Scientia Africana <!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables ></w:BreakWrappedTables> <w:SnapToGridInCell ></w:SnapToGridInCell> <w:WrapTextWithPunct ></w:WrapTextWithPunct> <w:UseAsianBreakRules ></w:UseAsianBreakRules> <w:DontGrowAutofit ></w:DontGrowAutofit> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --><!-- [if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]--> <p><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;"><em>Scientia Africana</em> seeks to encourage communication among scientists all over the world through regular publication of their research findings. The journal publishes results of original research in all aspects of biological, chemical, earth, mathematical, physical and applied sciences including basic medical and engineering sciences. It also publishes review articles, book reviews, research notes and other short communications on all aspects of pure and applied sciences and accepts advertisements in related fields.</span></p> Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt Port Harcourt en-US Scientia Africana 1118-1931 Copyright is owned by the journal Bimolecular optimization of cellulase production by <i>Richoderma citrinoviride</i> and <i>Aspergillus niger</i> isolates on corn cob, rice bran and sorghum bran as biomass substrates <p>This work focuses on the assessment of the conditions relevant for the improvement of enzymes hydrolysis of pretreated corn cob, rice bran and sorghum bran by using <em>Trichoderma Citrinoviride</em> and <em>Aspergillus niger</em>. To achieve this, different fermentation conditions were applied to assess their effect in the optimization of cellulase production. Effects of fermentation duration, inoculation size, temperature and pH of fermentation on cellulase production were investigated. At 96 hrs of fermentation, maxim cellusale product was found to be at optimum in both organisms. Hence, 6% substrates concentration with 10 discs of 8mm inoculum size yielded maximum cellulase production in both <em>A. niger</em> and <em>T. citrinoviride</em> after 5 days of incubation. At 35ºC, A niger and<em> T citrinoviride</em> recorded maximum cellulase production 0.50 mg/ml in sorghum bran while 40ºC was optimum for maximum cellulase production for <em>T, citrinoviride</em> on corn cob. Whereas, pH 5.0 T. citrinoviride exhibits maximum cellulase production with sorghum bran 1.30 mg/ml compared to carboxymetyyl cellulose which served as control and sorghum bran 1.2mg/ml. These results highlight the potentials of <em>T. citrinoviride</em> as species of fungus for the industrial production of cellulase using Agricultural wastes as substrates. Cellulase yield was repressed in the presence of glucose and was induced in the presence of corn cob, rice bran and sorghum using <em>T. citrinoviride</em>. Cellulase yield from Corn cob, rice bran and sorghum bran differed significantly at (P&lt;0.05) from glucose.&nbsp;</p> T.E. Effiong B. Benjamin N.E. Egbe M.S. Abdulsalami E. Kereakede V. Bakare Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 1 12 10.4314/sa.v23i2.1 Impact of co-application of biochar and <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> on microbial parameters in heavy metal contaminated soil <p>The use of biochar in remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil has gained global attention in the last decade. However, there is a need for more studies on the effects and interaction of biochar and functional microbes on the resident soil microorganisms and enzyme activities in the soil. This study, therefore investigated the effects of co-application of Adenopus breviflorus (Christmas melon) derived biochar and a heavy metal tolerant <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> on microbial population, bacterial diversity and enzyme activities in soil artificially spiked with cadmium, copper and lead in a pot experiment. Christmas melon seeds were collected from farms in Ago-Iwoye and subjected to pyrolysis to produce biochar which were modified with acid and base. Treatments included control, acidic biochar (BA), co-application of acidic biochar and<em> Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (BAPS), basic biochar (BB), co-application of basic biochar and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (BBPS), and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (P) alone. Microbial parameters were analyzed before and after treatments. The results obtained showed that treatments, particularly BBPS and BAPs, showed significant increases in microbial populations compared to the control. The predominant bacteria isolated were <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp.and<em> Bacillus</em> spp. Catalase and urease activities varied across treatments, with BB treatment demonstrating the highest catalase activity (94.80 ± 4.90 mgKMnO4 kg-1). Urease activity was highest in the BAPs treatment (0.410 ± 0.091 mgNH4 + kg-1 h-1).In conclusion, the co-application of biochar and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> reduced heavy metals, boosted microbial populations, and increased enzyme activities in the soil. This strategy holds promise for mitigating soil contamination and promoting sustainable agriculture. </p> O.I. Olajumoke O.A.F. Ilusanya T.O. Adesetan T.M. Osobamiro S.P. Agbarakwe W. Nurudeen C.T. Senjobi Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-02-06 2024-02-06 23 2 13 24 10.4314/sa.v23i2.2 An efficient intrusion detection technique for traffic pattern learning <p>Efficient intrusion detection algorithms are required for network traffic learning patterns in order to protect advanced network communication channels. These systems can be used to detect normal and unusual patterns, signatures, and rule violations. In recent years, conventional and deep machine learning algorithms have been utilized in the field of network intrusion detection for network traffic learning systems. The use of machine learning opens up new attack surfaces that are very intriguing to investigate. Attackers can introduce noisy data into training data to influence testing patterns in computer networks. The goal of this work is to create an efficient intrusion detection solution for network traffic learning patterns using a supervised and unsupervised technique. We developed an effective intrusion detection system (IDs) using an appropriate NSLKDD dataset for network traffic patterns. The model was trained and evaluated using the Genetic Optimization Algorithm (GOA) and the Niave Bayesian technique to recognize usual and unexpected network traffic patterns. We created a strategy that begins with a random population and subsequent iterates through the fitness function, returning the best parents with high detection accuracy. The best parents were determined using the n-parameters iterated by the crossover and mutation procedures. A cross over function was created to combine genes from two fitness parents by randomly selecting portions from each parent. The individual components of the crossover offsprings are randomly flipped to achieve the mutation. The fitness of the previous generation was obtained to generate a new generation, and this process was repeated n times. This was created to detect network intrusions using Nave Bayes' binary categorization problem and evolutionary algorithms. We accomplished this task by aggregating noise into training set before broadcasting the average number, and it is critical not to have that public average too frequently. The experimental results reveal that our proposed GA fared better than the NB technique, with a detection accuracy of 95.0% versus a recommendable detection accuracy of 53.0%.&nbsp;</p> I. I. Umukoro B.O. Eke O. Edward Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 25 40 10.4314/sa.v23i2.3 Dose-dependent reduction of rat colon antioxidant enzyme activities and increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) by ethidium bromide <p>The effect of exposure to varying doses of ethidium bromide on the activities of rat colon antioxidant enzymes has been examined. The rats were divided into eight (08) experimental groups of 5 rats each. Group I rats served as the control, not exposed to ethidium bromide (EthBr). Group II rats were administered 5 mg ethidium bromide kg<sup>-1</sup>body weight (bd wt),Group III 10 mg ethidium bromide kg<sup>-1</sup> body weight, Group IV 20 mg ethidium bromide kg-<sup>1</sup> body weight, Group V 40 mg ethidium bromide kg<sup>-1</sup>body weight, Group VI 60 mg ethidium bromide kg<sup>-1</sup>body weight, Group VII 80 mg ethidium bromide kg<sup>-1</sup> body weight, while rats in Group VIII were administered 100 mg ethidium bromide kg<sup>-1</sup> body weight. Treatment was done once weekly via gavage for 24 weeks. At the end of the exposure period, each rat was anaesthetized by halothane inhalation. Colon sections were collected, homogenized and the antioxidant enzyme activities in the homogenate&nbsp; &nbsp; supernatants were determined. Relative to the control, colon catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase showed evidence of significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in activity in rats exposed to ≥ 60, ≥ 20 and ≥ 60 mgethidium bromide kg-1body weight respectively. Compared to the control, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased in rats exposed to ≥ 20 mg ethidium bromide kg<sup>-1</sup> bd wt.<br>There was a strong and significant negative correlation between ethidium bromide dose and colon catalase (r =-0.9823; p˂ 0.001), superoxide dismutase (r = -0.9107; p˂0.001) and glutathione peroxidase (r = -0.9772; p˂ 0.001) activities. There was a strong and positive correlation between ethidium bromide dose and colon MDA levels (r = + 0.9808; p˂ 0.001) but a strong negative correlation between colon catalase (r = - 0.9455; p˂ 0.001), superoxide dismutase (r = - 0.8707; p˂ 0.001) and glutathione peroxidase (r = - 0.9623; p˂ 0.001) and MDA level. Chronic oral exposure of albino rats to ethidium bromide at a dose above the nontoxic threshold of 10 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> body weight significantly impaired the activities of colon antioxidant enzymes.