Scientia Africana <!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables ></w:BreakWrappedTables> <w:SnapToGridInCell ></w:SnapToGridInCell> <w:WrapTextWithPunct ></w:WrapTextWithPunct> <w:UseAsianBreakRules ></w:UseAsianBreakRules> <w:DontGrowAutofit ></w:DontGrowAutofit> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --><!-- [if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]--> <p><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;"><em>Scientia Africana</em> seeks to encourage communication among scientists all over the world through regular publication of their research findings. The journal publishes results of original research in all aspects of biological, chemical, earth, mathematical, physical and applied sciences including basic medical and engineering sciences. It also publishes review articles, book reviews, research notes and other short communications on all aspects of pure and applied sciences and accepts advertisements in related fields.</span></p> en-US Copyright is owned by the journal (Prof. Francis S. Ire) (Peter Obiora Edoziem) Thu, 25 Jan 2024 13:05:57 +0000 OJS 60 Aspartame and diet soda impact on blood sugar and insulin in Wistar rat <p><em>Research reports on the safety of Aspartame as a sugar substitute which was intended to reduce the prevalence of metabolic disorders has been inconclusive. Thus, this study is aimed at investigating the effects of aspartame and diet soda on body weight, blood sugar and insulin levels. Thirty seven Wistar rats were divided into: Group 1 (5): control group and administered 5ml of distilled water daily. Groups 2 and 3 (8 each) received high and low doses of diet soda respectively. Groups 4 and 5 (8 each) received high (45 mg/ kg b.w) and low (22.5 mg/kg b.w) doses of aspartame respectively. After 10 weeks, the rats were subjected to an overnight fast for the determination of fasting blood sugar test after which they were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected and the pancreas harvested and put in formal saline for histological analysis. Insulin level was measured using ELISA technique. Results show various morphological changes in the pancreas of all experimental groups, including hypoplastic islet, vascular congestion and ulceration, nerve hypertrophy, amongst others. Body weight was significantly increased in groups given high diet soda (114 ± 0.12g) and aspartame (121 ± 0.17g) when compared with the control (85 ± 0.21g). However, there was no significant difference in fasting blood sugar and insulin levels in all treated groups compared to control. In conclusion, this study has shown that chronic consumption of aspartame and diet soda increased body weight, but no effect on blood sugar and insulin levels. The adverse effects on pancreas morphology suggest impending health implications. </em></p> B.O. Eiya, J.O. Osunbor Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A review of tensor interaction in the theory of potential models <p><em>In this paper, we review the use of tensor potential by different researchers in the removal of degeneracies in the theory of potential models. The interaction of different tensor potentials and its combination such as Coulomb, Hulthèn, Yukawa and generalized potential with different potential models under Dirac formalism were reviewed. </em></p> H. P. Obong, I. U. Udoakpan Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of heat-stable biocatalytic remediation cocktail (HBRC) on selected heavy metals present in crude oil-polluted soil <p><em>This study investigated the effect of a heat-stable biocatalytic remediation cocktail (HBRC) on selected heavy metals present in crude oil-polluted soil. The soil sample was collected from Agbura Community, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State. Heat-stable biocatalytic remediation cocktail (HBRC) also called garbage enzyme (GE) was produced from three substances; water, fruits skin (orange, pineapple, plantain, watermelon and banana peels) and brown sugar in a ratio of 10: 3: 1, and were allowed to ferment for 90 days. The soil sample was divided into six Groups (1 - 6). Groups 1 and 2 served as control; (unpolluted) and (polluted but not treated soil) while Groups 3 to 6 were given different treatments. The samples were prepared and selected heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn and Co) concentrations were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). After treatment of the crude oil-polluted soil with the HBRC for 180, there were significant reductions in Fe, Cu, Zn and Co were observed in Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 when compared to Groups 1 and 2. The highest iron concentration reduction was observed in Group 3 (76.58%). Similarly, the highest Cu concentration reduction was seen in Group 5 (73.55%). Also, the highest Zn concentration reduction was observed in Group 6 (86.30%) while Co highest concentration reduction was seen in Group 5 (86.56%). Hence, the result reveals that HBRC can be used as a remediation cocktail for heavy metals. </em></p> B. S. Akpoji, E. B. Essien, E. O. Nwaichi Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of chemical reaction and heat source on MHD oscillatory viscoelastic flow in a channel filled with porous medium <p><em>The partial differential equations with the boundary conditions of effects of chemical reaction and heat source on MHD oscillatory viscoelastic flow in a channel were formulated based on assumptions and already existing model. The partial differential equations were transformed to dimensionless equations using suitable variables. Analytical solution was obtained for the dimensionless equations. With aids of Matlab, graphs were plotted and a table was generated to study the necessary parameters present in the flow. Increase in heat source resulted to increase in velocity of the flow while increase in chemical reaction led to decrease in velocity of the flow. The rate of heat transfer at both wall increases as heat source increases. </em></p> J. I. Oahimire Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Crude oil sorption capacity of modified and unmodified biowaste <p><em>Contamination of water by crude oil is ubiquitous particularly in developing countries. The governments of