Southern African Business Review <p><span>The </span><em>Southern African Business Review</em><span> serves as a vehicle for the publication and dissemination of research in the fields of the economic and management sciences. Research contributions should conform to high standards of scholarly research inquiry. The following should at least be addressed: purpose/objective of the article, sound conceptualisation/theoretical foundation, statement of the research problem or hypothesis, research methodology (where applicable), analysis/discussion of research findings (where applicable) and conclusion.</span></p><p>Other websites related to this journal: <a href=""></a></p> en-US <span>Copyright on articles is retained by the author(s). The editor and reviewers of SABR cannot accept any responsibility for the infringement of authors' rights or copyright.</span> (Erna Koekemoer) (Mohamed Z Motala) Tue, 06 Feb 2024 12:35:12 +0000 OJS 60 A Management Model for Transformative Corporate Social Responsibility Practices: The Case of the South African Business Sector <p><strong>Purpose/objectives</strong>: In the absence of a socio-economic transformative business agenda, our purpose is to propose a transformative Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) management model for businesses in South Africa.<br><strong>Design/methodology</strong>: A case study design was followed, using document analysis and a questionnaire as data collection methods. Thirty respondents, representing nine businesses from the banking, food and telecommunication sectors, were sampled.<br><strong>Findings</strong>: The results suggest that businesses do not follow a systematic, uniform reporting format annually and do not fully comply with Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) standards or B-BBEE compliance targets. Furthermore, no clear evidence could be found in the sampled companies’ sustainability reports of how much money was contributed annually to socio-economic development, and no progressive CSR trends could be discerned.<br><strong>Practical implications:</strong> A practical model with guidelines is presented to assist South African businesses to successfully comply with statutory and regulatory obligations and international CSR reporting requirements.<br><strong>Originality/value</strong>: The proposed transformative CSR management model offers a tangible framework for businesses in the absence of such a framework. The main elements of the final model are the oversight and management of CSR and CSR activities, stakeholder management, intervention impact planning, stakeholder engagement, implementation, and sustainable impact reporting. This model can be implemented and used by various stakeholders in the business sector to accelerate tangible and sustainable socio-economic transformation in South Africa.</p> Niel Rooi, Gerrit van der Waldt, Doret Botha Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 06 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Process of Contract Compliance: A Public Procurement Perspective <p><strong>Purpose/Objective</strong>s: The purpose of this study was to determine the ideal contract compliance process in Uganda from a state department perspective.<br><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: In conducting this study, the interpretivist approach using the qualitative methodology was employed. Telephonic interviews and focus group discussions via the Zoom online platform with semi-structured interviews were conducted among 29 procurement officers, heads of finance departments, heads of procurement departments, auditors and accounting officers. The interviews explored matters concerning what is regarded as the ideal contract compliance process.<br><strong>Findings</strong>: The findings indicate that the ideal contract compliance involves the following nine stages: understanding the law; procurement planning; requisitioning; establishing funds availability for the items procured; sourcing providers; contract awarding; appointing contract managers; monitoring deliveries; and payment.<br><strong>Practical Implications</strong>: Studies such as the current one widen the management scope and suggest that state departments should read the mind of society and continuously engage with them; make SMART plans and budgets; streamline processes; involve technical people; legally assess the contract; and follow the existing laws.<br><strong>Originality/Value:</strong> The cost of contract non-compliance is high and could lead to missed deadlines; delays in executing contracts; litigation and even cancellation of contracts. This could result in a lack of transparency and accountability; poor performance; inefficiency; and poor resource usage. To prevent these negative impacts, state departments could add policy recommendations to implement an effective contract compliance process.</p> Hamidah Babirye, Madele Tait, Nadine Oosthuizen Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 06 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of Financial Literacy on Retirement Planning in South Africa <p><strong>Background</strong>: A shift in the retirement planning and pensions landscape has created an enormous responsibility for individuals to plan for their retirement provision actively. Very few South Africans reach the average retirement age of 65 years with sufficient funds to sustain themselves during their retirement.<br><strong>Purpose/objective</strong>: Using secondary data from the 2011 South African Social Attitudes Survey (SASAS), this study aims to examine the influence financial literacy has on the retirement planning of South Africans. The secondary aim of the study was to investigate the financial literacy and retirement planning behaviour of certain demographic groups: gender, age, race, education, and income levels.