&nbsp;</p> O. R. Usifo F. O. Obi Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 41 46 10.4314/sa.v23i2.4 Antioxidant vitamins in Benin bronze casters and their environmental cohorts: A preliminary nutritional assessment <p>The process of bronze casting often leads to prolonged exposure to air pollutants, heavy metals, and potentially hazardous working conditions. Understanding the levels of antioxidant vitamins among the Benin bronze casters is vital because their exposure to environmental pollutants and potential occupational hazards may increase their oxidative stress levels. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the levels of antioxidant vitamins; A, C, and E in Benin bronze casters. A total of ninety (90) consenting participants were recruited for this study; They included foundry workers (bronze casters), randomly selected individuals around the foundry site (environmental), and healthy unexposed individuals (control). Vitamins A, C, and E levels were determined using&nbsp; pectrophotometry. Data obtained was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. The findings revealed that vitamin A levels were significantly lower in bronze casters (36.06±9.15) when compared to environmental (58.57±41.05) and control groups (62.61±51.12) (p&lt;0.05). Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in bronze casters (0.53±0.14) when compared to the environmental group (1.02±0.53) and the control group (1.55±0.37) (p&lt;0.05). Also, there was a significant reduction in vitamin C levels in the environmental group when compared to the control group (p&lt;0.05). Vitamin E levels were significantly lower in bronze casters (5.14±1.92) and environmental (6.28±3.32) groups when compared to the control group (11.49±3.75) (p&lt;0.05). There was a strong positive correlation between vitamin A and vitamin C (r=-0.589, p=0.001). Vitamin C showed a strong positive correlation with vitamin E levels (r=0.562, p=0.001). In conclusion, the lower vitamin levels suggest an increased vulnerability to oxidative stress, which occupational hazards and environmental factors, such as exposure to metal toxins and pollutants may exacerbate.&nbsp;</p> O.G. Igharo A.O. Ikuobase C.B.N. Akpata O.E. Ero Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 47 56 10.4314/sa.v23i2.5 Detection of <I>Giardia</I> cyst and <I>Taenia</I> eggs in river water samples collected from Aleto River in Eleme Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria <p>This study aimed at detecting <em>Giardia</em> cyst and <em>Taenia</em> eggs in river water samples collected from Aleto River in Eleme Local Government Area, River State, Nigeria, to check for potability and purity of water.Water samples of river water were collected from two points (downstream and midstream) of Aleto river. Labelled clean sample bottles with tightly-fitted lids were used to collect water samples from the river and stored in coolers with ice packs to maintain their temperature and transportation to the laboratory. Collected water samples were transferred into sterile vial tubes and centrifuged at 2000 rpm for five minutes, after which the supernatant fluids were discarded, while the sediments smeared using spatula on labelled slides stained with specific dyes, using the wet mounts, trichome stain technique, and modified Ziehl–Neelsen techniques, and viewed under the light microscope to identify the presence of parasites.This study showed the presence of ten trophozoites of <em>Giardia lamblia</em> and ten eggs of<em> Taenia</em> species isolated from the river water samples collected. These findings highlight the potential health risks associated with waterborne parasites and emphasizes the importance of effective water quality management to safeguard public health. Furthermore, the observation of parasites underscores the need for comprehensive water quality assessment and monitoring. This study highlights the contamination of the river with parasitic organisms and urgently needs effective water management strategies to mitigate the risks to public health. Vital interventions encompass enhancing sanitation practices, curbing fecal contamination, and augmenting water quality surveillance mechanisms.</p> S.G. Okere F.O. Nduka K. Otokunefor Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 57 64 10.4314/sa.v23i2.6 Empirical assessment of fuel-wood induced carbon footprint in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria <p>Most studies of carbon footprint (CFP) in relation to climate change focus on the generation of greenhouse gases (GHG) by human activities such as electricity, industrialization and transportation in urban areas with little attention on rural areas. Against this background, this study aims to identify sources of Carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) emission, and estimate the amount of CFP generated through fuel-wood consumption in Udu LGA of Delta State, Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained from a sample of 200 households in four (4) rural settlements chosen randomly from 32 villages. Mixed survey technique which involved questionnaires, field observations and measurement were employed to collect data for the study. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson Correlation Analysis and calculation of CFP. The study reveals that the major source of CO<sub>2</sub> emission was fuel wood (82.0%), which is used for various domestic and production activities with an average of 39.58kg consumed by each sampled household; thus, generating between 7.24314 MT daily. The amount of CFP also varies directly with the sizes of the sampled households. The study recommends that alternative sources of clean energy should be developed and utilized for sustainable development of the environment and mitigation of climate change phenomenon. </p> J.L. Igben Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 65 76 10.4314/sa.v23i2.7 Hydrocarbon production potential of paralic reservoirs from the Niger Delta basin: Evidence from ichnological studies <p>Reservoir ichnological study was employed to improve on the inconsistencies and poor interpretation of hydrocarbon-bearing strata within the multipartite maturing terrain of the onshore Niger Delta basin. Ichnofacies characterization revealed two distinctive trace fossil suites that both reflected different feeding behaviours and responses to substrate consistency, which assisted in the high-resolution assessment of facies constituting the paralic reservoirs. Fifteen potential reservoir intervals were subdivided into productive and non-productive as revealed on core slabs as well as well log signatures. Fluctuating river sediment influx has been considered to be detrimental to the colonization of the channel deposits and barrier bars, which resulted in excellent hydrocarbon reservoirs in the study area. The sandstone facies, characterized by sparse bioturbation and extensive bedding, displays imprints of Ophiomorpha, Thalassinoides, and Palaeophycus. The removal of these imprints has minimized subtle heterogeneities, resulting in more uniform reservoir characteristics. This uniformity has favored the accumulation of hydrocarbons within the point bars.Biogenicchurning of bedded sediment generated a poorer sorting index thereby reducing the reservoir quality at 9866-9840ft, 9154-9120ft, and 9090- 060ft depth intervals, which has been interpreted to represent poor reservoir potentials. However, it is advised that future investigations should focus on the forced regressive shoreface and delta front reservoirs of the studied interval for its internal continuity that may contain maximum production potential.&nbsp;</p> O.O. Efemena C. U Ugwueze Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 77 84 10.4314/sa.v23i2.8 Geophysical survey and radiometric assessment of aquifer strata and vulnerable groundwater quality of Ukwuani Ommunities in Delta State <p>The study assessed the aquifer strata and groundwater quality of Obeti, Umuaja, and Ebedei communities of Ukwuani, Delta State, Nigeria using electrical resistivity technique and sodium iodide [Na(TI)] detector. The electrical resistivity technique revealed that lithology has five to six geoelectric strata, which ranged from topsoil to clay formations with thickness of 0.6 to 6.0 m sits and aquifer resistivity range of 182.1– 6032.0 Ωm with depth of 29–70 m. These ranges indicate significant changes in the aquifer level and sufficient reservoirs for groundwater. To assess the activity concentrations of <sup>238</sup>U, <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>40</sup>K at the aquifer depth of 29–70 m groundwater, a total of fifteen groundwater samples were collect for analysis and the mean results are 9.00±1.24Bql−<sup>1</sup>, 4.82±2.95Bql−<sup>1</sup> and 57.93±4.20Bql<sup>−1</sup> respectively. These results are all above world threshold limits. However, the computed mean radiological health risk values for radium equivalent (Raeq), representative index (Iy), external hazard index (Hin), internal hazard index (Hex), absorbed dose rate (D), annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), outdoor and indoor, and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) outdoor and indoor are 20.35±5.78 Bql−1, 0.15mSvy−1, 0.056mSvy−1, 0.08mSvy<sup>−1</sup>, 9.55μGyh<sup>−1</sup>, 11.71mSvy<sup>−1</sup>, 46.84mSvy<sup>−1</sup>and 0.04×10<sup>−3</sup>, 0.16×10<sup>−3</sup> and 0.20×10<sup>−3</sup> for the addition of (ELCR) outdoor and indoor respectively. The computed mean radiological values are below world threshold