Scientia Africana <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning /> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas /> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables /> <w:SnapToGridInCell /> <w:WrapTextWithPunct /> <w:UseAsianBreakRules /> <w:DontGrowAutofit /> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--> <!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]--><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;" lang="EN-GB"><em>Scientia Africana</em> seeks to encourage communication among scientists all over the world through regular publication of their research findings. The journal publishes results of original research in all aspects of biological, chemical, earth, mathematical, physical and applied sciences including basic medical and engineering sciences. It also publishes review articles, book reviews, research notes and other short communications on all aspects of pure and applied sciences and accepts advertisements in related fields.</span> Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt Port Harcourt en-US Scientia Africana 1118-1931 Copyright is owned by the journal Phytochemical composition of tubers of selected accessions of African yam bean, <i>Sphenostylis stenocarpa</i> (Hochst.ex A. Richmond) harms (family fabaceae) <p>This study is on the quantitative determination of phytochemical composition in tubers of 17 accessions of the African Yam Bean (AYB), Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst.ex A. Richmond) Harms. Standard laboratory methods were followed to ascertain the presence and quantity of some phytochemicals in the tubers of the 17 AYB accessions. The result showed that variations existed among the studied accessions for the eleven phytochemical constituents. The ranges were: total alkaloid (22.195-183g\100g), Glycosides (4.338- 14.733g\100), Flavonoids (7.732- 14.037g/100), Phenols (16.448-32.287g/100), Oxalate (2.519-8.938ppm), Tannin (1.22- 4.340ppm), Saponin (1.475-5.232ppm), Hydrogen Cyanide (0.261-0.928ppm), Phytate (1.532- 5.435ppm), Trypsin Inhibitor (1.088-3.858ppm), and Organic Acid (11.537-23.904ppm). A high significant correlation was observed among the first three principal component axes which accounted for 90.4% of the total variation among the accessions. The cluster analysis showed the existence of two significant divergent groups. The accessions in cluster II recorded the least values for oxalate, tannins, saponins, hydrogen cyanide, phytate, trypsin inhibitor, glycoside, flavonoid and phenols while cluster I had higher values for them. The identified phytochemicals with the significant intra-specific variations seem to provide clues which underscores the possibilities of selection and improvement of these tubers for food and medicine for humans.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> T.E. Konyeme B.L. Nyananyo F.B.G. Tanee Copyright (c) 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 20 1 1 16 10.4314/sa.v20i1.1 Biochemical effect of varied mixtures of extracts of <i>Vernonia amygdalina</i> (bitter leaf) and <i>Gnetum africanum </i>(Okazi leaf) on alloxan induced diabetic wistar rats <p><em>Diabetes mellitus</em> is prevalent in many countries of the world, affecting all ages both in developing and developed nations. The use of plants as remedies or preventive therapies has increased over the years. The study investigated the biochemical changes caused by&nbsp; combined leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) and Gnetum africanum (okazi leaf) on alloxan induced diabetic wistar rats.Aqueous extracts of the leaves were prepared using the conventional method.Forty male wistar rats weighing 150-180g were&nbsp; grouped into eight (five rats each). Group 1 was the normal control while diabetes was induced using alloxan (160mg/ kg)in groups 2-8.Group 2 received no treatment while groups 3-7 received varied ratios of the extracts at (BI/OK|10:90%), (BI/OK|30:70%),&nbsp; (BI/OK|50:50%), (BI/OK|70:30%) and (BI/OK|90:10%). Group 8 was the diabetic control treated with the standard diabetic drug (Metformin). The animals were weighed and blood glucose was determined at 7-day intervals. They were sacrificed on the 28th day and blood samples collected for serum protein, serum electrolyte, urea, creatinine, liver enzymes and markers of oxidative stress analyses.&nbsp; The results showed steady increase in the body weights (g) of the rats with (BI/OK|70:30)% treated group showing the highest increase (175.40±1.28). The fasting blood sugar (mg/dl) showed timedependent reduction in all the treated diabeti groups with (BI/OK|90:10)% having the highest (56.20±1.65) reduction. There was a significant increase (p&lt;0.05) in total blood protein concentration (g/dl) in all the treated groups. The results of this study showed time and ratio dependent effect on the parameters measured. Since the two plants are staple vegetables in some countries, their utilization particularly in appropriate combinations should be encouraged.