South African Journal of Agricultural Extension 2019-08-08T11:18:52+00:00 Dr Fanie Terblanché Open Journal Systems <p>The <em>South African Journal of Agricultural Extension</em>aims to: * advance and apply the science of extension and of rural development as scientific discipline by stimulating thought, study, research, discussion and the publication and exchange of knowledge both nationally and internationally. * promote the professionalism, status and dignity of the extension profession amongst the scientific fraternity, the general public and with the studying youth. * practise the natural-, economic- and managerial sciences responsibly and in public interest. * act as representative mouthpiece for the extension profession in agriculture. </p><p>As of February 2018, this journal content is open access online.</p><p>Other websites related to this journal:<a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a> and <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a> and <a href=""></a></p> Designing successful land reform for the extensive grazing sector 2019-08-08T11:18:41+00:00 B Conradie <p>The purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of success in commercial sheep farming in the Karoo so that these characteristics can be designed into smallholder commercialisation programmes there and in the former homelands of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Benchmarking applied to production data from commercial operations revealed that every fifth commercial farmer is less than 50% efficient, and therefore is as much in need of extension as any smallholder might be. Experience is an important determinant of performance and could be developed in the smallholder sector through vocational training at the point of commercialisation. Sheep farming is amenable to smallholder production because it can be done successfully on a part-time basis. Woolled sheep are important. Being able to respond flexibly to rainfall variability is essential, but there are several ways to achieve this cost effectively in the smallholder sector.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Benchmarks, Extension plans, Extensive grazing areas, Sheep farming</p> 2019-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Agricultural extension: criteria to determine its visibility and accountability in resource poor communities 2019-08-08T11:18:42+00:00 P.P.K. Hlatshwayo S.H. Worth <p>Agricultural extension can be defined as the entire set of organisations that support and facilitate people engaged in agricultural production to solve problems and to obtain information, skills and technologies to improve their livelihoods and well-being. Extension officials should ensure that farmers are engaged and capacitated so that they can make production decisions that are not in conflict with nature, yet such decisions ensure that their well-being is improved. With 75% of the world’s poor living in rural areas, the topic of improved agriculture through agricultural extension is viewed as central to poverty reduction. There have been questions posed by stakeholders (communities, policy-makers and politicians) about the non-visibility and accountability of agricultural extension in the communities that it is supposed to help. There are however a number of factors (perceived or real) that make agricultural extension less or not visible nor accountable. Therefore, this paper investigates and proposes a theoretical framework or model to ensure that agricultural extension is visible and accountable to all stakeholders. This will in turn ensure that there are noticeable increases or improvement of the lives of the resource poor farmers and communities.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Agricultural extension, Extension visibility, Relevance of extension, Rural livelihood</p> 2019-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Collective action for access to inputs, finance, markets and extension for smallholder farmers in Eswatini 2019-08-08T11:18:43+00:00 S.M. Simelane S.E. Terblanche M.T. Masarirambi <p>Smallholder farmers’ access to inputs, finance, markets and extension is key to their success and contribution to rural development. In a study that was conducted in the Hhohho region of Eswatini, with a snowballed sample of 82 smallholders, it was found that most smallholder farmers are elderly women who generally had low levels of education. They predominantly held land that is less than 1 ha which was on Swazi Nation Land (SNL). Even those who were part of farmer groups operated as individuals, since group committees had difficulties in managing the groups. Farmers who had export market contracts were more likely to access bank finance, while those with NAMBoard market contracts were not. However, grouped farmers were more likely to access NAMBoard marketing contracts and extension services. The results suggest that collective operation for farmers is key to market and extension access but not finance. Therefore, as much as extension officers (EOs) should encourage and assist smallholders to form formal groups like cooperatives, they still need to go further to create strategies to assist the farmer cooperatives to raise capital. Cooperatives can raise capital through joining fees and shares, but the traditional cooperatives are inefficient in raising additional capital from capital endowed members and strategic partners later on in their life. This creates a niche for hybrid cooperatives, which are efficient in this regard. Thus, there is an urgent need to train EOs on the development of cooperatives and equally lobby for legislative innovations. This may allow the development of efficient cooperatives and improve the viability and sustainability of farmers.