Scientia Africana <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning /> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas /> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables /> <w:SnapToGridInCell /> <w:WrapTextWithPunct /> <w:UseAsianBreakRules /> <w:DontGrowAutofit /> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--> <!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]--><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;" lang="EN-GB"><em>Scientia Africana</em> seeks to encourage communication among scientists all over the world through regular publication of their research findings. The journal publishes results of original research in all aspects of biological, chemical, earth, mathematical, physical and applied sciences including basic medical and engineering sciences. It also publishes review articles, book reviews, research notes and other short communications on all aspects of pure and applied sciences and accepts advertisements in related fields.</span> en-US Copyright is owned by the journal (Gabriel O. Agu) (Editor) Tue, 07 Sep 2021 09:50:04 +0000 OJS 60 Measurement of ambient dose rates in tantalite mining sites in Oke ̶ Ogun, southwest, Nigeria <p>The work scenarios involved in the mining of tantalite a radioactive material expose the miners to ionizing radiation from the ore and the surrounding environment. The dose level in the mine air may be higher than the safe limit due to various contributory sources of ionizing radiation such as radionuclides from rocks, effluents, sand, and radon gas that emanates from caves and this can be of health detriment to the miners. Measurements of ambient dose rates in four selected mining sites have been investigated. Gamma absorbed dose rates were measured in air onsite at Komu, Sepenteri, Gbedu, and Eluku mining sites in Oke-Ogun areas of Oyo State, Nigeria using GammaRAE II dosimeter. Radiation dose to risk software was used to estimate the cancer risk for the period the miners spent onsite. The measured mean dose rate at the sites falls within the range of (19-240) nSv/y and the estimated annual dose rate, cumulative dose, and cancer risk fall within the range of (37-314) μSv/y, (4.0 ̶ 11.1) mSv and (0.5 ̶ 4.5) E-04 respectively. The upper limits of the range for the radiological parameters are all above the safe limit. The health implication of that is that increased work activities at these mining sites may over the years have a negative health effect on the miners. The exposure time of workers can be reduced through proper planning of working shifts for the miners.</p> A.E. Ajetunmobi , S.K. Alausa , J.O. Coker, T.W. David , A.T. Talabi Copyright (c) Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis of Co (ii) and Zn (ii) complexes of modified and unmodified cashew nut (<i>Anacardium occidentals L.</i>) shell liquid extract <p>Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) extract obtained using soxhlet extraction method with acetone as solvent has been used in the synthesis of Co (II) and Zn (II) metal complexes. The CNSL gave a molecular peak ion of 298g/mol-1 on a GC-MS, an indication that cardanol was more prominent than anacardic acid in the obtained extract. Physicochemical parameters such as saponification value (50.30 mgKOH/g), moisture content (5.10), iodine value (241.00 mgKOH/g), ash content (1.30) and pH (6.31) were equally obtained. The metal complexes of Co (II) and Zn (II) prepared with unmodified (UMCNSL) and aniline modified CNSL (AMCNSL) were characterized using UV-visible, FTIR, melting point and electrical conductivity. Some characteristic FTIR bands were observed for AMCNSL, UMCNCL, AMCNSL-ZnCl<sub>2</sub>.H<sub>2</sub>O (1612cm-1) and AMCNSL-CoCl<sub>2</sub>.6H<sub>2</sub>O (1612cm-1). The presence of C=N were confirmed in the metal complex of AMCNSL-ZnCl.H<sub>2</sub>O and AMCNSL-CoCl.6H<sub>2</sub>O but were not present in the UMCNSL-ZnCl.H<sub>2</sub>O and UMCNSL-CoCl.6H<sub>2</sub>O.</p> A.C. Igboamalu, U.J. Chukwu, K. Okorosaye-Orubite Copyright (c) Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Ethnobotanical survey and proposed recipes of potential wound-healing plants in parts of south west Nigeria <p>Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants remains a veritable source of information leading to discovery of new lead compounds of pharmaceutical importance thus, the need for continual search for medicinal plants via ethnobotanical surveys in Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered amongst traditional healers. A few other anecdotal claims about efficacy of herbs from people who at one time or the other have used the plants for wound healing were also sampled. The result of an ethnobotanical survey of plants used in the treatment of wound in Ijebu North Local Government area of Ogun