limits. Hence, the studied communities’ drinking groundwater is safe radiologically. It is advised that government, oil and gas operators and individuals should drill above 30 m depth for quality groundwater and should be treated before usage. These values will serve as baseline data. </p> E.O. Esi O. Akpoyibo Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 85 100 10.4314/sa.v23i2.9 Comparative morpho-anatomy of two sedges (<i>Cyperus cyperoides</i>(L.) Kuntze and <i>Cyperus rotundus</i. L.) <p>The research investigated the comparative morpho-anatomy of two sedges (<em>Cyperus cyperoides</em> (L.) Kuntze and <em>Cyperus rotundus</em> L.), members of the family Cyperaceae. They are perennial herbs and the former commonly known as commonflat sedge and the latter nut sedge or purple nutsedge. The epidermal peels were obtained by standard methods. The samples were fixed in formaldehyde, glacial acetic acid, 70% alcohol in the ratio of 1:1:18, dehydrated in alcohol solutions of 50%, 70%, 90%, absolute and sectioned, stained in 2% aqueous solution of <em>Safranin O</em>, counter stained in Alcian blue, mounted in glycerine.The result on epidermal studies showcased both kidney and dumbbell-shaped guard cells, graminaceous stomata which is amphistomatic for both species. The anatomical studies revealed scattered vascular bundies in ground tissues of stems, bulliform cells at adaxial foliar organs. The pith sections have large pith and a single row of barrel shaped endodermis prominently pronounced. The research findings here would assist in improving upon already existing knowledge about <em>C. cyperoides</em> and <em>C rotundus</em>.&nbsp;</p> C. Wahua M. Abass Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 101 108 10.4314/sa.v23i2.10 Proximate and microbial quality of processed grubs of African palm weevil (<i>Rhynchophorus phoenicis</i> F., Coleoptera: Curculionidae) sold at Toru-Orua, Bayelsa State, Southern Nigeria <p>The African palm weevil, <em>Rhynchophorus phoenicis</em> F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) constitutes a significant component in diets of the Niger Delta of Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the proximate composition and microbiological quality of processed grubs (steamed, dried, fried and fresh which served as control) purchased from food vendors in Toru-Orua community. Proximate composition determinations followed official methods recommended by the Association of Official and Analytical Chemicals (AOAC), while microbial load was determined by total plate count. Steamed grubs had the highest moisture content of 15% while fresh had the least moisture content of 9.3%. Steamed grubs had the highest ash content of 11.47% while fresh had the least ash content of 4.73%. Fresh grubs had the highest crude protein of 41.75% while fresh had the least crude protein of 30.13%. Steamed grubs had the highest crude fibre content of 18.07% while fresh had the least crude fibre of 13.7%. Steamed and fried grubs had the highest crude fat content of 10.93% while fresh had the least crude fat content of 2.8%. Steamed grubs had the highest moisture content of 28.35% while dried grubs had the least moisture content of 20.66%. The total heterotrophic bacteria count ranged from 8.5 x 10<sup>2</sup> CFU/g – 3.7 x 10<sup>6</sup> CFU/g. Fungal count ranged from 2.2 x 10<sup>2</sup> - 3.4 x 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/g. The microbial investigations showed <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> were the common microorganisms on the grubs. Frequent microbiological quality checks on such ready-to-eat foods, along with public enlightenment campaigns for food vendors is recommended, to guarantee food safety for consumers during processing/handling, storage and consumption.</p> R.P. Uzakah O.M. Immanuel Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 109 116 10.4314/sa.v23i2.11 Involvement of rural women in gathering of forest products as a means of livelihood in South-Western Nigeria <p>This study evaluated the involvement of rural women in the collection of forest products. Three hundred rural women involved in gathering of forest products were selected by a three stage sampling technique while primary data were collected with the use of interview schedules as well as Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Analysis of data was done using frequency counts, percentages, mean, standard deviation, correlation and Chi-square. The study revealed that majority (61%) of the women were in their economically active ages, married (76.7%), with mean age and household sizes of 39years, 6 persons respectively. Majority (87%), of the women gather vegetables, fruits (77%), snails (76%), and alligator pepper (71%) and herbs (62%) among others. Women gatherers had positive perceptions that gathering of forest produces is a source of livelihood (x̄= 4.42), gathering of forest is profitable, (x̄= 4.36); and gathering business has improved their standard of living (x̄= 4.06) among others. The benefits derived from gathering activities included: provision of foods (fruits, vegetables, and soup condiments) which ranked first and provision of employment and improvement in rural living standards from sustained income among others. Respondents’ age (r=0.201;≤0.05), experience (r=0.694;≤0.01) and household size (r=0.694;≤0.01) had significant relationship with involvement in the gathering enterprise. It is concluded that rural women involvement in gathering of forest products is high enough but may not ensure sustainable livelihood. The study recommends that stakeholders should prioritize programmes that would promote off-farm income- generating diversification activities through technical and financial support.&nbsp;</p> A.O. Ajala S.I. Ogunjimi O.O. Alabi O.W. Okonta A.T. Adebimpe D.B. Adesegun Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 117 126 10.4314/sa.v23i2.12 Anti-dyslipidemic and cardio-protective effects of dietary <i>Vernonia amygdalina</i> leaves in monosodium glutamate intoxicated high fat diet fed Wistar rats <p>The study evaluated the proximate analysis, anti- dyslipidemic and cardioprotective effects of dietary incorporated <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> (VA) leaves in Monosodium glutamate (MSG) intoxicated High fat diet (HFD) fed Wistar rats. The proximate analysis of the leaves revealed the highest ash and carbohydrate content in the control (basal) diet, highest protein, crude fibre and moisture content in the 10% VA incorporated HFD and the highest crude fat in the HFD only group. Dietary incorporation of VA in HFD reversed the trend of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia observed in experimental animals after chronic MSG, HFD and MSG + HFD administration. At the end of week 8, HFD only group produced a higher level of total cholesterol and triglyceride when compared to the basal control diet group and the MSG only group while the 10% VA HFD group produced the greatest reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride from week 9 – week 12. Possible mechanisms include the presence of crude fibers which binds to bile acids reducing the absorption of cholesterol. Histopathology studies of the myocardial tissues at the end of the study revealed in the MSG + HFD group signs of a marked diffused edema of the myocardium which was absent in the MSG only and HFD only groups while 5% and 10% VA incorporated HFD and the standard drug Orlistat 10 mg/kg failed to reverse the observed toxicity. Conclusion: Dietary VA reversed lipid derangement observed but failed to reverse myocardial histopathologies after chronic MSG + HFD administration and could be used as an adjunct for the treatment of obesity. </p> E.E. Ubah I.I Ijeh K. C. Oguamanam, C. A. Obike A.C, Egbuonu Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 127 146 10.4314/sa.v23i2.13 Provenance and paleoenvironmental studies of Bima and Dukul Formations in the Yola Basin, Northern Benue Trough, Nigeria. <p>Sedimentological studies of some areas located within latitudes 11<sup>0</sup>35’E &amp; 12<sup>0</sup>00’E, and longitudes 9<sup>0</sup>14’N &amp; 9<sup>0</sup>25’N were undertaken to delineate the surface lithologies of the Yola sub-basin, in the Northern Benue Trough. Field observations of the surficial deposits at Mayolope, Taana, Kpasam and Bille revealed that they are Bima Formation while the ones in Abare are Dukul Formation. Paleoenvironmental studies based on the characteristics of lithofacies of these exposed sections and laboratory assessments of some selected samples showed that the Bima Formation was deposited in a continental setting while the Dukul Formation was deposited in a low-energy marine setting. Petrographic studies of framework components showed that the samples of the Bima Formation were predominated by quartz minerals, leading to their identifications as sandstones and classifications as quartzarenites while the samples of the Dukul Formation were limestones and were classified as bioclastic packstones. Heavy mineral compositions of the sandstones revealed their provenance; Zircon and Tourmaline with a combined amount of 60.1% suggested igneous and low-grade metamorphic rocks while rutile and staurolite with a total amount of 27.7% indicated contributions from high-grade metamorphic rocks.&nbsp;</p> G.D. Ochu H.E. Ibrahim D.A. Adesina F. Abubakar O.T. Ijaleye J.A. Usman A.O. Danga S.O. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 147 160 10.4314/sa.v23i2.14 Synergistic effect of combined multiple plants extract on some blood cell indices of diabetic rats <p>This study evaluated the impact of combined therapy of multiple plants extract of<em> Cnestis ferruginea, Xylopia aethiopica, Palisota hirsuta</em>, <em>Scleria</em> sp.,<em> Napoleona imperialis, Dialium guineense</em>, <em>Combretum racemosun</em>, Heterotis rotundifolia leaves, stem of Sphenocentrum jollynum stem, and root of Uvaria chamae on blood cell indices of diabetics. Female Wistar rats of 40 – 50 g and fifty-four (54) in number were used for this study. They were assembled into 6 groups of 9 rats each. Group I served as the normal control (NC) while the remaining five groups were induced with diabetes type 2 using high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and asingle dose intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at 35 mg/kg body weight. Group II was the diabetic control (DC) while the other groups (III, IV, V &amp; VI) were orally administered 7.2 mg/kg metformin and the cocktail extract at three different concentrations of 500 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg respectively. Diabetes was established after HFD and STZ administration. Blood cell indices such as platelets, red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and differentials were evaluated after twelve weeks of treatment using a hematology auto- analyzer. Results obtained showed that the diabetic control group recorded lower platelets, RBC, WBC, neutrophil and eosinophil as well as higher lymphocyte and monocyte when compared to the groups administered the cocktail extract and other experimental groups. This study revealed that the combined therapy of the multiple plants extract has positive effect on blood cell indices and can be adopted as a blood cell boosting agent. </p> C.U. Nnadiukwu T.A. Nnadiukwu G. Ajuru T.G. Ogono Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 161 174 10.4314/sa.v23i2.15 Detection of syphilis among patients attending a General Hospital in Ogbakiri, River State, Nigeria <p>The syphilis-causing agent, Treponema pallidum, has long posed a threat to public health. In sub- Saharan Africa, it is a significant public health issue and is common in developing nations. This study looked into the syphilis prevalence among patients at Rivers State's Ogbakiri General Hospital. Eighty-nine samples were used in total for this investigation after haemolysing; those with fibrin and heavy particles were discarded. For these samples, stratified socio-demographic data were used. In the population, 31 (34.8%) patients were males and 58 (65.2%) were females. Ages ranged from 18 to 75, individuals between the ages of 18 and 30 made up 56.2% of the population; patients between the ages of 31 and 40 made up 10.1% patients between the ages of 41 and 60 made up 21.4% and patients aged 61 and beyond made up 12.4%. Also, 38 (42.7%) and 51 (57.3%) of the population, respectively, were singles and married, 13 (14.6%) of the study population had primary education, 45 (50.6%) had secondary education, and 23 (25.8%) had postsecondary education, according to the results of the educational status analysis. Based on occupational status, there were 8 (8.9%) nurses. According to the study, 2.2% of those who tested were positive for syphilis. Syphilis was found to be more common in people aged 61 to 75 (9.1%), males (3.2%), singles (5.3%) and higher educational status (4.3%). According to this report, Ogbakiri, Nigeria's Rivers State has a relatively low syphilis prevalence compared to other areas in the country.&nbsp;</p> T.I. Cookey D.S. Isheke M. Elenwo C.M. Enemchukwu H.C. Innocent-Adiele C.C. Adim E.N. Onu A.M. Awanye G. A. Nwankwo M.U. Igwe I.O. Okonko Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 175 182 10.4314/sa.v23i2.16 Geological and geochemical analyses of pegmatites in Egbe, Isanlu (sheet 225), Southwestern Nigeria <p>The hitherto pegmatite of the Egbe area has been known to bear valuable economic minerals. They are associated with other rock types including banded gneiss, schist, amphibolite, and granites. These pegmatites and the host rocks were studied in detail to elucidate their petrochemical and geochemical features and also to assess the mineralization of Tantalum- iobium and other minerals. Geological field mapping was done, thin section-petrographic analysis of ten representative rock samples was performed and nineteen whole-rock samples were analyzed for major and trace elements including REES aided by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Boron- Fusion-Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), and Ion-Selective Electrode (ISE) for Fluorine at Acme Laboratory, Vancouver, Canada. The general structural trend of the area under study is WNW-ESE and foliations of N-S strike were observed in the banded gneiss and schist which also exhibit asymmetric and isoclinals folding respectively. The tantalite-columbite mineralization is associated with the NE-SW trending pegmatite dykes. The mineralized pegmatites are genetically related to the peraluminous S-type granite. The minerals (i.e., Albite, lepidolite and muscovite) extracted from the pegmatites are well enriched in Li, Rb, Cs, Nb and Ta compared to the host rocks. The rare-metal pegmatites exhibit pronounced negative Ce and Eu anomalies and also show weak negative Yb anomalies while the barren pegmatites have positive Ce and weak negative Eu anomalies and exhibit weak positive Yb anomalies. The pegmatites are moderately evolved compared with other highly mineralized pegmatites. The pegmatites from Igbaruku and one from the Okere area are of the rare-metal pegmatite and they are moderately fractionated while the barren pegmatite from Egbe and one from Okere are unfractionated. The economic mineral within the Egbe area is tantalite, with every possibility that the tantalite-columbite enrichment is ferrotantalite-columbite and manganotantalite columbite.</p> U.J. Adoze F. Abubakar G.D. Ochu O.A. Danga M.L. Adamu Y. Baba Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 183 202 10.4314/sa.v23i2.17 The effect of preservatives and storage temperature on the organoleptic and microbial load of homemade freshly prepared healthy natural juices <p>Julie mango (<em>Mangifera indica</em> L.) and pawpaw (<em>Carica papaya</em> L.) fruit juice was treated with natural (ginger, cinnamon) and chemical (sodium benzoate, ascorbic acid) preservatives. The effect of these preservatives on Julie mango and pawpaw fruit juices were evaluated during the period of 8 days storage in the refrigerator (4 °C) and room temperature (28 °C). The total bacterial count in Julie mango fruit juice treated with sodium benzoate and stored at refrigerator (4 °C) and room temperature (28 °C) ranged from 5.0 × 10<sup>4</sup> to 8.0 × 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/ml and 5.0 × 10<sup>4</sup> to 7.0 × 10<sup>3</sup>CFU/ml respectively. Total bacterial count in Julie mango fruit juice treated with ginger and cinnamon and stored at refrigerator (4 °C) and room temperature (28 °C) ranged from 1.9 × 10<sup>4</sup> to 5.2 × 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/ml and 1.9 × 10<sup>4</sup> to 5.0 × 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/ml. Total bacterial count in pawpaw fruit juice treated with ascorbic acid ranged from 5.2 × 10<sup>4</sup> to 7.0 × 10<sup>3</sup>CFU/ml and 5.3 × 10<sup>4</sup> to 6.0 × 10<sup>3</sup>CFU/ml for juice during storage at (4 °C) and room temperature (28 °C).While the total bacterial count in pawpaw fruit juice treated with ginger and cinnamon and stored at refrigerator (4 °C) and room temperature (28 °C) ranged from 1.3 × 10<sup>4</sup> to 5.2 × 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/ml and 1.9 × 10<sup>4</sup> to 5.1× 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/ml, respectively. Treatment of Julie mango and pawpaw fruit juices with sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid reduced the bacterial and fungal counts of the juices during the 8 day period of storage. The fungal count in Julie mango and pawpaw fruit juice treated with sodium benzoate and ascorbic then stored at refrigerator (4 °C) and room temperature (28 °C) ranged from 2.9 × 10<sup>4</sup> to 4.0 × 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/ml, 3.0 × 10<sup>4</sup> to 7.0× 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/ml, 2.0 × 10<sup>4</sup> to 6.0 × 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/ml and 2.2 × 10<sup>4</sup> to 3.0× 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/ml respectively. Sensory analysis results show that Julie mango and pawpaw fruit juices without any preservative added were most accepted. Refrigerator storage temperature (4 °C) was good and is the most recommended temperature for fruit producers.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> O.D. Fakile A.A. Oladiti O.I. Solana J.E. Okolosi Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 203 220 10.4314/sa.v23i2.18 Integrated geophysical and geochemical characterization of hydrocarbon contaminated site in Erhoike-Kokori, Southern Nigeria <p>The effectiveness of geophysical and geochemical methods in delineating hydrocarbon contamination in a spill site is carried out around theErhoike flow station in Kokori, Ethiope East LGA, Delta State. Wenner array was used for the transverse in acquiring the data which spanned a transverse of 200m and 3D model resistivity images were obtained from the inversion and presented in horizontal depth slices. Well water samples were also taken for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) content while soil samples from the location were also taken for Porosity and coefficient of permeability. The result of the 3D horizontal depth slices in the location reveals that Erhoike is impacted with hydrocarbon plume to a depth of 31.7m. The concentration of TPHCs from the water analysis shows that the wells around the suspected zones are affected by hydrocarbon. The laboratory tests for porosity (Փ ) and coefficient of permeability (k) for&nbsp; the soil samples are indicative of sand/silty sand which thus allows the flow of PHCs plume to the soil and groundwater in the study area. The results of the study have shown that the soil is permeable and porous which would allow the passage of the leaked and spilled PHCs through the soil to groundwater where the PHCs could mix, float and sink into groundwater. The 3D analysis revealed the presence of PHCs up to a depth of 33.7m but prominent at a depth of 10m which indicates the presence of PHCs in the wells. The hydrochemical analysis also proved the same results as that of the 3D which authenticated the reliability of the method used in the study.