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Access to markets, Cooperatives, Institutions, Role of extension, Smallholders</p> 2019-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The role of mentors in land reform projects supported through the recapitalisation and development programme: findings from Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa 2019-08-08T11:18:44+00:00 L Maka M.A. Aliber <p>Since the beginning of South Africa’s land reform programme in 1994, much concern has been expressed about the uneven performance of newly settled farmers, which has typically been explained by weak ‘post-settlement support’. In 2009, the government launched the Recapitalisation and Development Programme (RADP) in order to assist farms that have received little or no support, especially land reform farms. One salient aspect of the RADP is that it links recipient farmers with strategic partners or mentors, often as a condition of receiving financial support. Qualitative research was conducted in the form of seven in-depth case studies of RADP-supported land reform projects, together with interviews with four RADP mentors and three government officials. Some of the challenges in the farms before RADP funding was received included little or no income, high mortality rate of livestock, and lack of skills. The study revealed that the RADP mentorship remains a vital practice to be considered in capacitating land reform beneficiaries. It is recommended that funds should be made available for mentors to have an agreement of at least three to five years in a single project.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Land Reform, Mentors, Recapitalisation</p> 2019-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Perception and adaptation responses to climate change: an assessment of smallholder livestock farmers in Amathole District Municipality, Eastern Cape Province 2019-08-08T11:18:45+00:00 O.O. Popoola N Monde S.F.G. Yusuf <p>Livestock is a critical asset for many rural poor, however, the current climate crisis is affecting livestock farmers. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in order to assess the farmers’ perceptions of climate change, and its impact on production and adaptation responses. Using a multistage sampling procedure, a total of 142 smallholder livestock farmers were selected from 18 villages across the study area. Descriptive and inferential statistical tools were used and the observed results showed that there has been a perceived drastic decline in rainfall in the area over the last 25 years. Some of the perceived impacts were poor vegetation and limited grazing, scarcity of water resources, decreased livestock growth rate, weight, milk production and reproduction rates. Adaptation responses were limited as the results showed that the only response measures taken amongst the many options available were changing grazing routes, increasing grazing distances, destocking, water harvesting and storage, and increased dependence on social welfare. An examination of farmers’ perceptions of their adopted responses showed that none of the response measures were perceived as significantly effective. The lack of effective response to the climate change crisis is a cause for concern, as the livestock industry is endemic to the region and sustains families and entire communities.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Drought, Effectiveness, Perception, Risks</p> 2019-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effectiveness of the implementation of the mechanisation programme for emerging farmers in the Overberg and Eden Districts of the Western Cape 2019-08-08T11:18:46+00:00 R.M. Bastian J.W. Swanepoel J.A. Van Niekerk <p>Agricultural mechanisation has received increased interest during the last decade for the development of agriculture in African countries. One of the challenges of mechanisation in farming is the high cost associated with the procurement and maintenance of tractors and implements. Therefore, a mechanisation programme to assist with the development of emerging farmers in the country was established. The study was undertaken to determine the effective implementation of the mechanisation programme from the perspectives of farmers and extension officers. The study aimed to investigate whether the programme has assisted with the development of emerging farmers and whether the current implements in centres are suitable for the various commodities produced per area. To meet the objectives of this study, structured questionnaires were administered to participants and interviews were conducted with stakeholders in management positions. The findings revealed that the efficiency of the mechanisation programme can be improved upon, as farmers highlighted challenges that included access to mechanisation centres, the correct type and availability of implements. Nevertheless, the mechanisation programme has had a positive impact on the development of emerging farmers, and they feel that if issues are addressed, the programme could be even more beneficial in ensuring that recipients of the programme reap maximum benefits.