State and Ibadan North Local Government area of Oyo state of Nigeria are reported. A total of 71 species of plants covering 43 families were identified; representing 51 recipes. C<em>arica papaya Linn, Elaeis guineensis Jacq, Chromolaena odorata Meull. Arg, Gladiolus psittacinus Hook.f., Vetivera kotschyana (Benth.) Stapf, Securidaca longipedunculata Fresen </em>and<em> Euphorbia laterifolia Linn</em> were prominent among the recipes. Among all the families identified in the recipes,<em> Euphorbiaceae</em> was most mentioned (7.0%) followed by <em>Compositeae, Fabacceae, Malvaceae and Meliaceae families (4.0%), Amaryllidaceae, Annonaceae, Arecaceae, Asphodeloideae, Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Leguminosae, Musaceae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Sterculiaceae, Zingiberaceae</em> followed closely (3.0%) while <em>Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae, Anacardiaceae</em> and others had 1.0%. Out of the recipes, 51.9% are either leaves only or in combination with other parts, while 21.5% are stem bark, 7.6% are seeds and 3.8% are roots, bulbs and fruits respectively. These plants could be investigated for potential leads for wound healing in animal subjects.</p> J.S. Ashidi , O.O. Awokoya, A.S. Sanusi, R.T. Feyisola, O.C. Okechukwu, C.T. Senjobi Copyright (c) Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Neurological behaviour of albino rats treated separately and in combination with <i>Cannabis sativa L.</i> and <i>Cannabis indica L.</i> <p>There has been an increasing rate of cannabis consumption globally, especially among the youths. This study therefore evaluated the neurological behaviours and some brain marker hormones and enzymes of cannabis administered rats. Twenty six albino rats were divided into four groups based on oral cannabis administration (control,<em> Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica</em> and the combination of the two). At the end of seven days, open field test was conducted on the rats. Also, brain neuro-chemicals, activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation were evaluated using spectrophotometry. The results of the Open-Field Test showed an appreciable increase in the level of ambulation (line crossing), grooming, urination and stretched attend posture in the rats administered with <em>Cannabis indica, Cannabis sativa</em> and the combination when compared with the control. Norepinephrine was significantly lower (p &lt; 0.05) in the rat groups administered with the combination of <em>Cannabis indica </em>and<em> Cannabis sativa</em>. The control group however had the lowest dopamine level. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower (p &lt; 0.05) in the rats administered the combination of both <em>Cannabis indica</em> and <em>Cannabis sativa</em>. The brain level of reduced glutathione (GSH) was significantly higher in the rats administered with <em>Cannabis indica</em>. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly higher in the rats administered with <em>Cannabis sativa</em> than the other rat groups. Histopathological evaluation of the brain also revealed various damages in the brain cells of rats administered with cannabis compared to the normal brain structure of the control rats. It is thus said that consumption of <em>C. sativa </em>or<em> C. indica</em> alone produced mild effect on the brain cells and physiology in rats. However, combination of <em>C. sativa </em>and<em> C. indica</em> produced a severe synergistic effect on the neurological function of the exposed rat.</p> Joseph S. Ashidi, Irene. E. Emeya, Folarin O. Owagboriaye, Roseline T. Feyisola, Olubukola I. Lawal, Olaitan C. Okechukwu Copyright (c) Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Testing for equality of means with equal and unequal variances <p>In this paper, we are interested in comparing the conventional t –test with the proposed t – test for testing equality of means with unequal and equal variances. Here, we proposed harmonic mean of variances as an alternative to the pooled sample variance when there is heterogeneity of variances. Two sets of secondary data were obtained from Agricultural Development Project (KWADP) and the Ministry of Agriculture in Ilorin, Kwara State to demonstrate the two test statistics used and the results show that the proposed t – test statistic is found to be appropriate than the conventional t – test statistic when we have unequal variances but the conventional t – test perform better when we have equal variances.