affected countries raise a lot of concern because of the associated economic and environmental impacts which are not in tandem with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), 6, 8, 11, 13 &amp; 14. Remediation of crude oil-impacted water and soil become imperative. However, the exercise is expensive; hence the search for cheaper and local alternatives. In this study, unsegregated wood sawdust was collected from the various wood saw-dust dump sites within the main Timber shade in the vicinity of Udu Bridge, Udu LGA of Delta State, Nigeria. One half of the sample was chemically modified by acetylation using acetic anhydride while the other half wasn’t. They were characterized using Fourier Transformed Infra-Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with Electron Dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) analyzer before employing them in the removal of the crude oil from the simulated crude oil spill- water media. The obtained results indicated that the modified sorbent (wood sawdust) sorbed more crude oil than the unmodified sorbent (wood sawdust). Experimental process control factors limited to time, sorbent dosage, particle size, was investigated using the modified sawdust. The modified sorbent gave maximum oil absorption capacity of 5.228 gg<sup>-1</sup></em> <em>for sorption time, 4.759 gg<sup>-1</sup></em> <em>for sorbent dosage and 5.838 gg<sup>-1</sup></em> <em>for particle size analyses. The study contributes to the knowledge of sorption studies using unsegregated wood sawdust for remediation of crude oil-contaminated media. </em></p> K. A. Ibe, C. M. Okwute, A. A. Adebayo Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Studies of the Indigenous Edible Wild Fruits of Etche Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria <p><em>In the past, Indigenous Edible Wild Fruits (IEWFs) were vital source of food and nutrition in Etche Local Government Area. These plant species were highly nutritious and assisted in poverty alleviation and enhanced food security in Etche. Presently, due to the teeming population and the anthropogenic activities in the area especially the farming practice of the local people, the availability and rate of consumption of the IEWFs have been negatively impacted. Information about these economic plant species that are domiciled in Etche has not been properly documented. This investigation seeks to fill the gap. IEWFs were identified in ten (10) study area communities. Scientific names, common names, local names, families, habits, habitat and locality of the plants were documented. It was observed that 36 plant species drawn from 29 genera, representing 23 families were Indigenous Edible Wild Fruits consumed regularly by Etche people. The study revealed that the fruit plants were 39% trees, 42% shrubs, 8% herbs and 11% climbers. In addition, most of the edible plant species in the area were exclusively found in the wild while a few were domesticated and some of them served as a source of income for some households. The study observed a decline in the diversity of species due to depletion of forest resources through bush burning, deforestation and exploitation of flora by the rural dwellers for other purposes. </em></p> P. C. Nwala, G. C. Obute, C. Ekeke Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of storage temperature on the bacterial flora and sensory quality of vacuum packaged smoked catfish (<i>Clarias anguillaris</i>) <p><em>This study evaluated the effect of two storage temperatures on the bacterial flora and sensory quality of vacuum packaged smoked catfish (Clarias anguillaris). The catfish was hot smoked using a traditional kiln, with mangrove wood as the source of heat. Total bacterial count (TBC) and sensory parameters (colour, smell. dryness and general appearance) were determined during storage at ambient (28 ± 2°C) and refrigeration (4°C) temperatures for 0-8 weeks. Bacteria were enumerated, isolated and identified using standard methods. Vacuum packaged smoked catfish stored at 4°C (VPCR) had the lowest TBC which increased from 3.23 – 3.58 log<sub>10</sub></em> <em>cfu/g within 2 weeks of storage and stabilized at 3.44 log<sub>10</sub></em> <em>cfu/g for 4 – 8 weeks. The TBC of the vacuum packaged smoked catfish stored at ambient temperature (28 ± 2°C) ranged from 3.32 – 6.88 log<sub>10</sub></em> <em>cfu/g within 6 weeks of storage. The bacteria isolated from fresh catfish belonged to nine genera, namely, Bacillus, Chryseobacterium, Escherichia, Lysinibacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Vibrio. Only Bacillus and Proteus species were isolated from freshly smoked catfish. Isolates from vacuum packaged samples were Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Proteus and Staphylococcus. Molecular characterization of three isolates from fresh catfish revealed that the species were Chryseobacterium aquifridigense, Lysinibacillus mycoides and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The sensory scores for sample VPCR stored for 8 weeks did not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.05) from freshly smoked catfish, except for the colour. Non-packaged and vacuum packaged smoked catfish samples were of good quality during storage at ambient temperature for 4 weeks, and 4 – 6 weeks, respectively. </em></p> N. Obolu, E.R. Amakoromo, I. Oku Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-diabetic impact of ‘Aju Mbaise’ herbal cocktail in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats <p><em>This study evaluated the hypoglycaemic potential of ‘Aju Mbaise’ herbal mixture. Female Wistar rats of 40 – 50 g and fifty-four (54) in number were obtained and housed at the animal house of the Department of Pharmacology, University of Port Harcourt. They were assembled into 6 groups of 9 rats each. Group I served as the normal control (NC) while the remaining five groups were induced with diabetes type 2 using high-fat diet (HFD) for about 8 weeks and streptozotocin at 35 mg/kg body weight. Group II was the diabetic control (DC) while the other groups (III, IV, V &amp; VI) were administered 7.2 mg/kg metformin and the cocktail extract at three different concentrations of 500 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg respectively. Biochemical tests