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> M.O. Ifeanacho R.B Oshotse Copyright (c) 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 20 1 17 30 10.4314/sa.v20i1.2 An investment analysis of developing a new oil well in the prevailing economic downturn in the petroleum sector of Nigerian economy <p>From 2017 to year 2020 (except for a gradual rise in 2018), the price per barrel of oil has been on the decline, thereby slowing down investment in the petroleum sector of Nigerian economy. This dwindling oil price creates an impelling need to investigate the viability or otherwise of investing in this sector. The net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) are two major indicators used to assess the viability of investing in projects. In this paper the two indicators have been used to assess the viability of investing in the oil sector of Nigerian economy. Analysis shows that given the cost of drainage per barrel of oil at US$25, a 40% royalty payment, an overall 10% taxation on profit, and price per barrel of oil at US$40, the net present value of a new oil well will be negative while the cost of capital will be higher than return on investment. However the break-even point occurs at US$42 price per barrel, yielding an internal rate of return equal to cost of capital. The conclusion is that the investment climate of the Nigerian oil sector is currently gloomy. Our analysis also shows that the investment climate can be improved by applying a dynamic royalty system whereby the royalty payable to the Federal Government is reduced when the oil price declines, and increased when the oil price rises.</p> J.I. Nwosu A. Aliyu D. Moses Copyright (c) 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 20 1 31 48 10.4314/sa.v20i1.3 Comparative studies on Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS) in some edible oil (shea butter, coconut oil and palm kernel oil) sold in Nigeria <p>Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ever-present lipophilic substances, having varying levels of&nbsp; concentration in edible oils. Shea butter, coconut oil and palm kernel oil are used in Africa as component of traditional ointment. The study evaluated the concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in Shea butter, coconut oil and palm kernel oil using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. The polyaromatic hydrocarbons identified and quantified are: napthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenapthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene for Shea butter samples; napthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene for coconut oil samples while palm kernel oil samples have napthalene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene,fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene,&nbsp; benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and&nbsp; benzo(k)fluoranthene, The concentration of the sum of PAHs of Shea butter ranged from 7.63 - 44.71 ppm, coconut oil samples 7.81 - 19.24 ppm and palm kernel oil samples 25.09 - 71.55 ppm. Shea butter, coconut oil and palm kernel oil samples have concentration of benzo(a)pyrene above the set maximum permissible limit as revealed in the study. It is important that further research on the reduction and/or elimination of PAHs in Shea butter, coconut oil and palm kernel oil be developed. </p> O.N. Akomah-Abadaike O.B. Iwuji Copyright (c) 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 20 1 49 56 10.4314/sa.v20i1.4 Lipid peroxidation and activity of some antioxidative enzymes in the root of maize (<i>Zea mays</i>) cultivated on cadmium contamination soil <p>In this study, we examined the tolerance capacity of Zea mays to cadmium pollution. Soil was treated with varied concentrations of Cadmium; 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg and 30 mg/kg soil and Zea mays planted. Root samples were collected in weeks 3, 4, 5 and 6. Activities of Peroxidase, catalase superoxide dismutase, and lipid peroxidation were investigated. Decrease in peroxidase activity was extremely significant (p &lt;0.05) in weeks 4 and 5 while that of week 6 was not significantly (p &gt; 0.05) different from normal. The decrease correlated with increase in Cadmium concentration. However, at the highest concentration of 30 mg/kg of soil the trend was not significant. Increase in the activity of catalase was recorded in weeks 3 and 6. This increase didn’t follow a particular trend but at higher&nbsp; concentration of Cd and long term exposure, it became apparent. There was a negative correlation between catalase activity and lipid