a reduction in the peak, breakdown, set back, and final viscosities of the native cocoyam starches. In conclusion, phosphorylation considerably improved the functional and pasting qualities of red and white cocoyam starch, revealing its tremendous application potential in the formulation of food components, as a stabilizer, tablet binders in pharmaceutical industries, as well as in the packaging industries.</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Evaluation of <i>Euphorbia poissonii pax</i> for the formulation of an -incapacitating agent 2023-01-29T07:17:29+00:00 F.E. Awe M.M. Adeyemi J.B. Yakassai E.A. Kolawale <p>This research was designed to explore the biological effects of compounds isolated from<em> Euphorbia poissoni pax</em> for the formulation of an Incapacitating Agent against Albino rat; which will serve as an indigenous weapon for the Nigerian defence system and also as an insecticide. Chloroform extracts of <em>Euphorbia poissoni pax</em> was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening to ascertain the presence of phenolic compounds, alkaloids, saponins, and terpenoids. Fourier- Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated the presences of some chemical compounds including (4-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-4- methyl-2-pentanone) trimethylsilyl Ether, n-Hexadecanoic acid, Carbonic acid(1R)-(-)-menthylnonyl ester, 13-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester, 1,3,5-triazine, 2-chloro-4,6-bis(mthylthio) and Phthalic acid, 6-ethyloct-3-yl-2-ethylhexyl ester. In the chloroform extract. The LD50 of the plant extract was calculated to be 1733.33 mg/kg, which is within the OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines. The extract exerted a potent biological activity at 1000 mg/kg on applying under pressure on the rat skin and incapacitated the rat for 2 minutes. The extract showed an effective insecticidal effect against cockroaches and beans weevils.</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) <i>Bacillus circulans</i> as biosurfactant-producer during crude oil degradation 2023-01-29T07:49:14+00:00 E.I. Michael I.B. Idemudia <p>Petroleum and its byproducts are one group of universal environmental pollutants. Microorganisms have over time played significant roles in the clean-up exercise of unwanted substances in the environment. This research was aimed at studying the degradative potentials of biosurfactantproducing bacterial isolates (Bacillus sp.) from palm oil mill effluent (POME) in crude oil degradation. Standard microbiological and analytical methods were applied to ascertain biosurfactant production and degradation of crude oil by Bacillus sp. isolated from palm oil mill effluent discharged points and logging area of effluent bunk at Nigerian Institute for Oil-Palm Research (NIFOR) in Edo State. The bacteria were isolated and subjected to screening for hydrocarbon degradation and biosurfactant production. Biosurfactants characterization by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) technique. total viable heterotrophic bacterial count of POME and Bonny light crude oil ranged from 6.6 x10<sup>6</sup> – 8.2 x10<sup>6</sup> cfu/ml and 4.2 x10<sup>6</sup> – 5.8 x10<sup>6</sup> cfu/ml respectively. Bacillus sp. that had the highest biodegradative potential and biosurfactant production was identified molecularly as Bacillus circulans. It could be used as bio-stimulants to ameliorate crude oil polluted areas as an efficient and cost- effective technology.</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effects of viscous dissipation and joule heating of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) convective nano fluid heat transfer over a flat porous plate 2023-01-29T07:24:44+00:00 A. Musa F.E. Bazuaye <p>In the present investigation, we studied the effects of Viscous Dissipation and Joule Heating of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) convective heat transfer over a flat porous plate. The governing partial differential equations is expressed into a nonlinear partial differential equation, using a suitable similarity transformation. A semi analytical method of Homotopy Parturbation was applied to solve the equation and the obtained numerical solution for the velocity, temperature and other parameters of the nano fluid are discussed and represented graphically. Also, the effect of other parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles are also presented.</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Late maastrichtian- early eocene dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy and aleoenvironmental study of sediments in Akukwa-1 well in the Anambra Basin 2023-01-29T07:29:53+00:00 G.C. Soronnadi-Ononiwu Y. Yikarebogha N. Ukpabi <p>Dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy and palaeoenvironment of deposition of sediments penetrated by Akukwa-1 Well was carried out with a total of 253ditch cuttings using the conventional maceration technique for recovering of acid insoluble organic-walled microfossils from sediments. Sedimentological description delineated five (5) lithological units within the well, which included those of Nkporo Shale, Mamu Formation, Ajali Sandstone, Nsukka Formation and Imo Shale. A total of 14 genera and 35 species of dinoflagellate cyst were identified. The recovered dinocysts were used to establish palaeoenvironment which ranged from marginal to shallow marine, the forms were also used to propose four (4) informal dinoflagellate cyst zonations labelled (A-D) based on the first and last occurrences of two or more species. They included Zone A (<em>Apectodinium paniculatum</em> zone), occurring at 7990ft(Maastrichtian), zone B(<em>Paleocystodinium australinium</em> zone) occurring between 7990ft -4000ft (Upper Maastrichtian), zone C(<em>Apectodinium homomorphum</em> zone) occurring between 4000ft -2550ft (Upper Maastrichtian), and zone D(<em>Homotryblum palladium</em> zone) occurring between 5550ft-1520ft(Paleocene- Early Eocene). The erected dinocyst zones were correlated with the existing biozones in tropical areas of Africa and northern South America.