were conducted after twelve weeks of treatment. The blood glucose concentration was estimated using the Accu-check glucometer and glucose strips while the rest biomarkers were analyzed using their specific test kits. Diabetes mellitus was confirmed after HFD and STZ administration. Result obtained showed that the normal and metformin control groups recorded significant (p&lt;0.05) lower blood glucose, liver enzymes (AST, ALT, &amp; ALP), urea, and creatinine, as well as higher total protein concentrations when compared to the diabetic control and treated groups. Also, significant (p&lt;0.05) reduction in blood glucose, liver enzymes, urea, and creatinine, as well as increase in total protein concentrations was recorded by the treated groups when compared to the diabetic control group. This study revealed the potential hypoglycaemic effect of ‘Aju Mbaise’ herbal cocktail. </em></p> T. A Nnadiukwu, C. C Monago-Ighorodje, L. C Chuku Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 <i>Arachis hypogaea</i> seed powder ameliorated 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced oxidative stress in exposed rats <p><em>This study evaluated the effect of Arachis hypogaea seeds on 1, 2 – dimethylhydrazine-induced oxidative stress in the colon and liver of male and female rats. Eighty-four rats of both sexes were used for this study and were divided into seven groups of 6 rats each. 1, 2- dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was administered subcutaneously at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. Group A (control) rats of both sexes were maintained on normal rat feed. The Group B rats were maintained on normal feed and administered DMH once weekly for 12 weeks. The Group C rats were provided normal feed and administered DMH weekly for 24 weeks. Group D rats were administered DMH and normal feed for 12 weeks followed by a peanut-supplemented diet for the next 12 weeks. The Group E rats received DMH weekly and peanut-supplemented diet concomitantly for 24 weeks. Group F rats had a peanut-supplemented diet for 12 weeks before DMH administration for another 12 weeks. Group G rats were maintained only on a peanut-supplemented diet for 24 weeks. The result shows that DMH significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased malondialdehyde level in the colon but the increase was reversed by the incorporation of peanut in the diet. There were significant (p ≤ 0.05) decreases in antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced glutathione levels in the groups that received DMH alone which were reversed in the group of rats exposed to DMH and peanut-supplemented diet. The findings indicate that the consumption of peanut-supplemented diet reduced in rats, the increase in lipid peroxidation occasioned by DMH. </em></p> A.O. Isoje, F.O. Obi Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The effects of the rock stratigraphy on TPH/PAH absorption and transmission in some sections of the Gokana and Khana Local Government Areas <p><em>Concentration of TPH/PAH in soils in parts of Gokana and Khana local government areas of Rivers state were examined using samples from 30 shallow wells drilled with hand auger. The core intervals penetrated, ranged between 0 on the surface to 100cm at total depth and was composited into two sections corresponding to upper 0 – 0.5m and lower 0.51 – 0.1m sections respectively. The samples were described to determine their sedimentological characteristics and effect on absorption and transmission of fluids. The total hydrocarbon content in samples of the study area were determined following the EPA 1664 Hexane Method (Method No: EPA 418.1/413.2 &amp; EPA 1664). Individual concentrations of identified PAH congeners were noted and combined to generate the PAH concentrations in each of the two composited sections of the 30 sampled locations. The sedimentology of the logged sections consists mostly of peaty clay, clayey sands and organic clay in the upper section and clayey silt and clayey sand in the lower section. TPH in the study area ranged between 20612mg/kg at Location 15 to 37.09mg/kg at Location 11 for the upper (0 – 0.5m) sections and 14731mg/kg at Location 12 to 14.67mg/kg at Location 17 for the lower (0.51 – 1m) section. PAH ranged from 9.55mg/kg at Location 12 to &lt;0.01mg/kg at several other Locations for the upper (0 – 0.5m) sections and 5.71mg/kg at Location 11 to &lt;0.01mg/kg at several other Locations for the lower (0.51 – 1m) section. Correlation of sedimentology descriptions with the geochemical analysis indicates high concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) within the upper (0 – 0.5m) sections than in the lower (0.51 – 0.1m) sections in consonant with the stratigraphy of the logged section. </em></p> U.A. Etukokwu, G.J. Udom, F.D. Giadom, N. Ukpabi Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Preliminary investigation of the activity of aqueous <i>Cucumis sativus</i> fruit extract on the prefrontal cortex in Wistar rats <p><em>Cucumis sativus Linn. is reported to have a wide variety of medicinal uses due to its abundance of carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and secondary metabolites. This study investigated the possible alterations in the prefrontal cortex of adult Wistar rats following the administration of aqueous Cucumis sativus fruit extract (ACSFE). Eighteen (18) Wistar rats, randomly divided into three groups (n=6), were used for this study. Group A served as control while Groups B and C received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of ACSFE respectively. At the end of the administration, the rats were weighed and the Y-maze test was utilized to evaluate spontaneous alternation of the experimental rats. Thereafter, the cerebri were harvested for antioxidant [Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione (GSH)], lipid peroxidation [Malondialdehyde (MDA)] and histological evaluations. Results showed that there were no significant differences in the final body, absolute whole brain weights and spontaneous alternation of the extract-treated Groups when compared to the control. The histological sections of the prefrontal cortex of the rats in control Group were similar to the extract-treated groups showing normal pyramidal