</p> A.O. Abidoye, W.A. Lamidi , M.O. Alabi, J. Popoola Copyright (c) Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Inverse Akash distribution and its applications <p>A new one-parameter distribution named inverse Akash distribution, for modelling lifetime data, has been&nbsp; introduced. Important statistical properties of the proposed distribution such as the density function, hazard rate function, survival function, stochastic ordering,&nbsp; entropy&nbsp;&nbsp; measure, stress-strength reliability and the maximum&nbsp; likelihood estimation of the parameter of the distribution have been discussed. Two real data sets were employed in illustrating the usefulness of the new distribution. Comparatively, the inverse Akash distribution provided better fits to the data than each of the inverse exponential distribution and inverse Lindley distribution.</p> E.W. Okereke, S.N. Gideon, J. Ohakwe Copyright (c) Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Quantitative depth estimation using analytic signal at low-latitude for ground gravity survey of Gbede, Oyo State <p>This paper presents the insitu gravity survey of basement complex rock in Southwestern Nigeria. In the E-W direction, LaCoste and&nbsp; Romberg Gravity Meter type G309 was used to carry out a ground gravity survey where ten traverses were established over a distance of 1000 m by 500 m with station spacing of 20m and a traverse interval of 50 m. Observed gravity values were corrected, analyzed and&nbsp; interpreted quantitatively. The corrected bouguer gravity data were presented as bouguer anomaly graphs. Analytic Signal at low-latitude was adopted to compute the depth to source of iron-ore for a contact, a thin sheet (dyke) and a horizontal cylinder. The result revealed a depth range of 5.45 m-8.25 m for a contact, 9.44 m-14.29 m for a thin sheet (dyke) while a depth range of 12.31 m-18.05 m was estimated for a horizontal cylinder respectively. An average depth of 11.81±3.64 m was estimated for the entire area irrespective of the structural model, this was compared with published magnetic results of the study area and a small disparity of potential field measurements was recorded. The overall computed results signified the existence of iron mineral deposits at low depths across the study area.</p> G.O. Layade, O.O. Adewumi, V. Makinde, B.S. Bada Copyright (c) Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic variability of spiralling whitefly <i>Aleurodicus disperses</i> Russell on <i>Citrus aurantifolia</i> Christm and <i>Ocimum gratissimum L.</i> <p>The spiralling whitefly, <em>Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)</em>, has a wide range of anatomy, physiology, behaviour, and ecology depending on the host plant. This research looked at the genetic variations between A. dispersus populations on two separate host plants (<em>Citrus aurantifolia </em>and<em> Ocimum gratissimum</em>). The existence of host-related genetic variation in A. dispersus populations was determined using Rapid Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Our findings revealed that the A. dispersus populations on the two host plants had a considerable amount of genetic divergence. The spiralling whiteflies on the adaxial part of <em>Citrus aurantifolia</em> were genetically distinct from those on the abaxial part of the same plants. Various population genetic parameters such as heterozygosity, Nei's genetic gap, and fixation indices (FST) revealed that spiralling whitefly populations vary genetically, which may be attributable to spiralling whitefly populations originating from multiple sources. These findings also have consequences for the invasive pest's quarantine safety strategy.</p> Mistura Temitope Adeleke, Oladunni Nimota Adekunle, Roseline Tolulope Feyisola, Folarin Ojo Owagboriaye, Olayemi Tope Arowosegbe, Olusegun Adebayo Lawal Copyright (c) Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Ground magnetic survey for the investigation of magnetic minerals at Iboro Village, Abeokuta, south-western Nigeria <p>The geological map of the old western region of Nigeria indicates the presence of iron ore deposit at Iboro village Ogun state (7.9983o - 7.99933o N, 3.5790o - 3.5890o E). Hence a ground magnetic survey was carried out at a location at Iboro village so as to delineate the subsurface magnetic anomalies and to know whether the anomalies favour accumulation of magnetic minerals. The survey was carried out using high resolution proton precession magnetometer model G-856X. Eight traverses were run at 5m separations and earth magnetic intensity values were measured at 10m intervals along each traverse; the acquired data were corrected for drift. The residual anomalies obtained by removal of regional gradient from observed data using trend analysis were presented as profiles and maps. The treated data were qualitatively and quantitatively interpreted and the results gave values for the total ground magnetic anomalies that varied between a minimum and maximum peak values of about -33.0 and 30.6nT respectively. Depth to the basement rock was estimated using Peter’s half slope method which gave a maximum depth of about 13m. The contour maps and the total relative graphs present the subsurface picture of the geological structure that is assumed to harbour the metallic minerals through the action of the field towards the concentration of anomalies. It was suspected that the overburden was relatively thin in the study area and the minerals were at a shallow depth.