</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Tention to use IoT technology on agricultural processes in Nigeria based on modified UTAUT model: perpectives of Nigerians’ farmers 2023-01-29T07:34:14+00:00 G.G. James A.E. Okpako C.O. Agwu <p>Users’ acceptability is one of the fundamental concepts for development and success of any technology. This research explores the level of acceptability and factors influencing the acceptance of IoT technology in agricultural processes in Nigeria. We modified and used the UTAUT2, as a theoretical basis to conduct empirical research to test the factors that influence farmers’ intention to use the IoT technology being the most current computing technology in their agricultural processes, to make farming processes easier and at their convenient which in turn will boost their produce. To empirically test our model, a survey was administered to eight hundred and thirty respondents consisting of petty farmers, agricultural technology/engineers, agricultural scientists, mechanized farmers, and agricultural academics in six States in Nigeria, drawn from 5 Geopolitical zone, to include: Akwa Ibom State, Kano State, Jigawa State, Imo State, and Ogun State. We found out that the level of acceptability was moderate. However, factors like social influence, attitude, awareness, financial strength, affect the general acceptability of IoT technology in Agriculture in Nigeria.&nbsp;</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Application of 2-D imaging survey for ascertaining the cause(s) of road failures along Sapele/Agbor road in Delta State, Nigeria 2023-01-29T07:37:52+00:00 O. Akpoyibo O. Anomohanran C. Ossai <p>Surveying involving 2-D imaging dipole–dipole geophysical technique was carried out along Sapele-Agbor Highway situated in Southern, Nigeria to determine the primary causes for Highway pavement failure. Twelve profiles spreading over 100 meters were in each cases conducted on road surface sections along the stable (control) and unstable portions of the road. Data were gathered together along the various profile employing ABEM Terra meter SAS 1000. The field data were processed and inverted utilizing Dipro software. This was done by specifying and locating the geoelectric arrangement within the surface, sub-base and sub grade soil to obtain the confirming cause(s) of the road associated with pavement failure. Geoelectric sections identified four geologic layers embracing the topsoil, clayey, laterite and sand. The sections failure is due to disparity of the material used for road model (construction) as some comprises of clay materials. The results show the presence of low resistivity values at several subdivisions of the 12 profiles. Resistivity values varying from 21.60 Ωm – 1026.0 Ωm to a depth of 14.92 m from the surface was observed along Okpara Water side, Aghalokpe and Otumara. In Igun, Eku and Obiaruku resistivity values ranges from 10.5 Ωm – 500.0 Ωm to a depth of 5.5 m from the topsoil, 22 m from sub grade and 9.8 m - 50 m were observed along the four profiles. Urhomehe, Urhonigbe, Abavo and Agbor indicate resistivity ranging from 59.25 Ωm – 1467.50 Ωm for stable and unstable sections of the road with depth up to 15.0 m for some profiles. Low resistivity values, not greater than 199 Ωm observed in some distinctive regions of 12 profiles comprises of expansive, compressible, collapsible and sandy clay materials which have the capacity of absorbing water. These make the roads swell and collapse leading to road failure under stress and strain. Many stable portions of the road are characterized with high resistivity value greater than 199 Ωm, mostly laterite materials. Competent fill soil should replace low resistivity soil to a depth of 5 m – 7m from the surface of the road. Good drainage system is also recommended within the unstable road sections.</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The response of benthic foraminifera to environmental changes in Epie creek, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State 2023-01-29T07:41:25+00:00 G.C. Soronnadi-Ononiwu T. Anthony Y. Yikarebogha <p>Epie creek, located at the Southern part of Nigeria has been known for its use as sink for the disposal of untreated sewage and industrial effluents. Benthic foraminifera are increasingly been used as environmental bio-indicators of pollution. Their munity structure provides information on the general characteristics of the environment and some species are sensitive to specific environmental parameters. This study investigates recent foraminifera from sediment samples collected from ten (10) stations (ranging in depths from 1m to 4.2m) in the Epie creek from Igbogene to Tombia- Etegwe. The environmental factors that necessitate their existence such as temperature, pH, salinity and dissolved oxygen were measured during the sampling time. Metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Recognized benthic foraminifera species belonging to four (4) genera of three (3) families and four(4) suborder were identified. Five (5) benthic foraminifera taxa were identified from sediment samples which include <em>Lenticulina stellata</em>, <em>Saccammina</em> sp, <em>Marginulina costata</em>, <em>Marginulina cf. planata</em> and <em>Trochammina</em> sp. The stress tolerant specie, <em>Trochammina</em> ,sp. was common in the study area confirming a stressed environment.</p> 2023-01-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)