peroxidation. In week 3, catalase activity was not significant (p &gt; 0.05) and lipid peroxidation was significant (p &lt; 0.05) while at week 4, catalase activity was significant (p &lt; 0.05) and lipid peroxidation was not significant (p = 0.8432). Catalase activity was not significant (p = 0.2753) at week 5 and lipid peroxidation was significant (p = 0.0030). At week 6 when catalase activity became extremely significant (p &lt; 0.05), lipid peroxidation had a p value of 0.0128. Generally no significant activity (p &gt; 0.05) was observed for superoxide dismutase. A significant increase in absorption of cadmium (p = 0.0374) at 30mg/kg soil was observed between weeks 5 and 6. It was also observed that cadmium had no significant effect (p &gt; 0.05) on the root weight during the period of study. It’s suggestive therefore Cadmium<br>contamination of soil could affect growth of maize and induce oxidative stress.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> O.C. Ugbeni O.E. Dania H. Eruotor Copyright (c) 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 20 1 57 64 10.4314/sa.v20i1.5 Occurrence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in electric grilled foods commonly consumed in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Distribution and contamination profiles <p>United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in electric grilled (EG) foods: plantain (EG-PN), meat (EG-MT), yam (EG-YM) and fish (EG-FH), commonly consumed in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, southern Nigeria. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs in the EG food samples were obtained by gas chromatography (GC)&nbsp;&nbsp; nalyses, after extraction using hexane/dichloromethane (1:3 v/v) and clean up by column chromatography. GC analyses identified 13 to 16 PAHs in the food samples with 10 observed to occur in all. Fluoranthene, pyrene (4-ring PAHs) and benzo(a)pyrene (5-ring PAH) were the most abundant, while the 2- and 3-ring PAHs were generally minor constituents or absent. Concentrations of PAHs in the EG foods ranged from 15.73 to 67.13 µg/kg and was observed to decrease in the order EG-PN&gt;EG-MT &gt; EG-YM &gt; EG-FH with increase in grilling time. Ratios used as diagnostic indices of PAH formation processes indicate a combustion source for PAHs in the food samples&nbsp; and revealed electric grilling generated PAHs which contaminated the foods. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), used as a marker for PAH&nbsp; contamination in foods, had concentrations of 7.51 μg/kg, 2.68 μg/kg, 2.33 μg/kg and 1.85 μg/kg in EG-PN, EG-MT, EG-YM and EG-FH&nbsp; respectively. These values were above the maximum limit of 2 μg/kg set by the European Union, except for EG-FH which was slightly lower.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Virginia I.P. Nitonye Michael Horsfall Jnr Mark O. Onyema Copyright (c) 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 20 1 65 74 10.4314/sa.v20i1.6 Radioactivity content surveillance on canned food products in Nigeria <p>The radionuclides surveillance on imported can food products in Nigeria market has been investigated using High purity Germanium detector. The radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 210Pb and 137Cs in selected brands of imported canned food products categorized into staple foodstuffs, beef and seafood were analyzed. The results obtained for staple foodstuffs shows a mean activity value of 12.33±3.68, 12.35±4.62, 51.48±15.12, 2.65±0.18 and 0.61±0.27 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 210Pb and 137Cs respectively, while in beef food products, it is 14.41±4.79, 14.12±4.83, 50.44±14.80, 1.11± 0.07 and 0.32±0.20 Bq kg<sup>-1</sup> respectively, and for seafood products it is 17.95±5.71, 16.24±5.48, 61.65±18.07, 1.17±0.13 and ND Bq kg<sup>-1</sup> respectively. The overall results indicate that the natural radioactivity in the three categories of canned foodstuffs examined are well below the UNSCEAR and other regulatory bodies recommended permissible limits. The presence of 137Cs in some samples potent some degree of heavy metal contamination of those foodstuffs. The computed dose to essential organs and tissues indicates a highest dose level of 0.2 mSvy-1 which is well within the 1mSvy-1 recommended permissible level of the public. The calculated collective effective dose equivalent revealed that 97,463,16 of the total population are exposed to radiation from ingestion of the canned foods with adults most impacted. The total health detriment indicates radiological risk ratio of 1:2238 for infants, 1:2583 for children and 1:4238 for adults. From the estimated costdetriment, it is obvious that the economic benefits which is directly proportional to cost of purchase and importation put at about nine billion US dollars annually derived from consuming these imported canned food products is far above the health detriment.