&nbsp;</p> O. S. Marere O.J. Airen Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 221 228 10.4314/sa.v23i2.19 Fungal population and physicochemical properties of bioethanol produced from cassava (<i>Manihot esculenta</i>) <p>The quest for affordable and environmentally friendly fuel has led to the production of bioethanol from agricultural products. This study was undertaken to produce alcohol from cassava by the fermentative action of <em>Aspergillus niger</em> and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>. The fermentation process comprised of two (2) set ups- one was fermented by <em>Aspergillus niger</em> and the other was fermented by <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>. The fermentation process lasted for 12 days and it was distilled on the 14th day. The process was monitored and controlled by carrying out physicochemical (pH, temperature, specific gravity, alcohol content) and microbiological analyses using standard methods. There was a decrease in the pH for both set ups during the course of the fermentation. The temperature was between 25.0<sup>o</sup>C to 30.5<sup>o</sup>C for both setups. The specific gravity decreased during the course of the fermentation from 1.03 to 0.01 which led to an increase in the alcohol content from 0 to 55% for the setup that involved Aspergillus niger and 1.02 to 0.03 which led to an increase in the alcohol content from 0 to 50% for the setup that involved <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>. There was an increase in the total fungal count from 4.4 ×10<sup>2</sup> to 5.9×10<sup>2</sup> CFU/ml from day1 to 7 and a decrease from 5.9 ×10<sup>2 </sup>to 0 CFU/ml from days 7 to after distillation for the setup that involved <em>Aspergillus niger</em>. There was also an increase in the total yeast count from 1.6 ×10<sup>2</sup> to 2.9 ×10<sup>2</sup> from days 1 to 7 and a decrease from 2.9 ×10<sup>2</sup> to 0 from days 7 to after distillation for <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>. This study shows that alcohol can be successfully produced from cassava using <em>Aspergillus niger</em> and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> C. N. Opara A. Alabere Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 229 236 10.4314/sa.v23i2.20 Eclipse detection on variable star Ao Serpentis using Las Cumbres observatory global telescope (LCOGT) <p>To observe and document the distinctive eclipse phenomenon on the source, we conducted a photometric observation of the variable star AO Ser using the 0.4m SBIG optical telescope from the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network remotely from Nigeria. On December 22, 2022, the LCOGT was used to observe the AO Ser data, and the telescope time was 120 minutes. Using SAO Image Viewer (DS9), VisieR, and IRIS software, we performed a photometric analysis on the eclipsing stellar data, allowing us to plot the light curve and infer eclipses. According to the outcome of our photometric analysis, AO Ser is an eclipsing binary variable star. The stellar analysis presented shows theaverage values of stellar eclipse parametersfrom the analysis of the Vfilterof AO Ser, asA1 = 1.37km, A2 = 0.329km, D1 = 188×103hrs (52.94secs), D2 = 79.4×10<sup>3</sup>hrs (22.7secs) and d1 = 26.4×10<sup>3</sup>hrs (7.65secs), d2 = 0hrs (0secs) respectively. For the B filter, the averagesof A1 = 0.65km, A2 = 0.145km, D1 = 185×10<sup>3</sup>hrs (52.11secs), D2 = 76.6×10<sup>3</sup>hrs (21.26.0secs), d1 = 26.0 ×10<sup>3</sup>hrs (7.044secs) and d2 = 0hrs (0secs).The primary candidate of AO Ser is smaller than its secondary companion, as shown by the value of d2 = 0secs being the same for both V and B Filters observations. Two times during the orbit, when the primary passed in front of the secondary and when the secondary passed in front of the primary, the observed brightness decreased. The primary eclipse was designated as having a deeper peak than the secondary eclipse, which had a shallower peak. The percentage of the occulted stellar area and the stars' effective temperatures were used to calculate the size of the stellar brightness drop.&nbsp;</p> S. Esaenwi O.J. Vwavware Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 237 242 10.4314/sa.v23i2.21 Comparative analysis of three methods for screening for colistin resistant <i>Escherichia coli</i> <p>The usage of colistin regarded as a drug of last resort has increased tremendously in recent years. This increase has been followed by an increase in the development of colistin resistant bacteria. Due the large size of colistin and its ability to adhere to plastic, the broth microdilution method using a special medium is the recommended testing method. Resource limited settings struggle with this method and employ alternate methods. This study therefore set out to determine colistin resistance in a group of <em>Escherichia coli</em> using three different methods comprised of colistin agar spot test (COL-AS), colistin drop test (COL-DT) and a disc diffusion method. A total of 51 <em>Escherichia coli</em> isolated from wound samples were screened for colistin resistance using the COLAS, COL-DT and colistin disc diffusion methods. Results showed a combined resistance rate of 96.1% among test isolates. Actual resistance rates varied between testing methods giving values of ranging from 37.3%, 66.0% and 88.2% for COL- DT, colistin disc diffusion methods and COL-A respectively. An assessment of test performance showed categorical agreement values and very major error values of 57.1%/36.7% for COL-DT and 63.3%/8.2% for COL-A. Results of this study show a high-level occurrence of colistin resistance among clinical <em>Escherichia coli</em> isolates. Furthermore, it demonstrates the superiority of the colistin agar test to the colistin drop test. It also points at a need to use higher concentrations of colistin in the screening tests.&nbsp;</p> M.O. Oseri K. Otokunefor O.N. Akomah-Abadaike Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 243 250 10.4314/sa.v23i2.22 Evaluation of physicochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations in shrimp (<i>Penaeus monodon</i>), sediment and surrounding water of the Mangrove Swamps, Rivers State, Nigeria <p>The study focused on the evaluation of the physiochemical and heavy metal concentration in shrimp (P. monodon), sediments and surface water of Ikpukulu, Kalio, and Ogoloma swamps in Okrika Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. The following parameters were examined: temperature, potential hydrogen, electrical conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total dissolved oxygen, temperature, and the content of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, and Cr) in surface water, sediments, and shrimp. The pH values (p &gt; 0.05) did not significantly differ amongst the stations. The three sampling station readings of pH were below WHO and FEPA (standards). The temperature data from the three stations did not show any significant differences (p &gt; 0.05), but when compared to the standards, all of the readings were much lower. Result from Ogoloma showed that it had lowest electrical conductivity ratings of the three stations, although overall, the values were higher than the norms. At Kalio, the highest Total Dissolved Solids value (9348.6 ± 67 mg/L) was recorded. When compared to the standards, the salinity values of the three stations were noticeably higher. For Biological oxygen demand, there was no significant (p&gt;0.05) difference between the three stations, but comparing the values to the standards they were all significantly (p&gt;0.05) lower. Heavy metal analysis showed that in the sediment, Copper concentration at Ogoloma was significantly (p&gt;0.05) higher among the three metals in the three stations. Copper and chromium concentrations in the three stations were much higher than the standard. Among the three metals found in the water at the three stations, copper had the highest quantities; the content of copper in Ogoloma was noticeably greater than the standard. Of the three<br>locations, Ogoloma exhibited a noticeably greater concentration of copper for Shrimp. The<br>findings highlight the necessity for preventative action by pointing to an increase in heavy metal<br>concentrations in the Mangrove swamp area.</p> O. Efekemo O. C. Osuvwe I. C. Davies Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 251 262 10.4314/sa.v23i2.23 Ethambutol-induced ovarian, uterine and placental oxidative stress: Implication for reproductive outcome in female Wistar rats <p>Tuberculosis is a major global challenge, potentially infecting more individuals than other pathogens. Ethambutol, a first line drug used in tuberculosis treatment, lacks adequate research regarding its impact on female reproductive health. This study investigates ethambutol-induced oxidative stress to the ovary, uterus and placenta with implications to reproductive outcome in female Wistar rats. Twenty adult female Wistar rats weighing between 170g-190g were divided into two groups (A and B) of ten rats each. Group A served as control and received only food and water ad libitum. Group B was administered with 15 mg/kg body weight of ethambutol, orally, daily for 28 days. After 28 days, five animals from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the ovaries and uterus were harvested for oxidative stress analysis. The remaining animals from each group were mated, and ethambutol administration continued until gestational day 19 when they were sacrificed, and the placentae were harvested for oxidative stress analysis. The fetuses were used to study pregnancy outcomes. From the result, ovarian glutathione peroxidase was significantly elevated, uterine superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were significantly decreased while malondialdehyde activity was significantly elevated, placental catalase activity was significantly decreased while glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde activities was significantly elevated following ethambutol administration. On pregnancy outcomes, ethambutol significantly decreased crown rump length, litter weight, placental weight and fetal/placental weight ratio. In conclusion, evidence from this study suggests that ethambutol is toxic to the ovary, uterus and placenta via mechanisms that involve oxidative stress resulting in poor pregnancy outcomes.