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Emerging farmers, Extension, Mechanisation</p> 2019-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The role of extension support in a communal farmers’ market system in Mhondoro-Mubaira, Zimbabwe 2019-08-08T11:18:46+00:00 E Muchesa B.D. Nkosi E.M. Zwane J.A. van Niekerk <p>The objective of this research was to establish the role of agricultural extension in communal farmers’ market systems by looking at possible ways in which it could intervene and support communal farmers in the marketing of produce. The study was conducted in the area of Mhondoro-Mubaira, which is situated in Mashonaland West Province in Zimbabwe. The target population comprised of 150 communal farmers and 25 extension officers. Poor technology and an under-resourced extension department is one of the factors identified by the extension officers (84%) for poor extension delivery (p =&lt;0.464). The communal farmers referred to in this study have a negative perception of government-led extension support, especially in the area of agricultural market support. About half (56%) of the farmers indicated that they do not receive any form of agricultural marketing extension support. The reasons for the poor ratings of government extension support by communal farmers include the following: they are hardly available (8.88%); they are not knowledgeable enough (13.02%); and they do not offer practical solutions (24.85%). Communal food production and food security could be significantly improved if farmers receive appropriate input, training and extension support. Market linkage from the extension department could effectively boost income from agriculture enterprises and upgrade communal farmers who come from the most vulnerable section of the country’s population.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Agricultural Extension Excellence Model (AEEM), Agritex, Communal farming, Extension, Market systems</p> 2019-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Towards a common understanding of ‘emerging farmer’ in a South African context using data from a survey of three district municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province 2019-08-08T11:18:47+00:00 S Zantsi J.C. Greyling N Vink <p>The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the diversity among emerging smallholders using various commonly used indicators. These were reviewed and applied to a sample of 379 emerging smallholders situated in three major smallholding districts within the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. It was found that the typical emerging farmer has the following profile: He is black, situated in a former homeland and is 58 years old. The typical farmer cultivates field crops as a secondary source of food and income, but keeps livestock as primary and secondary sources of income. The average emerging smallholder mostly grows maize for own consumption given a crop commercialisation index (CCI) of 0.66 and sells a greater portion of his cabbage and potatoes given CCIs of 0.73 and 0.83 respectively. The average emerging farmer earns a net income of R26 600 per year, but there is an income inequality, since the most successful farmer earns 26.7 times the average income. This translates to a Ghini coefficient of 0.48, which is high by international standards, but low compared to the South African average of 63.1. When speaking to fellow farmers, it was found that 78% of them feel constrained by farming in a homeland, but only 72% would be willing to move from their homeland, with most (45%) saying that they would only do so if they were provided with sufficient government support.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Eastern Cape Province, Emerging farmer, Survey</p> 2019-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Adoption of irrigation technology to combat household food insecurity in the resource-constrained farming systems of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa 2019-08-08T11:18:48+00:00 M Christian A Obi I.K. Agbugba <p>Sustainable water management has been identified as a powerful tool to combat persistent food insecurity in South Africa’s poor rural communities. The irrigation revitalisation scheme was launched in the first decade of post-Apartheid South Africa and focused on smallholder farmers in the former homeland areas. However, the adoption of irrigation technology has been limited, while official data point to worsening poverty rates and food insecurity as agricultural output declines in the face of rising prices. There is thus strong policy interest to ascertain the circumstances in which irrigation adoption can be enhanced. A cross-sectional research design was utilised to collect data from 200 farmers (adopters and non-adopters) selected through a combination of purposive and stratified sampling methods. Probit regression results suggest that irrigation adoption is influenced by distance to the irrigation scheme, age of the farmer, family size, credit access, extension contact, and group membership. Water management programmes that address community access to irrigation water are likely to enhance adoption of irrigation technology, with credit access and extension provided to ensure sustainable use of the technology.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Eastern Cape, Extension services, Food insecurity, Irrigation adoption,<br />Smallholder farmers</p> 2019-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Socio-economic factors influencing adoption of conservation agriculture in Moroto District, Uganda 2019-08-08T11:18:49+00:00 A Esabu H Ngwenya <p>This research was conducted to assess socio-economic factors influencing adoption of conservation agriculture in Moroto District of Uganda. The socio-economic factors, the level of conservation agriculture, and the constraints faced by the farmers were assessed. A cross-sectional research design was utilised to collect data from 80 farmers (adopters and non-adopters of conservation agriculture). Purposive random sampling was applied to select seven key informants in the two sub-counties of Katikekile and Nadunget, and four villages of Nakodet, Nakwanga, Napudes and Komare. Data were collected through personal observation, interviews, focus group discussions, and structured questionnaires. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to generate descriptive and inferential statistics for quantitative data analysis. The binary probit model was used to determine the socio-economic factors influencing adoption of conservation agriculture. The findings indicate that there was a significant influence for gender (p&lt;0.01), but a statistically significant influence for credit and extension services (p&lt;0.05). Finally, the adoption rate of conservation agriculture is still low given the size of land dedicated to it by most farmers. Therefore, this study recommends that government and other institutions should strengthen the agricultural extension system, provide financial support and incentives, and sensitize farmers on conservation agriculture.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Adoption, Conservation agriculture, Moroto District, Socio-economic factors, Uganda</p> 2019-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Organisational capacities and management of agricultural extension services in Nigeria: current status 2019-08-08T11:18:50+00:00 K Davis K Lion T Arokoyo <p>Organisational capacity and management are critical elements of extension systems. This paper examines the organisational capacity and management of the Nigerian extension system. Content analysis of documents and artefacts, semi-structured interviews with key informants, and site visits were used to collect data. The paper looks at individual, organisational, and system-level capacities and management systems. The current ratio of extension agents to farmers is between 1:5000 and 1:10 000, with a total workforce of about 7000 public agents. A new initiative, the N-Power programme, is employing 100 000 young graduates in extension. Financing provided by state governments typically only covers the salaries of extension staff, meaning there is little operational budget for travel, communication, training, or field programmes. States thus struggle to hire and provide incentives for staff, and most continuing education and incentives take place in donor-funded projects or with federal funds. The extension system has good support from policies and strategies, as well as from research, education, and donor programmes. The paper confirms that capacity and management issues are critically important for well-functioning extension systems, and that there are many elements to get right, including continuing education, incentives, coordination, and operational budgets.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Capacity, Extension, Management, Nigeria, Organisations</p> 2019-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Implications of the environmental impact assessment regulations on the agricultural sector in the Overberg District in the Western Cape for emerging farmers 2019-08-08T11:18:51+00:00 G Jepthas J.W. Swanepoel <p>The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a tool that can assist with decision making to produce food sustainably and still look at protecting or preserving natural resources. The Overberg District, the chosen study area, is located in the southern parts of the Western Cape Province in South Africa and the area is rich in agricultural activities. The EIA regulations can affect future agricultural activities for both commercial and emerging farmers. For this study, emerging farmers were chosen as many of these farmers are developing or expanding their farming enterprises and the high costs of EIAs can result in financial implications for these farmers. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of EIA regulations on the emerging farmers in the Overberg region. Furthermore, the study aims to assess the interpretation of extension staff and farmers regarding EIA regulations and its importance for agriculture. In addition, the study seeks to propose methods to improve the knowledge and awareness of EIA regulations amongst farmers and extension staff by creating a better understanding regarding the EIA process. To successfully meet the objectives of this study, structured questionnaires were administered to 30 farmers and 29 extension officers. The study found that EIA regulations do impact farming operations and that many farmers also lack knowledge regarding EIA regulations.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Emerging farmer, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regulations, Extension officer</p> 2019-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) A review of extension self-efficacy: bases, features, goal realisation and implications for extension 2019-08-08T11:18:52+00:00 A.I. Agholor <p>The awareness, attitudes and values which an individual has about his abilities affects his work performance. The pessimistic perception and negative comments about quality extension service delivery have been on-going, but little has been done to evaluate the concept of selfefficacy in extension practice. Self-efficacy describes an important facet of human motivation which denotes a positive self-prophecy about one’s capabilities premised on oriented outcomes, relayed experiences and verbal inducement. The primary step for an extension officer to succeed with farmers will be to acquire the perception and vehemently exert control over outcomes associated with new innovations. There is a plethora of evidence that emanated from various studies to show that it is possible to motivate extension practitioners using techniques such as evaluation of performance, behavioural modelling practice, and experiential education. This review paper discusses the bases, features, goal realisation and implications of self-efficacy in the context of extension service delivery. The paper concluded that with an increase in self-motivation, there is a concomitant growth in self-efficacy. Extension practitioners need to engage in activities that will promote and build self-motivation and assertiveness towards the attainment of set goals. Extension practitioners are likely to perform better when properly motivated towards a goal.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Motivation, Satisfaction, Self-efficacy, Self-evaluation</p> 2019-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)