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> O. Ezekiel Agbalagba Copyright (c) 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 20 1 75 90 10.4314/sa.v20i1.7 Comparative chemotaxonomic investigations on amaranthus hybridus l. and <I>Amaranthus spinosus L.</I> <p>The present study is set to investigate the comparative chemotaxonomic investigations on <em>Amaranthus hybridus L. </em>and<em> Amaranthus spinosus L.</em> which belong to the family Amaranthaceae. They are dicots pre-dominantly found in the Niger Delta Tropics, Nigeria. The species are annual erect herbs with flower inflorescences as elongated spikes which are mostly paniculate occurring at ends of branches in globose fashion in axils of leaves.The nodes often have pair of axillary spines. Flowers are small, greenish with male ones at the top while the female ones below the clusters and stem is greenish but often reddish with one-seeded capsule as fruit in <em>Amaranthus spinosus</em> which attains up to 80 ± 20cm in height whereas <em>A. hybridus</em> differ in absence of a pair of axillary spines, the stems are greenish or slightly pinkish which grows up to 100 ± 10cm in height.<em> A. hybridus</em> is more of a vegetable and has alternate phyllotaxi and narrow cuneate base. Fruits from both species are circumscissile capsules and their inflorescences are terminal racemes positioned at their axils with female perianth segments of five. Epidermal studies revealed amphistomatic stomata which is anisocytic&nbsp; type for both species. The stomatal index for <em>A. spinosus</em> adaxial foliar epidermis is 20% and the abaxial 20% whereas for <em>A. hybridus</em> adaxial is 20% and abaxial foliar stomatal index of 20%. Anatomical studies revealed open vascular system, collenchyma dominating the hypodermis while parenchyma occupied the general cortex and pith regions. <em>A. hybridus</em> has more vascular bundles and trichomes, and wider pith than <em>A. spinosus.</em> Phytochemical studies showed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and flavonoids are present in <em>A. spinosus</em> while alkaloids were absent only in <em>A. hybridus</em>. This may be the reason why A. spinosus is used more in tradomedicine than A.hybridus which served more as vegetable.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> C. Wahua J. Nwikiri Copyright (c) 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 20 1 91 100 10.4314/sa.v20i1.8 Impact of acid activated Bentonites on foster swelling capacity and sorption dynamics of hydrocarbons, phenol and water <p>The successful protonation of the dissociable 𝐻 + from different organic acids (with varying alkyl chains) to supplant sodium ions in the&nbsp; inter layers of bentonites resulting in increased surface area has been carried out. The resultant materials were characterized using&nbsp; foster swelling and adsorption capacity techniques. Results show that the foster capacities of acid activated bentonites were greater than the un-activated bentonite (UAB) upon interaction with petroleum hydrocarbons. The bentonite activated with the organic acid having the most alkyl chain, hexanoic acid activated bentonite (HAAB) showed high affinity for all petroleum hydrocarbons. This demonstrates the hydrophilicity of UAB and upon activation, the hydrophobic properties of HAAB. The adsorption capacity result&nbsp; records that bentonites and HAAB adsorbed more petroleum hydrocarbon solvents than other lower alkyl chain acid activated bentonites and UAB. This study shows that HAAB is an excellent adsorbent for the removal of hydrocarbons from industrial wastes.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> U.J. Chukwu I.P. Okoye E.I. Awosu Copyright (c) 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 20 1 101 108 10.4314/sa.v20i1.9 Application of nitrogen fixing bacteria and poultry droppings for enhanced bioremediation of crude oil polluted-soil <p>The exploration, production and refining of crude oil has led to severe environmental degradation in the oil producing communities of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Enhanced bioremediation of tropical rainforest soil artificially polluted with crude oil, bioaugmented with nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) and biostimulated with poultry droppings was carried out ex situ. Soil sample was collected at 15cm depth from tropical rainforest soil of the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The NFB was isolated from roots of leguminous plant Arachis hypogea, identified as Nitrobacter species. Bioaugmentation by application of NFB served as option A, option B (biostimulation by application of poultry droppings), option C (No amendment) served