&nbsp;</p> V.C. Ezeuko S.P. Maduka Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 263 268 10.4314/sa.v23i2.24 Evaluation of the protective activity of aqueous leaf extract of <i>Cissus populnea</i> against lead-induced testicular toxicity in Wistar rats. <p><em>Cissus populnea</em>, a plant native to West Tropical Africa, has garnered attention, particularly for its use in traditional medicine to improve genital erection in males. Accordingly, this study investigated the possible protective effects of aqueous leaf extract of <em>Cissus populnea</em> (ACPE) against lead acetate-induced testicular toxicity in Wistar rats. Twenty adult Wistar rats were divided into four groups and administered various treatments, including 50mg/kg body weight (BW) of lead acetate, 1000 mg/kg BW of ACPE, or a combination of both, for 28 days via an orogastric tube. Thereafter, animals were sacrificed and various parameters, including body weight changes, sperm quality, and histology of testes were evaluated. Lead acetate exposure led to significant (P&lt;0.05) weight loss, reduction in sperm count and motility as well as histological alterations of the testes. However, ACPE treatment significantly (P&lt;0.05) mitigated the adverse effects induced by lead in the testes of exposed rats. Taken together, these findings underscore the potential of <em>Cissus populnea</em> as a possible protective agent against lead-induced testicular toxicity, thus offering important insights for future treatment options derived from natural sources.&nbsp;</p> O.U. Idemudia O.I. Momodu Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 269 276 10.4314/sa.v23i2.25 Evaluation of antioxidant potential of crude extract of metabolites from endophytic fungi isolated from <i>Annona senegalensis</i> Pers <p>Degenerative diseases resulting from free radicals can be prevented through the use of natural antioxidants. This study aimed to assess the free radical scavenging potential of the underexplored endophytic fungal metabolites from <em>Annona senegalensis</em> Pers (wild custard apple). Freshly collected root, midrib, and leaf tissues were planted on malt extract agar following surface sterilization with 70% ethanol for 3 minutes, washed twice with distilled water, immersed in a sodium hypochlorite solution (4%) for 5 minutes, and subsequently rinsed with sterile water. Seven endophytic fungi were isolated, and the antioxidant activity of their metabolites was evaluated using the 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging method, with ascorbic acid serving as a reference antioxidant. The crude extract from the seven endophytic fungal isolates demonstrated concentration- dependent antioxidant activities. LB2 exhibited a strong antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 38.15 μg/ml. Extracts from RT1 and LB1 showed antioxidant activities, with the highest inhibition of 60% and 65%, respectively, observed at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml. This was compared favorably to ascorbic acid, which exhibited 94% inhibition. This indicates that the crude extract from endophytic fungi isolated from <em>A. senegalensis</em> possesses free radical scavenging properties. Further purification and elucidation of the crude extract will reveal the bioactive compounds responsible for the antioxidant activities.&nbsp;</p> A. I. Onah D. P. Berebon E. S. Onah E. C. Ibezim A.A., Attama D. Nwobodo M.C. Ugwu Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 277 286 10.4314/sa.v23i2.26 Antidyslipidemic effect of ethanol extract of <i>Irvingia wombolu</i> seeds in high fat diet induced dyslipidemic rat <p>The antidyslipidemic activity of <em>Irvingia wombolu</em> ethanol seeds extract was studied in high fat diet induced dyslipidemic rats.Forty five (45) Wstar rats were grouped into 5 groups of 9 rats each. The animals were allowed 7 days acclimatization period. Group 1 was the control group and it received normal rat chow and water throughout the study. Groups 2 to 5 were given high fat diet for 14 days after which they were given normal rat chow till the end of the study. At the end of the 14 days, group 2 was not treated while group 3-5 were treated with 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg b.w ethanol extract of <em>Irvingia wombolu</em> seeds respectively for 28 days. The lipid profile of animals was evaluated three times: first after 14 days induction period (phase 1) i.e day 0 of treatment, second was taken 14 days after treatment (phase 2), third was taken 28 days after treatment (phase 3). The study lasted for 49 days and dimethyl sulphoxide was used as a vehicle for the extract. In phase 1, all the groups fed with high fat diet showed an increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) triglyceride, total cholesterol and a decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. In phase 2 there was a decrease in LDL, triglyceride and total cholesterol level in addition to increase in HDL for animals in all the treatment groups. It was observed that in phase 3 only 250mg/kg group showed a progressive decrease in LDL, triglyceride, total cholesterol and an increase in HDL levels while 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w showed an increase in LDL, triglyceride and total cholesterol level and a decrease in HDL. The result of the present study demonstrated the antidyslipidemic effect of ethanol extract of <em>Irvingia wombolu</em> seeds at lower dose. </p> L. C. Chuku J. O. Uba O. E. Ezim Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 287 298 10.4314/sa.v23i2.27 Remediation of crude oil polluted soil using a combination of macerated cobs of <i>Zea mays</i> and <i>Pleurotus ostreatus</i> <p>This study evaluated the bio-absorptive potentials of <em>Pleurotus ostreatus</em> and macerated cobs of <em>Zea mays</em> in the remediation of crude oil polluted soil. Crude oil contaminated soil was collected from B-Dere community located in Gokana L.G.A, Rivers State and analyzed for physicochemical, Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metal. The crude oil polluted soil sample was divided into five parts of 2,000 g each with the following quantity of macerated cobs of <em>Zea mays, P. ostreatus</em> and triton x- 00 added and labeled thus: a) Polluted soil without treatment – cell A (control sample), b) 20ml of triton x-100 - cell B, c) 150 g of macerated cob of<em> Zea mays</em> – cell C, d) 150 g of P. ostreatus – cell D and e) 100 g of macerated cobs of <em>Zea mays</em> and<em> P. ostreatus</em>(i.e. 50 g each) – cell E.Soil samples were collected six (6) weeks after treatment with macerated cobs of <em>Zea mays</em> and <em>P. ostreatus</em> and incubated in sterile plastic bags and transferred to the laboratory for physicochemical, TPH, PAHs and heavy metal analyses. There were significant changes in the mean physico-chemical parameters before remediation (i.e., week 0) and remediation. After 6 weeks of remediation, TPH and PAHs concentration across all the cells were significantly (p&lt; 0.05) reduced. The remediation process led to a notable reduction in TPH, PAHs and heavy metal concentrations suggesting its effectiveness in removal of these toxicants. Thus, the combination method is more effective and can enhance bioremediation process as well as solve the problem of waste management and utilization.&nbsp;</p> A. M. Okpa C. C. Monago-Ighorodje K. Baabel O. E. Ezim Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 299 312 10.4314/sa.v23i2.28 An enhanced Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model for the detection of lung cancer using X-Ray image <p>Lung Cancer is a life-threatening disease which can be diagnosed by Medical Imaging such as X-Ray, MRI, CT Scan etc. This research presented an enhanced model using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to detect lung cancer using X-Ray image. Medical image processing relies heavily on the diagnosis of lung cancer images. It aids doctors in determining the correct diagnosis and management. For many patients, lung cancer ranks among the mostdeadly diseases. Many lives can be saved if cancerous growth is diagnosed early. The purported model was predominantly built on Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture and the model was built with enhanced features such as Image Enhancement, Segmenting ROI (Region of Interest), Features Extraction and Nodule Classification. In preprocessing stage, the AMF (Adaptive Median Filter) filtering method was applied to eliminate noise in X-Ray image of the dataset, and quality of X-Ray image was improved with the support of CLAHE (Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization). Secondly, K-means Clustering algorithm was used to extract the relevant feature or Region of Interest (ROI) of the lung field automatically i.e. the model was effectively trained to identify and crop the exact location of the lung field automatically. The model was able to classify the cancer nodule as either Cancerous or Non-Cancerous. The framework worked on C# platform, and used EMGU for detection of the tumour in the lung xray image. Experimental result showed that the developed system was able to detect Lung Cancer with 90.77% accuracy, 86.65% precision and 95.31% Recall/Sensitivity.