The diagnosis and management of perniosis (chilblains)
Perniosis (chilblains) is an abnormal reaction to cold that occurs most frequently in women, children, and the elderly. Chilblains may be idiopathic and self-limited, or associated with systemic diseases. This article discusses the approach to the diagnosis and treatment perniosis and explains the concepts of acrocyanosis and erythrocyanosis.
South African Family Practice Vol. 49 (6) 2007: pp. 28-29