<br><strong>Design/methodolog</strong>y: Binomial logistic regression is used to establish if financial literacy influences planning for retirement.<br>Findings: The results show that financial literacy significantly influences retirement planning. Furthermore, only 24% of South Africans actively plan for retirement and financial literacy was particularly low among women, less educated individuals and Black African people.<br><strong>Research limitations</strong>: Firstly, the study relies on self-reported measures. Secondly, the binomial logistic regression analysis only indicates the likelihood of an individual planning for retirement based on their financial literacy score.<br><strong>Originality/value</strong>: This study contributes to retirement planning literature as it is one of the few studies that explore retirement planning and financial literacy in the context of a developing country using a geographic, nationally representative sample.</p> Nyasha Tapiwa Dhlembeu, Mamekwa Katlego Kekana, Mpinda Freddy Mvita Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 06 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Annual Financial Reporting: A Quantitative Analysis of the Temporal Going Concern Status during Business Rescue Proceedings <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: Financial reporting guidance such as the Conceptual Framework for the Presentation of Financial statements (CF), together with specific International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) such as International Accounting Standards no. 1 (IAS 1), require an assessment of whether a company can be considered a going concern at the time of preparing its annual financial statements. According to the Companies Act, no. 71 of 2008 (Companies Act), a company in financial distress may file for temporary business rescue protection in order to reorganise its affairs to continue to exist on a solvent basis (return to solvency [RTS]) or, if that is not possible, to offer a better settlement to creditors or shareholders, than under immediate liquidation (better settlement than under immediate liquidation [BSIL]). Building on prior qualitative research in this area, this paper quantitatively investigates the temporal going concern status in the context of a South African company listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) while under business rescue.<br><strong>Design</strong>: The paper follows a quantitative cross-sectional design using a purposive nonprobability sampling method. Empirical data were collected from accounting and business rescue experts using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics to detect patterns of association between variables of interest.<br><strong>Findings:</strong> The paper presents quantitative empirical evidence supporting prior qualitative research on business rescue context-specific indicators of going concern. In particular, if a South African listed company files for business rescue protection, the company may not be regarded as a going concern, for annual financial reporting purposes, up to the adoption or rejection of a business rescue plan. Furthermore, the evidence shows that when a business rescue plan is adopted that aims to offer a BSIL, the company cannot be considered to be a going concern during the business rescue proceedings. Moreover, should a business rescue practitioner aim for an RTS, the evidence shows that the company can only be likely regarded as a going concern when the business rescue plan is substantially implemented.<br><strong>Value</strong>: Management and auditors should note that in the case of a BSIL, the evidence presented implies an underlying assumption other than the going concern assumption. This is also implied in the case of an RTS aim prior to the substantial implementation of the business rescue plan. In the absence of any other defined underlying assumption, the liquidation basis is the de facto alternative. Moreover, the underlying assumption in an RTS will also likewise be the liquidation basis in the absence of another defined underlying assumption. Standard-setters should take note of the need to provide more guidance on the matter.</p> Christiaan Lamprecht, Hendrik van Wyk Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 06 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of the Youth Informal Entrepreneurship Landscape in South Africa <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The South African economy is characterised by high and continuously rising youth unemployment levels and rates. While countervailing interventions have been attempted in the formal sector, support for youth employment and informal sector entrepreneurship has received limited attention from policymakers.<br><strong>Purpose</strong>: This is a rare study that examined South African youth entrepreneurship by analysing all five available waves of the seriously under-utilised Survey of Employers and Self-Employed (SESE) data, focusing on youth entrepreneurial activities.<br>Methodology: Youth (15–34 years) and adult (at least 35 years old) informal entrepreneurs were distinguished, before deriving descriptive statistics on business activities, with a specific focus on site of operation, management, employment and net profit use in youth-owned enterprises.<br><strong>Findings</strong>: Youth informal entrepreneurs were typically African own-account workers without matric (senior certificate), and operated in the wholesale and retail industry. They had decent access to electricity and piped water on the business site, but did not have e-mail or internet facilities. More than 80% did not keep any business records, while only 60% operated their businesses for the full 12 months. Nearly 90% had launched their informal businesses less than five years ago, primarily because they were unemployed. The majority needed assistance mostly in the areas of marketing, provision of an alternate site and better access to raw materials. Lastly, the majority of them spent the net profit to purchase household items instead of re-investing in the businesses.