as the control. Bioremediation was monitored for 28 days for interval of 14 days, and determined using the percentage ratio of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) losses for each period to TPH at initial day (day zero). Results of total culturable heterotrophic bacterial (TCHB) counts showed that highest range in option B (1.9×10<sup>4</sup><br>- 2.4×10<sup>9</sup>Cfu/g) than in option A (7.8×10<sup>6 </sup>-2.29×10<sup>7</sup>Cfu/g) and C (6.75×10<sup>6 </sup>-2.6×10<sup>7</sup>Cfu/g) respectively. Similarly, hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial (HUB) counts had higher range in option B (1.20×10<sup>5</sup> - 1.9×10<sup>7</sup>Cfu/g) than in option A (8.30×10<sup>4 </sup>- 2.30×10<sup>5</sup>Cfu/g) and option C control (4.3×10<sup>4</sup> −1.69×10<sup>5</sup> Cfu/g) respectively. Changes in physicochemical parameters during the study showed reductions in nitrate, phosphate and TPH in all the options expect pH which showed slight increase in option C (6.20-6.24). Characterization and identification for bacteria revealed the following HUB genera <em>Pseudomonas, Citrobacter, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, </em><em>Micrococcus, Klebsiella, Staphylocuccus and Nitrobacter</em>). The percentage losses in TPH from gas chromatography (GC) results showed the following; option A (44.24%) option B (61.08%) and option C - control (27.28%) respectively. The results from this study showed that option B, the application of poultry droppings as biostimulant was more efficient than the application of NFB in enhanced bioremediation of crude oil polluted soil, hence the use of poultry droppings which is available as organic waste, eco-friendly and cost-effective is recommended as<br>biostimulant for enhanced bioremediation in environmental cleanup of crude oil impacted-sites of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> V.C Wokem E.D. Momoh Copyright (c) 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 20 1 109 124 10.4314/sa.v20i1.10 Mapping of groundwater potential using integrated geophysical techniques at forestry research institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, South Western Nigeria <p>Water is an essential commodity for life survival on Earth. Groundwater exists below the surface in the soil pores, fractures within rocks, fissures, and other weak geological features or zones. The aim of this research was to delineate groundwater potential within the Forest Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN) and hence determining the possible areas suitable for siting borehole for sustainable potable water supply. Four electromagnetic traverses were carried out and ten vertical electrical sounding (VES) points were identified for detailed probing using the Schlumberger configuration. Wenner array survey was also carried out along two traverses. The VES data collected was processed using curve matching and Computer software called Winresist while Wenner array was processed using RES2DINV. The results from the interpretation of the four (4) EM profiles revealed low conductivity zone with a value ranging from 4.6 to 19.7 mS m.-1 The results of VES give a maximum of four subsurface geoelectrical layers with five curve types, which are K, Q, AK, HK, and KH. The weathered basement has a resistivity value ranging from143.8 to 450 Ωm and depth to basement ranging between 13.9 m and 39.4 m. The interpretation of the ten VES points obtained suggested that three VES points (VES 2, 5, and 7) are suitable for borehole drilling. The results of the 2D resistivity value ranges from 17.5 to 747 Ωm with a varying depth between 3.25 and 15.9 m. The results of the integrated geophysical survey techniques have proven to be an effective method for groundwater delineation in the study area.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> J.O. Coker A.O. Atilade A.A. Alabi D.S. Ebeniro G.O. Layade Copyright (c) 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 20 1 125 140 10.4314/sa.v20i1.11 A 3-D geoelectric model over mineralized zone of Ugonoba, Edo State, Nigeria <p>The occurrence of solid minerals in Ugonoba community was investigated using the 3D electrical resistivity method. Data was acquired&nbsp; using PASI 16GL Terrameter using the wenner electrode configuration with a view to delineating mineral deposits in the study area.