&nbsp;</p> B. E. Oyovwe A. E. Edje E. Omede C. Ogeh Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 313 322 10.4314/sa.v23i2.29 Natural pigment: Chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin in the leaves of four ornamental plants <p>The quantities of some essential plant pigments: chlorophyll, anthocyanin and carotenoid in the leaves of four ornamental plants were assessed. These ornamental plants were: <em>Acalypha wilkesiana, Acalypha hoffmannii, Ficus panda</em> and <em>Gardenia jasminoides-variegata</em>. Standard procedures were followed in the collection, identification and assessment of these plants. Among the plants, <em>A. wilkesiana</em> had the highest content of anthocyanins (2783.10 mg/kg), which could be responsible for the red color of its leaves, while <em>A. hoffmannii</em> had the highest quantity of chlorophyll (932.15 mg/kg) and chlorophyll is responsible for the green colour of plants. Ficus panda which has yellow leaves had the highest carotenoid content (389.40 mg/kg) and the carotenoid pigment is responsible for the yellow colour of plants. Gardenia jasminoides- ariegata which has cream to white leaves had the lowest contents of all three pigments when compared across the plants, but among the pigments, the quantity of carotenoid responsible for the yellow color of plants was the highest (116.70 mg/kg) compared to that of chlorophyll (55.16 mg/kg) and anthocyanin (18.50 mg/kg). The study showed variation in the concentration of pigments in the leaves across the plants and these concentrations are probably responsible for the different colours exhibited by these ornamental plants.&nbsp;</p> C. A. Chukunda K. Okonwu Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 323 330 10.4314/sa.v23i2.30 Clinical laboratory techniques for detecting drugs of abuse: Feasibility in developing nations <p>Drugs of abuse are prescription, over-the-counter, or other forms of drugs that are often used for purposes other than those for which they are meant to be used, or in excessive amounts. The abuse of illicit drugs (for example cocaine, heroin, and codeine) poses a serious threat to public health, not to mention a great challenge to the health care system. It is important to review the techniques used in detecting these drugs of abuse to stay ahead of this growing global drug problem. This review aims to give an overview of known clinical laboratory techniques used in detecting some common drugs of abuse that could serve as an integral part of determining the presence of these drugs in bodily fluids and samples. Relevant literature was reviewed in various search engines (Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Bing). Findings showed that some of the current clinical laboratory techniques for detecting and quantifying drugs of abuse include Microcrystalline tests, thin-layer chromatography, colourimetric tests, immunoassays, urine dipstick tests, and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Apart from these known techniques, new and emerging techniques are being validated to serve as additions to these already existing techniques and be used in clinical settings. In conclusion, the burden of drug abuse is on the rise and becoming a public health concern. There should be an ever-increasing interest in developing new analytical methodologies not only to detect but also to quantify drugs of abuse which may be applied in a plethora of areas including clinical settings.Some of the outlined techniques are highly priced and for cost ineffectiveness, they may be difficult to afford and sustain in resource-restraint settings like developing nations. Hence, grants and laboratory infrastructural support may be needed from international donor agencies.&nbsp;</p> O.G. Igharo C.B.N. Akpata G.A. Aikpitanyi-Iduitua T.J. Ime-Idim O.E. Ero Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 331 340 10.4314/sa.v23i2.31 Economic evaluation of mineral deposit: A bottom-up approach <p>Proper economic evaluation of a mineral deposit is critical to effective investment decision-making in a mineral project. However, this often requires detailed mine production scheduling to produce a schedule that reflects the actual cash flow when the project comes on stream. Because of the dexterity required for this task&nbsp; many mine planners and explorationist attempt to use statistical formulas that approximate the mine scheduling and value of the project. The mathematical model developed for production scheduling often produces a constant production rate schedule over an approximate life span of the project. In this paper, we have attempted to apply a bottom-up approach that begins with geometrical modelling and equipment deployment pattern to define the number of equipment required for each sequence of operation based on available workfront in the development of each bench. Then, based on the number of equipment and the production rate at each sequence of operations, a production schedule is developed. This production schedule therefore will reflect annual cash flow since it is based on the sequence of operation. Application of this method on the west pit of Itakpe mine shows a considerable net present value and internal rate of return of the deposit compared with the evaluation made using statistical models. The NPV of the west pit was found to be USD621 million as against USD122.41 million using Nwosu’s formula and USD123.85 million Taylor’s formula. The above value of NPV using the proposed method shows the maximum expected NPV of the mineral project-based technical restrictions. An understanding of this value can guide the mineral property owner in decision-making.&nbsp;</p> F.N. Ononuju J.I. Nwosu V.U. Ukaegbu Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 341 350 10.4314/sa.v23i2.32 Storage implications on the microbiological quality of some locally manufactured pharmaceuticals <p>Pharmaceutical products non-sterile are expected to&nbsp; have a minimal microbial load which must not exceed the limits as stated in pharmacopoeia monographs. This study attempted to evaluate storage implications on the microbiological quality of some non-sterile pharmaceutical products manufactured locally in some states in south east Nigeria. Twenty brands of pharmaceutical products comprising 13 tablets, 5 capsules and 2 suspension procured from patent medicine and local drug markets in Aba and Enugu states were stored at room temperature (25oC) for 6 months. Microbial growth was evaluated at 0 and 6 months using standard microbiological procedures including Total aerobic bacteria plate count, isolation, characterization and identification of microbial contaminants. The results from the study showed that 55% and 30% of the pharmaceutical products had bacteria and fungi contamination at 0 month which increased to 70% and&nbsp; 50% at 6 months storage period respectively. Statistical analysis showed there was a significant increase (p &lt; 0.05) in growth of micro-organisms at 6 months for both bacteria and the fungi/moulds (p &lt; 0.05). The isolated bacteria were <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli</em> while the fungi include <em>Trichosporonasahii, Curvularia bothriochloae, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis</em>. All contaminated samples had microbial counts above the British Pharmacopoeia (BP) acceptabl limit of 103 and 102 CFU/ml for bacteria and fungi respectively. This can be attributed to poor adherence to current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) by the manufacturers. Thus, it is recommended that manufacturers adhere strictly to cGMP and storage conditions stated on these pharmaceutical products followed strictly during distribution and storage to reduce the levels of microbial contamination.&nbsp;</p> I.C. Azuike O. Ogbonna F.S. Ire Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 351 360 10.4314/sa.v23i2.33 Ecotoxicity of trace metal enrichment and the degrees of contaminated sediment and water from Riparian communities in Rivers State, Nigeria <p>This study assessed trace metal enrichment and contamination levels in Tema, Sangama, and Degema communities in Rivers State, Nigeria. Samples were collected monthly from October 2021 to April 2022. Trace metals such as Pb, Cu, Fe, Cd, Zn, and As were analysed using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The contamination factor, degree of contamination and enrichment factor for trace metals were used to evaluate the impact of pollution levels. There was a descending order of heavy metal concentrations in water at the three stations: Fe &gt; Cu &gt; Zn &gt; Cd &gt; Pb. Sediment heavy metal concentrations were descending from Fe &gt; Zn &gt; Cu &gt; Pb &gt; Cd at the same stations. Heavy metal levels were consistently higher at Sangama. The result revealed that compared to Pb and Zn, Cd contamination was moderate to considerable. Fe contamination was relatively low, but Cu contamination was moderate to high. Water and sediment were contaminated to varying degrees. The contamination levels of Pb, Zn, and Cu were low to moderate. Sangama, Tema, and Degema all had varying degrees of contamination, with some areas having higher contamination levels. This study recommends the need for effective environmental management practices in these coastal marine wetlands.