<br><strong>Originality/value</strong>: The empirical findings help the government to embark on new policy changes to better promote youth informal entrepreneurship growth.</p> Simbarashe Murozvi, Charles Adams, Derek Yu Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 06 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of Penalties on the Tax Compliance Behaviour of Small Business Owners <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of penalties on the tax compliance behaviour of small business owners.<br><strong>Research design</strong>: This study employed a qualitative research approach. An interpretive phenomenological research approach underpinned the study design. The study utilised semi-structured interviews to explore the lived experiences of small business owners in Gauteng, which is the business hub of South Africa.<br><strong>Findings</strong>: The findings indicate that to an extent, penalties do encourage small business owners to pay taxes on time. However, the charging of substantial penalties has the potential to discourage small business owners from registering at all for taxes. Furthermore, non-compliance is often a result of cash flow challenges, in which case the penalties become an unavoidable cost of doing business. A lack of skills and basic tax knowledge lead to unintentional non-compliance; therefore, the penalties must be accompanied by training, awareness and education.<br><strong>Originality/Value</strong>: There are conflicting results on the influence of penalties on tax compliance behaviour in the literature. This study contributes to the body of knowledge by adding a South African small business perspective. Furthermore, the qualitative approach applied in this study adds to the body of knowledge and provides original contextual descriptions of the lived experiences regarding the influence of penalties on the tax compliance phenomenon.</p> Mphagahlele O. Ndlovu, Daniel P. Schutte Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 06 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Executive Compensation and Company Performance: Pre- and Post-Marikana Uprising Analysis <p><strong>Background:</strong> Executive compensation has become a controversial topic globally. Recent and past incidents of labour unrest, including those that plagued the South African mining sector in 2012, highlighted the level of controversy on the subject.<br><strong>Purpose</strong>: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between executive compensation and company performance in the mining sector of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE).<br><strong>Methodology</strong>: The study was quantitative in nature and used purposive sampling in selecting 28 mining companies listed on the JSE. Estimated generalised least squares (EGLS) and seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) were used to analyse unbalanced panel data spanning from 2007 to 2018.<br><strong>Findings</strong>: The results show that there is no relationship between executive compensation and market value added (MVA), revenue growth (RG), return on assets (ROA), and return on equity (ROE) both before and after the Marikana event. In the period before the Marikana event, 2007–2012, economic value added (EVA), share price (SP) and total assets (TA) were statistically significant in explaining variability in executive compensation. However, in the post-Marikana period, 2013–2018, only the TA and earnings per share (EPS) are statistically significant in explaining the variability in executive compensation.<br><strong>Value</strong>: This study offers a practical contribution to policy makers and practitioners on pertinent performance measures that can aid in minimising agency costs when designing executive compensation plans.</p> Remofilwe Nkwadi, Reon Matemane Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 06 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Significance of Market Power in the Financial Sustainability of Emerging Agricultural Cooperatives in the Central Free State of South Africa: A Resource-based View <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Despite the accessibility of institutional support mechanisms to cooperative firms in South Africa, many emerging agricultural cooperatives in the Central Free State remain underrepresented in the mainstream market, thereby undermining their long-term financial sustainability. Yet, business sustainability literature on cooperative firms foregrounds the theoretical assertion that the existence of market power significantly influences financial sustainability.<br><strong>Purpose</strong>: The study set out to debunk the assertion that emerging cooperative firms in the Central Free State have market power that they can exert to increase their financial sustainability.<br><strong>Methodology</strong>: Drawing on the resource-based view theory and a review of literature, the study sought to establish whether market dynamics have a direct influence on the financial sustainability of emerging agricultural cooperative firms.<br><strong>Findings</strong>: The findings suggest that competition intensity and market concentration undermine the ability of the market power of cooperatives to positively predict long-term financial sustainability.<br><strong>Originality</strong>: The study links various indicators of financial sustainability to market power and establishes the influence of each of them on market power—an approach underexplored in entrepreneurial literature.</p> Kingsley Nwenenda Orlu, Patient Rambe Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 06 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000