</p> O.I. Popoola, O.A. Adenuga, E.O. Joshua Copyright (c) Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative morphoanatomical studies of south eastern Nigerian representatives of <i>Oldenlandia L.</i> (Rubiaceae) <p>Leaf and stem anatomical structure of the four <em>Oldenlandia L. (O. affinis (Roem. &amp; Schult.) DC., O. corymbosa L., O. herbacea (Linn.) Roxb., and O. lancifolia (Schumach) DC.)</em> from some parts viz. Ogbokor (Edo State), Obiga-Asa (Abia State), IITA staion Onne (Rivers State), and Agricultural farm Uniport (Rivers State) Nigeria were examined by light microscopy. The epidermal cells are pentagonal to polygonal with straight, curved or wavy anticlinal walls, and paracytic stomata. All the species have dorsiventral leaf with the leaf vein vascular bundles embedded in the spongy mesophyll. The midribs vascular bundles form an arc enclosed by parenchymatous endodermal cells. <em>O. herabcea</em> is amphistomatic while the other species are hypostomatic. Raphide bundles were seen only in the lamina of <em>O. corymbosa</em>. Tuft hair is absent in <em>O. herbacea</em> but occurred on the adaxial leaf surfaces of <em>O. affinis, O. corymbosa, </em>and<em> O. diffusa</em>. The stem of O. diffusa is terete while other species have quadrangular stem. Papillae occurred on the adaxial epidermis of <em>O. affinis</em> and <em>O. corymbosa</em>. The stem pith thickness (PT)/cortical thickness (ET) ratio varied among the species. Notable diagnostic features in these species include the PT/ET ratio, layers of cortex in the stem, occurrence of tuft hairs on the leaf veins and surface, presence or absence of raphides and papillose, layer of abaxial and adaxial cortex in the midrib, and amphistomatatic or hypostomatic leaf.</p> Chimezie Ekeke, Chinedum Alozie Oagzie , Josephine Agogbua Copyright (c) Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of aqueous extract of <i>Gangronema latifolium</i> <i>(G. latifolium) (Utazi)</i> on n-acetyl-para-aminophenol (acetaminophen) - induced hepatic injury on Wistar albino rats <p>The present study investigated the effect of leaf extract of <em>Gangronema latifolium</em> (<em>G. latifolium</em>) on acetaminophen (APAP) - induced liver injury in Wistar albino rats. In this study, sixty (60) male Wistar albino rats were divided into five (5) groups of twelve (12) rats each. Animals in group 1 served as control group and received a placebo of 0.9% saline solution. Group 2 served as APAP control group, administered with 800 mg/kg body weight of APAP only. Groups 3, 4 and 5 served as the experimental groups and received oral dosage of 800 mg/kg body weight of APAP plus 150 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight of G. latifolium respectively. The results showed that the enzymatic activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the serum were decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in the experimental groups dosed with 150 mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 250 mg/kg of G. latifolium respectively. For 150 mg/kg G. latifolium treated group, ALT decreased from 23.3 ± 7.31 to 9.00 ± 1.52 IU/L, while AST and ALP decreased from 17.6 ± 2.66 to 15.00 ± 1.00 IU/L and 92.8 ± 2.34 to 83.8 ± 7.94 IU/L respectively. In conclusion, the results showed that aqueous extract of <em>G. latifolium</em> has a protective effect on rat liver induced with APAP injury.</p> Godwin Delight Chigamezu, Wilfred Obaalologhi, Okure Victoria Copyright (c) Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Haematological and histopathological examinations of African mud catfish (<i>Clarias gariepinus</i>) exposed to petroleum wastewater <p>Effects of petroleum refinery wastewater on Clarias gariepinus juvenile were investigated. Commercially obtained <em>C. gariepinus</em> fingerlings were acclimatized in a plastic tank (100 L capacity) of de-chlorinated tap water at 25±2°C for 14 days and fed with commercial feed pellet at 2% body weight of the fingerlings. Bioassay tests were carried out in four transparent plastics tank with nominal concentrations of 100 ml, 200 ml, 300 ml of the wastewater added to 40L of de-chlorinated tap water and only de-chlorinated tap water as control. Each tank contains twenty fish samples, while the assay was replicated three times concurrently. Following standard procedures, behavioural response, growth changes, haematological and