&nbsp;</p> I. C. Davies Y. Sulaiman O. Efekemo Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 361 374 10.4314/sa.v23i2.34 Shelf-life extension of tomatoes (Solanumlycopersicum), okra (<i>Abelmoschus esculentus</i>) and eggplant (<i>Solanum melongena</i>) using edible coating <p>Post-harvest losses of fresh farm produce, especially fruits grown in Nigeria is high. This study was aimed at investigating the shelf-life extension of tomatoes, okra and eggplants stored at room temperature (29±2<sup>o</sup>C), using edible coating involving beeswax, lime and pectin. Five edible films were formulated, namely: Beeswax alone (W), pectin alone (P), beeswax and pectin (WP), beeswax and lime (WL), beeswax, lime and pectin (WLP). Uncoated fruits served as control. The proximate composition of the beeswax and the potential spoilage microorganisms of the selected fruits were determined using standard methods. The results of the proximate composition revealed the following values for carbohydrate (46.25%), lipid (38.50%), moisture (8.85%), protein (5.25%), fibre (1.02%) and ash (0.53%). The WP combination gave the best results, extending the shelf life of the tomatoes, okra and eggplants by more than 23, 21 and 11 days, respectively more than the uncoated fruits. The least effective edible coating was the WLP combination, extending the shelf life of the tomatoes, okra and eggplants by more than 7, 2 and 5 days, respectively compared with the uncoated fruits. The log<sub>10</sub>CFU/g microbial counts for bacterial and fungal isolates revealed the following ranges for tomato (3.50 to 5.89, 3.43 to 5.88), okra (3.47 to 5.86, 3.46 to 5.88) and eggplant (3.50 to 5.89, 3.49 to 5.90), respectively. The predominant bacteria and fungi were <em>Escherichia coli</em> (30.18%) and <em>Aspergillus niger</em> (23.76%), respectively. Overall, the formulations were all effective in reducing spoilage, thereby extending the shelf life of the fruits.&nbsp;</p> C. N. Obiaocha-Nwaogwugwu O. C. Eruteya I. Ahaotu Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 375 388 10.4314/sa.v23i2.35 Curcumin mitigates stress induced depression and hippocampal damage through upregulation of BDNF expression and adult neurogenesis. <p>Chronic stress, recognized as a major precipitant of depression, has been linked to various neural alterations, including cell death, neuronal atrophy, and compromised hippocampal neurogenesis and plasticity. This study aim to scrutinize curcumin's influence on glucocorticoid hormone secretion and its subsequent effects on the structural integrity and neurogenesis of the hippocampal neurons. A total of 30 adult albino Wistar rats, each weighing between 200-250 g, were utilized for the study. The rats, excluding those in the control group, underwent a 42-day regimen of modified Chronic Unpredictable Stress (CUS) to induce depressive-like states. After inducing CUS, these rats were categorized into six groups, each receiving different oral treatments for two weeks. The treatments included 30 mg/kg body weight of curcumin, 20 mg/kg body weight of fluoxetine, or a combination of both, along with a control group that received distilled water and an olive oil treated group. The rats were tested for behavioural despair using the forced swim test and their blood samples were obtained for serum corticosterone test. Afterwards, the rats were anesthetized, transcardially perfused and the hippocampus dissected and prepared for histopathological study. The study's multi-faceted approach encompassed behavioral, biochemical, and histological evaluations. Behavioral despair, gauged through the forced swimming test, displayed a marked reduction in the curcumin-treated rats compared to controls (p&lt;0.05). Additionally, curcumin significantly lowered serum corticosterone levels, aligning them closely with the control levels. Histomorphological analysis of the hippocampus showed that the curcumin- treated rats exhibited substantially less neurodegeneration, as evidenced by fewer cytoplasmic vacuolations and more intact neuronal structures. Increased cell proliferation and BDNF level were also observed in curcumin treated rats. This study has illuminated a multifaceted approach through which curcumin mitigates hippocampal neurodegeneration, thus showing possible therapeutic potential of curcumin in ameliorating depressive symptoms. </p> E. U. Wogu E. I. Edibamode Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 389 402 10.4314/sa.v23i2.36 Antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of <i>Jatropha tanjorensis</i> and <i>Adansonia digitata</i> against selected clinical bacteria pathogens <p>The powdered plant parts (bark, stem, and leaf) were extracted with methanol, and cold and hot water using the maceration method. A modified agar well diffusion technique was used for the assessment of the antibacterial activities of the aqueous and methanol extracts of <em>J. tanjorensis</em> and <em>A. digitata.</em> The methanol extract of<em> A. digitata</em> bark gave the highest yield of 75 % while the lowest yield was observed with the cold water extract of A. digitata bark of 33 %. The phytochemical screening showed an abundance of alkaloids, terpernoids, saponins, flavonoids, tannin, glycoside, and phenol. The bark, leaf, and stem of <em>J. tanjorensis</em> and <em>A. digitata</em> showed varying degrees of antibacterial activities. against the Gram-negative bacteria (<em>Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus</em> spp, and <em>Klebsiella</em> spp) and Gram-positive bacteria (<em>Staphylococcus aureus,</em> <em>Streptococcus pyogenes</em> and <em>Streptococcus pneumonia</em>). The bark, stem, and leaf extract of <em>J. tanjorenis</em> significantly (p &lt; 0.05) inhibited all the pathogens except <em>P. aeruginosa</em> and <em>S. aureus.</em>The result of the minimum bactericidal concentration MBC for the combined extracts of <em>A. digitata</em> and<em> J. tanjorenis</em> subfractions showed that the extracts have greater antibacterial activities at concentrations not lesser than 100 mg/ml. Thus, <em>J. tanjorensis</em> and <em>A. digitata</em> could be used as potent herbal remedies to mitigate the adverse effects of Gram-negative and positive clinical pathogens. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of&nbsp; <em>Jatropha tanjorensis</em> and <em>Adansonia digitata</em> against selected Clinical bacteria pathogens.&nbsp;</p> I.P. Udoh C.U. Eze D.P. Berebon Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 403 414 10.4314/sa.v23i2.37 Performance evaluation of ten numerical methods for Weibull distribution parameter estimation applied to Nigerian wind speed data <p>Utilizing wind energy necessitates a thorough understanding of wind profiles as well as a precise forecast of wind speed at a study location. In this study, ten Numerical Methods (NEMs), which include the Empirical Method of Lysen (EML), Percentile Method (PCM), Maximum Likelihood Method (MLM), Modified Maximum Likelihood Method (MMLM), Empirical Method of Justus (EMJ), Alternative Moment Method (AMM), Median and Quartiles Method (MQM), Probability Weighted Moments Based on Power Density Method (PWMBPM), Method of Mabchour (MOMAB) and Energy Variance Method (EVM) were applied to estimate the two- parameter (k and c) Weibull (Wbl) distribution in five locations (Jos, Kano, Maiduguri, Abuja, and Akure) in Nigeria. The performance of these NEMs was assessed using five different metrics and the most effective NEM was determined for each studied location. Daily wind speed data spanning 11 years for the studied locations were sourced from the Meteorological Agency in Nigeria and used in this study. The k and c parameters range from 2.91 to 5.46 and 9.95 to 10.26 (Kano); 2.31 to 4.50 and 5.63 to 6.20 (Maiduguri); 3.19 to 7.61 and 12.16 to 12.99 (Jos); 2.18 to 6.77 and 4.99 to 5.50 (Abuja), and 1.84 to 3.18 and 3.83 to 3.90 (Akure). Findings revealed that the best methods for estimating Wbl parameters for the Kano, Maiduguri, Jos, Abuja, and Akure locations were MMLM, MMLM, MQM, MQM, and EMJ, EML, and AMM, respectively, as MOMAB remained the least performing NEM for all the studied locations. The results also showed that the V<sub>ms</sub> , V<sub>mps</sub> , and V<sub> emax</sub> varied from 3.47 m/s to 11.63 m/s, 3.40 m/s to 11.90 m/s, and 4.58 m/s to 12.59 m/s, respectively, with the most recorded for Jos. The P<sub>WPD</sub>&nbsp; augmented from 36.45 W/m<sup>2</sup> (Akure) to 1000.06 W/m<sup>2</sup> Jos), at a hub height of 10 m.Based on these results Jos was the best location for installing wind turbines while Kano was an excellent place for integrating the grid. Additionally, the Maiduguri location was determined to be suitable for a stand-alone application while Abuja and Akure were considered to be unsuitable for wind energy applications.&nbsp;</p> I. K. Okakwu A. S. Alayande O. F. Adizua S. O. Giwa A. A. Okubanjo B. O Orogbade A. O. David P. O. Alao Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 415 432 10.4314/sa.v23i2.38 Assessment of radionuclides in the soil of Bonny Local Government Area Of Rivers State, Nigeria and evaluation of radiological risk <p>Twenty Samples each of soil from Bonny LGA, Rivers State, Nigeria were analyzed using NaI(IT) gamma detector to estimate radiation hazard due to the anthropogenic sources. The activity concentration of <sup>232</sup>Th was found to be in the range 18.78 – 397.13 BqKg<sup>-1</sup>, <sup>40</sup>K in the range 43.72 – 390.62 BqKg<sup>-1</sup> and <sup>226</sup>Ra in the range 10.77 – 57.84 BqKg<sup>-1</sup> all in soil. These results were used to calculate the radiological hazard parameters including the Annual Gonadal Equivalent Dose. The calculated gamma exposure rates ranged between 10.00 – 270.79 nGyh-1 while the average value of the Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) was found to be 0.38 x 10<sup>-3</sup> for soil which is higher than the world average of 0.29 x 10<sup>-3</sup>.&nbsp;</p> A. Bubu G. O. Avwiri C. P. Ononugbo Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 23 2 433 442 10.4314/sa.v23i2.39