&nbsp; During the reconnaissance survey, the outlook of some geological features in the form of outcrops on the surface formed part of the motivation for the geophysical survey within the Ugonoba area. Ten traverses of 200 m maximum spread and 10m electrode spacing with total depth of 40.07 m were obtained in the study area to form a square grid. The acquired data was first processed and inverted using RES2DINV software to generate ten 2-D model images and later collated into 3-D using the inversion code of RES3DINV software which automatically determines a horizontal 3D depth slice, cubes and block models of resistivity distribution. These models generated were interpreted and used to ascertain the true resistivity, lithologic formation, depth extent to any buried mineral and aggregate deposited in the study area. The extracted 3D model images revealed evidence of some geological materials/minerals in the study area which fall within the high resistivity range of 2500 Ωm to 14376 Ωm. It can therefore be inferred from the standard resistivity table that the lithology of study area is composed of non-metallic type of mineral resources which are: clayey sand, lateritic clayey sand,&nbsp; sandstone and limestone. The estimated quantity in metric ton for the dominant lithology (sandstone, granite and limestone) is ± 10% of 1,257,142.9 which can be commercially explored.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> V.B. Olaseni J.O. Airen Copyright (c) 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 20 1 141 150 10.4314/sa.v20i1.12 Comparative morpho-anatomical characteristics and phytochemical constituents of <I>Aloe vera Barbadensis</I> miller and <I>Aloe vera</I> var. <I>Chinensis </I>(haw) Berger <p>This study was set to investigate the comparative morphological and anatomical characteristics of <em>Aloe vera barbadensis</em> Miller and Aloe vera var. <em>chinensis</em>(Haw) Berger. These are evergreen perennials belonging to Asphodelaceae Juss. in the <em>Order Asparagales</em> Link. The former measures up to 80±20cm in height with lanceolate leaves and rosette habit. The leaves have spiny margins decorated with whitish spots on both foliar surfaces which disappear at maturity. The tubular flowers are orange and densely clustered at the stem apex; corolla is yellowish, tubular and up to 2.5±0.5cm in length whereas the latter is 40±10cm in height with rather lightly green rosette leaves and foliar white spots on foliar surfaces maintained at maturity. The two plants are fleshy and succulent with mild bitter taste. Leaves are amphistomatic with tetracytic sunken stomata. The cells of the epidermal layer are nucleated mostly hexagonal and include pentagonal, heptagonal to square or rounded. Stomatal indices for Aloe vera barbadensis adaxial foliar layer is 7.92 % and abaxial 4.76% while Aloe vera var. chinensis adaxial surface is 7.92% and abaxial 3.85%, not significant. Anatomical studies revealed the cell&nbsp; types from the epidermis, hypodermis, general cortex to the pith are similar in mid-ribs, petioles, stems and nodes. The roots have piths and vasculation is closed type. Phytochemical studies showed the presence of Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins in both species, whereas combined anthraquinone was observed absent in both plants. Cardenolide, phlobatannins and free anthraquinones were present in <em>Aloe vera var.</em> chinesis but absent in <em>Aloe vera barbadensis</em> while cyanogenic glycoside was absent in Aloe vera var chinensis but present in Aloe vera barbadensis. The species are used in natural medicine. The information contained in this research would further aid in the taxonomic delimitations of these plants.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> C. Wahua J. Ukomadu Copyright (c) 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 20 1 151 158 10.4314/sa.v20i1.13 Amangi field reservoir porosity and saturation estimation using seismic and well data <p>The scientific knowledge of mapping reservoir geometries provide useful displays for understanding the sediment fairway orientation and transport direction, they are not detailed enough to define the best quality well connected reservoir areas needed for planning<br>development wells. Knowing that that long term development of this field will require excellent subsurface imaging to optimize the placement of future development and production wells, so to plan for this, we used strong reflected primaries (PP) and primary-shear (PS) waves imaging for the reservoir characterization. Porosity of two hydrocarbon reservoirs is investigated for the purpose of planning production operations in Amangi field of the Nigerian Delta. Well log derived porosities were measured at five appraisal wells in the field. Point information about the porosity of the reservoirs were determined from these well log data. However, lateral variations of porosity could not be delineated from measurements made only at the sparsely&nbsp; located wells in the field. A 3D seismic data covering an area of about 20 km x 17.5 km were acquired to delineate the extent of the porous sand. After careful data processing, the lateral variations of seismic amplitudes were transformed to changes in rock impedances, which, in turn, are indirectly related to porosity. In contrast with the sparse well observations, the 3D seismic method provided a dense and regular areal sampling of the acoustic properties of the reservoir intervals. The results of the transformation of the 3D anisotropic seismic reflection data were integrated with petrophysical measurements at the wells to significantly improve the spatial description of porosity in this field.