cells with open-face nuclei, basophilic cytoplasm and normal neuroglia cells. Taken together, ACSFE, at these doses, is not toxic to the prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats. </em></p> O.U. Idemudia, A.B. Enogieru Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Design and implementation of a loan default prediction system using random forest algorithm <p><em>Loan default prediction is a crucial task in the lending industry; it helps financial institutions make informed decisions about granting loans. It is usually a daunting task for the bank or financial institution to predict customers who will default on a loan especially when there are thousands of applicants. This loan default prediction system aimed to improve the Area Under the Curve (AUC) score. This loan default prediction system used various data sources, such as demographic information, credit history, and financial performance to predict the likelihood of a loan being defaulted. The system used a random forest (RF) machine learning algorithm to analyze the data and build predictive models. The model was then used to make predictions about new loan applicants and existing borrowers who may default in the future. The system can be customized to meet the specific requirements of different lending institutions. The system enables lenders to make better decisions on loan approval, interest rate determination, and credit risk, management. The loan default prediction system also provides insights into risk factors that contribute to loan default and helps lenders develop effective strategies to mitigate these risks, making it an indispensable tool for lenders. The resultant system achieved an improved AUC score of 98%. </em></p> L. U. Oghenekaro, M. C. Chimela Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Intersubband optical gain spectra in compressively strained InGaAs/GaInP quantum well <p><em>In this paper, the theoretical analyses of the optical intersubband transitions in strained InGaAs/GaInP quantum well are investigated. A simplified method of the treatment of the compressive strain effects incorporation for the wavefunction and thus the intersubband dipole matrix is discussed. The effects of Gallium mole fraction, quantum well width and compressive strained on the band properties, intersubband transitions and optical absorption/gain spectra are shown to be pronounced. Thus this present investigation could become a good guild for tuning the optoelectronic properties of many quantum devices utilizing intersubband electronics in their various technological applications. </em></p> A.E. Davies, C.I. Oriaku, U. Joseph Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A framework for the detection of distributed denial of service attacks on network logs using ML and DL classifiers <p><em>Despite the promise of machine learning in DDoS mitigation, it is not without its challenges. Attackers can employ adversarial techniques to evade detection by machine learning models. Moreover, machine learning models require large amounts of high-quality data for training and continuous refinement. Security teams must also be vigilant in monitoring and fine-tuning these models to adapt to new attack vectors. Nonetheless, the integration of machine learning into cybersecurity strategies represents a powerful approach to countering the persistent threat of DDoS attacks in an increasingly interconnected world. This paper proposed Machine Learning (ML) models and a Deep Learning (DL) model for the detection of Distributed Denial of Service Attacks (DDOS) on network system. The DDOS dataset is highly imbalanced because the number of instances of the various classes of the dataset are different. To solve the imbalance problem, we performed random under-sampling using under sampling technique in python called random under-sampler. The down sampled dataset was used for the training of the ML and DL classifiers. The trained models are random forest, gradient boosting and recurrent neural network algorithms on the DDOS dataset. The model was trained on the DDOS dataset by fine tuning the hyper parameters. The models was used to make prediction in an unseen dataset to detect the various types of the DDOS attacks. The result of the models were evaluated in terms of accuracy. The results of the models show an accuracy result of 79% for random forest, 82%, for gradient boosting, and 99.47% for recurrent neural network. From the experimental results.</em></p> M. O. Musa, E. E. Odokuma Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Virulence genes detection and antibiotic resistant <i>Salmonella</i> in raw and ready-to-eat snails (<i>Arachatina marginata</i>) sold in selected markets in Port Harcourt <p><em>This study investigated the presence of virulence genes and antibiotic resistant Salmonella spp. in raw and ready-to-eat snails (Archachatina marginata) vended in selected markets within Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Proximate composition, isolation, identification and presence of virulent genes were done using standard methods. Raw snails from Choba had Salmonella counts ranging from 3.32 to 5.04 log<sub>10</sub>CFU/g. Salmonella was not detected in ready-to-eat samples from Choba. Raw snails from Rumuokoro had Salmonella counts ranging from 4.04 to 6.04 log<sub>10</sub>CFU/g while three of the ten ready-to-eat samples had counts ranging from 3.53 to 3.63 log<sub>10</sub>CFU/g. Raw snails from Oyigbo had Salmonella counts ranging from 4.71 to 6.67 log<sub>10</sub>CFU/g with two of the five ready-to-eat samples having Salmonella counts of 3.69 and 3.51 log<sub>10</sub>CFU/g. Antimicrobial susceptibility test results showed that all the isolates were resistant to augmentin, cefuroxi and cetazidime. Ten Salmonella representing 5% possessed the antibiotics resistance genes, fliC and invA, but not sefA. The presence of Salmonella in some of the ready-to-eat samples makes it objectionable for human consumption. But more worrisome is that some possess fliC and invA genes and resistant to common antibiotics used for their management. Therefore, proper processing and maintenance of quality of processed snail meat is very essential for public health safety. </em></p> N.M. Okafor, O.C. Eruteya Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Antioxidant