histopathological tests were carried out on the samples. Significant reduction in the weight was observed in the fingerlings cultured with the wastewaters, while no significant difference occurred in the control fish. Highest values of Packed Cell Volume (PCV) (22), Haemoglobin (HB) (7.0), Red Blood Cell (RBC) (1.62) and endocochlear potential (EP) (5) were recorded for the control fish than exposed fish. On the other hand, Haptoglobin (HP), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) were higher in the blood of exposed fish than in control. Histopathologically, exposed fishes showed no visible lesion in gills except from the thickening of the lamellae as the concentration of wastewater increases, indicating an increase in tissue disintegration. Similarly, gross tissue disintegration was observed in those fish exposed to 200ml wastewater as evidenced by the presence of large open spaces (hepatocytes) in the liver.</p> R.Y. Oladunjoye, O.O. Fafioye , R.A. Asiru, G.O. Bakare, A.A. Odusolu Copyright (c) Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Multi-drug resistant <i>Aeromonas</i> species in Annelida: An evidence of pathogen harbouring leech in recreation water nexus of Oghara Nigeria environs <p>Aeromonas infections have shown diverse complications in management due to the multiple antibiotic resistance observed amongst its members. The origin and habitat of its resistance development yet remain vague. The present study depicts Leech and its infested recreational water as a reservoir of multidrug-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila. Skin swabs of recreational water bathers before (Bb)/after bathing (Ab) (250 each) and 250 leeches (Hirudomedicinalis) were collected from recreational water sites. Standard Microbiological and Molecular biology methods were applied for isolation and characterization. Two hundred and forty-five (98%)Bb specimen, showed a negative growth oforganisms, 84% (210) of the Ab specimen harboured presumptive Aeromonas species, while 100% (250) Leeches specimen harboured Aeromonas species. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of 16SrRNA gene detection confirmed all (465/100%) isolates as Aeromonas species while 13.6% (63) were further delineated as Aeromonas hydrophila. The antibiogram showed 45(97.82%) resistance to the β-lactam antibiotic and other antibiotic groups. The PCR detection of resistant markers, virulent and plasmid profile of isolates reveals conjugative plasmid mediation, lip (123/97.6%), act (104/82%), hhly (93/73%) genes and BlaampC gene, BlaTEM, gene and BlaSHV gene. Observation of pathogens with similar multiple antibiotic-resistant gene-profile both in the bathers'skin swab and gut of leeches indicates origin/habitat, association and suggests the gut of leeches as breeding habitat for the pathogen. This is an emerging public health concern that associates specifically the environment and human superficial infections.</p> Bright E. Igere, Blessing B. Igolukumo, C. Eduamodu , Emmanuel O. Odjadjare Copyright (c) Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of the Kerr effect on polarised light <p>A constructed Kerr cell with brass electrodes and liquid nitrobenzene was used for studying the Kerr effect on polarised light. Laser light was plane polarised and passed through an energised Kerr cell. The plane polarised light after travelling a path length equal to the cell electrode length in a birefringent medium, suffered optical retardance before passing through an analyser which then transmitted light of certain intensity to a photodiode. Data used were generated from experiments and theoretical considerations using Kerr’s law and Malus’ law. With crossed Polaroids, the Kerr cell behaved as an electro-optic shutter and the maximum light intensity transmitted rose steadily with increased phase difference to about 0.82. With parallel Polaroids, the maximum light intensity transmitted was higher and found to be 0.89 at zero phase difference. This value indicates a large phase delay and decreased to a non-zero value. At maximum electric field intensity, a ‘climbing’ of the nitrobenzene on the Kerr cell walls and electrodes was observed with more nitrobenzene attracted to the anode. The effect suspected to be of electrostatic origin may have been driven by the predominant ions in the nitrobenzene. Furthermore, the higher level of the nitrobenzene meniscus at the anode probably suggests that while the cathode injected carriers of negative charge into the liquid the injection of carriers from the anode was weaker. For better results, attention should be given to Polaroid quality, the purity of the liquid nitrobenzene and the length of the electrodes used.</p> R.E. Mfon, Z. Al Amri , S.O. Esaduwha Copyright (c) Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000