</p> S. Inichinbia G.O. Emujakporue Copyright (c) 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 20 1 159 170 10.4314/sa.v20i1.14 Identification of lithological units using geo-electrical method, Olabisi Onabanjo University Campus, Southwestern Nigeria <p>The study presented the results obtained from estimation of the depth to the bsement bedrock (overburden thickness) in Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye using two configurations of electrical resistivity methods. The study was aimed to delineate the stratigraphy and thicknesses of the subsurface layer present in the study area for comprehensive study of the lithostratigraphic information of the area. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and 2-D Horizontal Electrical Profiling (HEP) techniques were used to obtain 1-D and 2-D subsurface resistivity images of the study area. The VES data were plotted manually on the Bi-log graph. The curve obtained was partially curve – matched to obtain the layer resistivities and thicknesses for further iteration. The 2-D resistivity imaging data were analyzed and processed to obtain the inverted (true) resistivity image. From the results, five (5) VES type curves were delineated. These includes H, HA, QH and KH type. The geoelectric sections and 2-D resistivity images showed three to four geoelectric layers. These layers are topsoil/laterite, weathered&nbsp; basement, partly weathered/fractured basement and fresh basement. The study showed that materials with resistivity values that ranged between 10 and 298 Ωm and 152 and 589 Ωm representing clayey weathered layer and partly weathered/fractured basement were delineated beneath some sounding points. The clayey and weathered layer are indicative of soil formations that are inimical to foundation of civil engineering structure. Likewise, they can serve as reservoir for groundwater potential (if the porosity and permeability are high). Due to this, detailed lithostratigraphic evaluation through petrophysical analysis is encouraged for the purpose of mapping and correlation of the rock units before embarking on any engineering construction in the study area. The study concludes in providing assistance to subsequent research on the stratigraphic related studies in the area.</p> S.A. Adekoya H.T. Oladunjoye J.O. Coker O.A. Adenuga Copyright (c) 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 20 1 171 182 10.4314/sa.v20i1.15 Effect of sodium azide on Bambara groundnut (<i>Vigna subterranean</i> (L.) verdc.) as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) <p>This study investigated the mutagenic effects of Sodium Azide (NaN<sub>3</sub>) on the agromorphological and protein content of eight Bambara groundnut genotypes. The seeds of six genotypes; TVSu-86, TVSu-91, TVSu-186, TVSu-235, TVSu-242, TVSu-350 were collected from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and two landraces from Abia State and Enugu State North East, Nigeria local markets. The seeds were treated with five concentrations: 0.00%(control), 0.01%, 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.07% of NaN3 after pre-soaking for 6hrs in distilled water and sown in pots arranged in a Complete Randomized Design with three replicates. There was reduction in germination percentage and growth characters as concentrations of NaN<sub>3</sub> increases. Early&nbsp; flowering was recorded at 37 days mutated with 0.07% of NaN<sub>3</sub> compared to control which flowered late at 42 days. NaN<sub>3</sub> (0.07%) caused lethal effect on Abia and Enugu landraces. There was no significant (P&gt;0.05)&nbsp; difference in yield traits among mutants and control. Mutant seeds significantly (P&lt;0.05) increased protein content (19.12%) at 0.05% of NaN<sub>3</sub> compared to control (18.5%). The number of seeds (0.99), seed yield (0.89) and pod yield (0.96) strongly correlated with seeds per pod (0.85). The SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of polypeptide bands in mutants compared to control. TVSu-235 and TVSu-350 genotypes had higher tolerance and yield traits to 0.01% concentration of NaN<sub>3</sub>, thus could be further improved in subsequent breeding.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Odunayo Joseph Olawuyi Juliet Ese Naworu Roseline Tolulope Feyisola Copyright (c) 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 20 1 183 194 10.4314/sa.v20i1.16