and cytotoxicity studies of <i>Eleusine indica</i> (Linn.) Gaertn. on brine shrimp <p><em>Cancer is currently one of the most dangerous diseases reported all over the world; there are numerous researches ongoing to tackle the effects of chemotherapy on diagnosed patients. Hence, this study aimed at evaluating the antioxidant and cytotoxic potentials of Eleusine indica on Brine shrimp. Fresh E. indica was air dried, pulverized, macerated in absolute methanol at room temperature for 72 hours, and concentrated. Phytochemical screening of the powdered sample was done using standard protocols. The crude extract was further partitioned into different fractions (n-hexane, aqueous, ethyl acetate), screened for their cytotoxic and anti-oxidant activities using brine shrimp lethality assay and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method respectively. For the anti-oxidant test, gallic acid and catechol were used as control while cyclophosphamide was used as the control for cytotoxicity test. Preliminary phytochemical assay revealed the presence of alkaloids and anthraquinones while saponins and cardiac glycosides were absent. High anti-oxidant activity was recorded with the lethal concentration of aqueous extract E. indica (129% LC<sub>50</sub>) followed by the crude extract (128.7% LC<sub>50</sub>) when compare to gallic acid (0.95% LC<sub>50</sub>) and catechol (1.70% LC<sub>50</sub>). The crude extract showed high activity against brine shrimp cell. The n-hexane fraction (12.08 LC<sub>50</sub></em> <em>μg/mL) showed the highest cytotoxic activity followed by the aqueous fraction (7.72 LC<sub>50</sub></em> <em>μg/mL). This study revealed the potent antioxidant and cytotoxic potentials of E. indica and also justified its use in traditional medicine. Further investigation should be carried out on the isolation and characterization of the bioactive compounds responsible for these activities. </em></p> C.T. Senjobi, P. P. Olusesan, O. I. Lawal, S.O. Bamigboye, M.O. Jimoh, A.O. Ettu Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of nutritional chemicals and antioxidant activities of some food components for their potential as functional foods and prebiotics <p><em>Functional foods are known to contain some nutritional chemicals and/or possess antioxidant properties. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the nutritional chemicals and antioxidant activities of date, walnut, cashew nut and bush mango seeds for their potential as functional foods. Proximate, mineral, phytochemical, anti-nutritional, antioxidant and amino acid compositions of the food samples were investigated using standard methods. The moisture content observed in the four functional foods was highest in cashew nut with a percentage value of 6.25% and lowest in walnut (4.33%). Also, cashew nut had the highest amount of protein, with a value of 28.55%. Fat ranged from 0.98 – 1.78%; There was a noticeable high amount of total carbohydrate as its value ranged from 42.45 – 56.55%. Proximate analysis also revealed low ash contents. Mineral analysis revealed the presence of magnesium, calcium, potassium, nitrogen, sodium and phosphorus. Date had the highest amount of potassium (2.67%) whereas walnut had the highest amount of phosphorus (1.22%). Energy contribution from protein ranged from 12.21 – 16.37% while that of fat ranged from 1.69 – 2.86%. Anti-nutritional analysis showed the presence of oxalate, phytic acid, tannin and cyanide. Several phytochemicals like saponin, alkaloid, flavonoid and steroid were detected in all the samples. Essential amino acids were present in the samples in varied concentrations. Concentration of glutamic acid was highest in walnut (13.02 g/100g) followed by cashew nut (12.87 g/100g). All the samples showed antioxidant activities which was significant. This study has revealed that date, walnut, cashew nut and bush mango seed possess potential as functional foods which provide a wide range of essential nutrients and antioxidant properties with many potential health benefits. </em></p> U.C. Ajaero, O.S. Yusuf, M.S. Abdulsalami, B. Benjamin, T.O. Ndibe, V. Bakare, J. Sani Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of multidrug resistant <i>Escherichia coli</i> on medical equipment and surfaces from selected hospitals in Minna, Nigeria <p><em>Nosocomial infections are often caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria contaminating hospital environments which can cause outbreaks as well as sporadic transmission. This study was carried out to investigate the presence of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli on medical equipment and surfaces in selected hospitals in Minna, Nigeria. A total of 130 samples were collected by swabbing medical equipment (28) and surfaces (102), the samples were screened for Escherichia coli isolates by culturing on MacConkey agar and Eosin methylene blue agar (EMB). A total 22 (17.9%) Escherichia coli were isolated, with the highest level of contamination observed in beds (31.8%) and chair surfaces (13.6%). Antibiotic susceptibility results revealed that 19(86.4%) of the E. coli isolates were multidrug-resistant showing high level of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 19(86.4%), ampicillin 18(81.8%), cefixime 17(77.3%), nalidixic acid 17(77.3%), ciprofloxacin 15(68.2%) and cefpodoxime 14(63.6%). Escherichia coli isolated exhibited high level of resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics in the treatment of E. coli infections. This is quiet alarming, as such existing prevention strategies and infection control programs should be intensified in the control of nosocomial infections. </em></p> M. M. Wuna, S. O. Enejiyon, I. Dawud, R.A. Fasasi, N. U. Adabara Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Serum antibodies against ToRCH agents in pregnant women presenting at a tertiary hospital in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. <p><em>ToRCH infections pose a great risk to the fetus and neonates if the mother is actively infected during pregnancy. This may lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, delayed fetal growth and maturation (intrauterine growth retardation), or pre-term delivery. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of ToRCH infections in pregnant women in Port Harcourt. Sera from 84 pregnant women between the ages of 16 and 45 were analysed for detectable ToRCH IgM antibodies using the Dia-Pro ToRCH IgM kit. The results from the study showed an IgM seroprevalence rate of 82.1%, with the highest rate of seropositivity obtained among married women (91.0%), Civil servants (92.3%) and women within the age group 25-34 years (92.9%). There was significant relationship between the ToRCH IgM seropositivity and age, marital status and occupational status. The seropositivity of ToRCH agents among pregnant women in Port Harcourt is high, suggesting an acute infection which may adversely affect fetal health. This underscores the need for preventive antenatal screening and universal immunization schemes. </em></p> I. O. Okonko, M.A. Ogbonnia, B.J Okonko, E.N. Onu, M.U. Igwe Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the underlying mechanism of ethyl acetate extract of Annona muricata leaves via the NRF2 and NF-ΚB pathway in type 1 diabetic Wistar rats <p>Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the destruction of pancreatic beta cells, leading to impaired insulin production and regulation. Recent research has shown that medicinal plants with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties hold promise as potential therapeutic agents for managing complications of the disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-diabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effect of ethyl acetate extract of <em>Annona muricata </em>leaves in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in Wistar rats. Thirty five (35) male Wistar rats weighing 150-180g were used for this experiment. Group 1 (Normal control), Group 2 (STZ 40 mg/kg only Diabetic control), Group 3 (STZ+ metformin 500mg/kg bw), Group 4 (STZ + ethyl acetate extract 250 mg/kg bw), Group 5 (STZ + ethyl acetate extract (500 mg/kg bw). Fasting blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for glucose estimation and liver tissues excised for both biochemical and molecular studies. The study demonstrated the extract's ability to modulate the NF-κB pathway, leading to the suppression of inflammatory responses in diabetic rats. These findings suggest that the ethyl acetate extract of <em>A. muricata </em>leaves may ameliorate type 1 diabetes by promoting antioxidant defense and reducing inflammatory processes through the NRF2 and NF-κB pathways. This research sheds light on the potential of natural compounds as adjunct therapies for type 1 diabetes and provides a foundation for further investigations into the development of novel treatments targeting oxidative stress and inflammation in autoimmune diabetes.</p> K. Oriakhi, R.O. Ogbomo, C.I. Anyanwu, K.C. Agu Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating the feasibility of utilizing <i>Pennisetum purpureum</i> leaves waste as a sustainable dye: Extraction, characterization and application on textile <p><em>This study investigated the potential of Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant grass) leaves waste as a source of natural dyes. The objective was to extract, characterize and apply the natural dyes on textile fabrics. Elephant grass was chosen due to its abundant availability as agricultural waste, making it an environmentally sustainable alternative to synthetic dyes. The extraction process involved maceration, followed by filtration to obtain the dye extract. The dye components were isolated using vacuum liquid chromatography and then characterized using analytical tools such as UV-Visible Spectrophotometry, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to identify the presence of specific compounds responsible for the dyeing potential. The perspiration fastness, rubbing fastness, light fastness and wash fastness properties were assessed to evaluate the durability and suitability of the natural dyes. The UV-Visible spectrum, HPLC and FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of chromophores such as conjugated systems, and provided information about chemical components namely rutin, quercetin, senecionine, hyoscyamine and tannic acid present in the dye, as well as the types of bond present in the molecules including C-H, O-H, C=O and C-O groups, which are characteristics of natural dyes. The dyed textile fabrics demonstrated somewhat fair to good with a rating of 3-7 for perspiration fastness, light fastness, rubbing fastness and wash fastness, indicating the potential of the natural dye for practical applications. The findings can inspire further research and development in utilizing agricultural waste for natural dye production, promoting sustainable practices in textile manufacturing. </em></p> P. D. Clark, J. O. Otutu, K. A. Asiagwu, G. I. Ndukwe, C. A. Idibie Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of regenerative effectiveness on the performance of simple gas turbine <p><em>The deregulation of the power and energy sector introduced a strong element of competition. Power plant operators try to develop techniques to maximize profits in the dynamic power industry. New methods of improving and optimizing simple gas turbine power plants are needed to enhance operational decision making and therefore to maximize power plant profitability by reducing operational and maintenance cost and increasing revenue. In this work, the thermodynamic model equations of both a simple gas turbine and regenerative gas turbine cycle were used to analyses the effect of increase in the regenerative effectiveness to the performance of the simple gas turbine. Microsoft Excel 2010 software was used to carried out the analysis. It was observed that for the simple gas turbine the thermal efficiency, heat rate, specific fuel consumption and heat addition have a constant value of 35.4%, 9630Btu/Kwh, 0.2768kg/Kwh, 44237.8Kw, all through, while for the regenerative gas turbine cycle as the value of the regenerative effectiveness increases from 0.8 to 1.0, the thermal efficiency increases from 41.1% to 65.0%, the heat rate decreases from 8753Btu/Kwh to 5536 Btu/Kwh , specific fuel consumption decreases from 0.248945122Kg/Kw.h to 0.157432413 Kg/Kw.h and heat addition reduces from 39782.5Kw to 25158.4Kw. It was seen clearly that the regenerative gas turbine cycle has higher thermal efficiency compare to the simple gas turbine, and as the regenerative effectiveness of the regenerative gas turbine cycle increases the performance of the regenerative gas turbine increases. </em></p> E.E. Ogbe, C.V. Ossia, E. Saturday, C. Ezekwem Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Taxonomic characteristics of <i>Spinacia oleracea</i> L. <p><em>The research focused on the taxonomic study and proximate analysis of Spinacia oleracea L. The samples were fixed in formaldehyde acetic acid alcohol, dehydrated in alcohol solutions of 50%, 70% and 90%, sectioned, stained in 2% of Safranin O, counter stained in Alcian blue for 5 minutes, mounted in glycerine and photo-micrographed using Leica WILD MPS 52 camera on Leitz Draplan microscope. The proximate analysis was done using the Association of Official Analytical Chemists’ methods. The result revealed that spinach is glabrous and reach up to 4 to 8ft in length. The foliar organs are simple, ovate to ovate-triangular and alternate to rosette phyllotaxy. Margins are entire to slightly serrated, reticulate veined, up to 5 ± 4 cm in length and 3 ± 2 cm in width. The basal leaves are far larger than the ones towards the apical meristem. The inflorescence has spikelet of actinomorphic flowers pollinated by wind. The fruit is a berry/ drupe. The foliar epidermal study revealed presence of simple elongated, linear and glandular trichomes, and amphistomatic diacytic stomata. Anatomical study showcased a layer of epidermis, hypodermis of 2 to 3 rolls of collenchyma, general cortex of 7 to 10 rolls of parenchyma and the pith of parenchyma. The node is unilacunar with 2 lateral leaf traces and 1 leaf trace median. The proximate compositions of: 0.19 ± 0.00 Carbohydrate (%); 3.75 ± 0.00 Protein (%); 0.02 ± 0.00 Lipid (%); 94.74 ± 0.36 Moisture (%) content; 0.62 ± 0.32 Fiber (%) and 1.18 ± 0.03 Ash (%). These information would assist for further delimitation of the species. </em></p> C. Wahua, J. U. Agogbua Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Mycological assessment of different types of cake sold in Port Harcourt, Nigeria <p><em>Spoilage of cake during storage is commonly associated with fungi. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing the quality of different types of cake (chocolate, fruit, vanilla, carrot and red velvet cake) sold in Port Harcourt metropolis. A total of fourteen cakes were sampled from three vendors and stored for twelve days at ambient temperature (29±2<sup>o</sup>C). Monitoring of total fungal count (TFC) and identification of fungal species isolated from the cake samples were carried out at 24 hour intervals using standard microbiological methods. The result obtained showed that 48.21% of the cake samples met the standard recommended by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) and the Institute of Food Science and Technology (IFST) at the intervals they were monitored during the storage period. Non-viable fungal count were reported in the cake samples within the first 2 days; fruit cake samples till day 9. The TFC of the cake samples steadily increased during the storage period with few exceptions. Carrot cake samples had the highest TFC (7.02 log<sub>10</sub>CFU/g). Fusarium spp. (32%), Aspergillus niger (27.33%), Penicillium notatum (17.33%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.67%), A. flavus (9.33%), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (2.67%) and Candida albicans (0.67%) were encountered in the cake samples. During the period of storage, fungi was first observed in fruit cake on day 10 whereas, it was earlier reported in other types of cake. Therefore, freshly baked cake produced in commercial quantity and stored at ambient temperature should be consumed within few days to avoid individuals experiencing foodborne illnesses. </em></p> I. Ahaotu, I. P. Ngeribika, N. Maduka Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Testing the viability of poultry droppings as an option in the management of soil nematodes on <i>Capsicum annuum</i> plant <p><em>A survey to evaluate the viability of poultry droppings as a management option for the control of plant parasitic nematodes was tested on Capsicum annuum</em><em>. </em><em>Bell pepper monoculture farms cultivated conventionally and another with poultry droppings as fertilizer were surveyed. Soil samples were collected using a hand trowel while roots were collected by means of kitchen knife. Plant parasitic nematodes extraction was done by using sieve plate method. Nematodes were identified using the light microscope of x4 and x10 objectives, and identification was done using a pictorial key. Roots assay from the conventional far revealed a total of 175 endophytic nematodes from 10 genera while 56 nematodes from 6 genera were extracted from the farm with poultry droppings. Nematode dynamics in diversity was observed such that certain nematode genera such as Meliodogyne, Radopholus, Pratylenchus, Ditylenchus, Hoplolaimus, Rhaditis were reported in both plots. Phyto-parasitic species were predominant at the conventional farm plot whereas nematodes predatory species recorded higher populations in the farm plot with poultry droppings, an observation which depict that parasitic nematodes could be inhibited by the presence of free living species. This observation further suggests that poultry droppings can adequately fit in as a management of nematodes management if properly harmonised. </em></p> E. G. Ekine, C. O. Ezenwaka Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Potentially pathogenic multidrug-resistant <i>Vibrio</i> sp. isolated from dumpsites in Rivers State, Nigeria <p><em>Vibrio sp. is associated with several disease conditions. An assessment of the pathogenic potential of such strains is key in assessing the risk these organisms could pose to human health. This study therefore was aimed at analyzing the pathogenic potential of MDR Vibrio sp. isolated from select dumpsites in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Two dumpsites in Port Harcourt, Rivers State were assessed for the presence of Vibrio sp. using standard microbiological techniques involving a pre-enrichment using alkaline peptone water, culture on Thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose and biochemical characterisation. Following antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the standard Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method, pathogenic potential was assessed based on haemolytic activity and biofilm forming potential. Results showed that the highest rates of resistance were against cefuroxime (68.8%) while the lowest resistance rates (3.2%) were against the quinolone antibiotics (ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin). In total, 38 antibiograms were observed among the 93 isolates with AUG-CAZ-CRX-CXM noted as the most commonly occurring antibiogram. Only 31.2% (29/93) of isolates were multidrug resistant. A total of 47.3% of the test isolates exhibited pathogenic potential (either haemolytic ability or biofilm forming potential), with more (37.6%) exhibiting biofilm forming potential. A co-occurrence of both pathogenic characteristics was observed in only 6 (13.6%) isolates. Of the 93 isolates, a co-occurrence of MDR and pathogenic potential was observed in 16.1% of isolates (15/93). This study shows a moderate association between potentially pathogenic multidrug resistance Vibrio sp. and the sampled dumpsites indicating a low potential public health risk because of the non-pathogenic nature of strains isolated. </em></p> K. Otokunefor, C. P. Nwokolo, C. E. Abara, N. P. Ujah, P.C. Nwankwo, K. C. Nyema, O. E. Agbagwa, N. Frank-Peterside Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The ameliorative potential of aqueous extract of <i>Hunteria unbellata</i> on alloxan—induced diabetes and hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats <p><em>The use of aqueous fruit extract of unripe Hunteria umbellata in the therapeutic management of alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats was investigated. Thirty-five Wistar rats divided into 7 groups of 5 rats each were used for the study. Group 1 was the positive control. Diabetes was induced in Groups 2 -7 using 150 mg kg<sup>-1</sup></em> <em>body weight of alloxan. Glucose levels were monitored for 72 hrs to confirm diabetes mellitus. Rats in group 2 received no treatment and served as the negative control while rats in Groups 3-7 received 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 2500 mg kg<sup>-1</sup></em> <em>of aqueous fruit extract of unripe H. umbellata respectively. After 28 days, the animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and blood was collected through cardiac puncture for determination of biochemical and haematological indices. The results showed a significant reduction (p&lt;0.05) in the average weights of the rats from 141.4±2.07 g before alloxan treatment to 130.4±8.14 g. However, treatment with 500-2500 mg kg<sup>-1</sup></em> <em>of H. umbellata significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased the weight of the rats to 141.0±1.41 g. The average fasting blood sugar (FBS) level of the rats before alloxan induction was 5.58±0.73 mmol/l, this increased 72 hours after alloxan treatment to 23.92±5.27 mmol/l. Treatment with 500-2500 mg kg<sup>-1</sup></em> <em>of H. umbellata initiated a significant (p&lt;0.05) dose-related reduction in FBS levels. There was a significant (p&lt;0.05) increase in α-amylase (31.19±2.67 IU) and Glutathione reductase (55.77±9.66 mg/dl) activities in group 6 when compared to group 2 (18.04±0.82 and 18.07±1.94 mg/dl respectively). Total cholesterol (160.51±1.36 mg/dl) in group 2 was reduced to 95.63±1.61 mg/dl in group 5. In conclusion, H. umbellata has the potential to lower blood sugar and may be used in the management of diabetes. </em></p> S.W. Emejuru, B.M. Onyegeme-Okerenta, B.A. Amadi Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Epstein Barr Virus nuclear antigen and sociodemographical characteristics of HIV-infected individuals in two tertiary health facilities in Rivers State, Nigeria <p><em>Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the opportunistic pathogens that affects HIV infected individuals. Although high prevalence of EBV has been well documented in Africa and some parts of Nigeria, such data are sparse from Rivers State, Nigeria. Thus, this study aimed at determining the Epstein Barr virus nuclear antigens and the sociodemographical characteristics of HIV-infected individuals in two tertiary hospitals in Rivers State, Nigeria. Plasma from 182 HIV-infected individuals attending the Retroviral Clinics of UPTH and RSUTH in Rivers State, Nigeria were tested for antibodies specific for EBNA by IgM ELISA assays. Overall prevalence of IgM antibodies against Epstein Barr Nucleic Acid (EBNA) was 20.9%. The study showed sex-related statistical variances in the seropositivity of anti-IgM (females 23.5% vs. males 16.4%, p&lt;0.05). Higher seropositivity occurred in age range 0-20 years (25.0%) than other age range, divorced and widowed (50.0%) than the married (25.7%) and singles (10.1%), among tertiary education (24.7%) than secondary (20.5%) </em><em>and </em><em>primary education (8.3%)</em><em>, Islamic religion </em><em>(</em><em>56.3%) than Christian religion (</em><em>17.5%)</em><em>, and social/healthcare workers </em><em>(37.5</em><em>%) than other occupational groups</em><em>. </em><em>Summarily, higher </em><em>seropositivity of anti-IgM </em><em>antibodies against EBV was observed in HIV-infected individuals in UPTH than their counterparts in RSUTH. </em><em>Nevertheless, 20.9% of the HIV-infected individuals in this study that were categorized with current/ongoing primary infection, owed to VCA-IgM detection, were positive for EBNA IgM antibodies. In conclusion, this study clearly confirmed that EBV seropositivity considerably increased with age, sex, marital status, educational level, religion, and occupation. Thus, this study verified earlier studies that presented high EBV seroprevalence, touching &gt;50.0%the populace in Nigeria. Future larger and multi-center clinical research are suggested to address some unanswered seroepidemiological questions. </em></p> E. N. Oketah, T. I. Cookey, B. J. Okonko, C. C. Adim, E. N. Onu, N. Frank-Peterside, I. O. Okonko Copyright (c) 2024 Scientia Africana Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000