https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/issue/feed South African Journal of African Languages 2023-11-01T13:38:45+00:00 Publishing Manager publishing@nisc.co.za Open Journal Systems <p>The&nbsp;<em>South African Journal of African Languages</em>&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed research journal devoted to the advancement of African (Bantu) and Khoe-San languages and literatures. Papers, book reviews and polemic contributions of a scientific nature in any of the core areas of linguistics, both theoretical (e.g. syntax, phonology, semantics) and applied (e.g. sociolinguistic topics, language teaching, language policy), and literature, based on original research in the context of the African languages, are welcome. The journal is the official mouthpiece of the African Language Association of Southern Africa (ALASA), established in 1979.</p> <div>Read more <a href="http://www.nisc.co.za/products/21/journals/south-african-journal-of-african-languages" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a>.&nbsp;</div> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/258322 Ubugqirha: healing beyond the Western gaze 2023-11-01T09:12:31+00:00 Zethu Cakata cakatz@unisa.ac.za <p>This article explores what African languages teach us&nbsp; about the concept of healing using the Xhosa language (isiXhosa) of South Africa as a model. From an African&nbsp; perspective, the names used to label the environment and phenomena guide us on how we should perceive&nbsp; them. For example, in isiXhosa, a healer is called&nbsp; ugqirha, which means they personify ubugqi (the&nbsp; power to perform unexplainable deeds); the concept&nbsp; will be explored to illustrate the ethic behind the&nbsp; sacredness with which healing knowledge is treated. A&nbsp; healer, therefore, embodies the ability to act beyond&nbsp; comprehension. This brings the ethos of Western&nbsp; pedagogy into question. If, through language, we learn&nbsp; that a phenomenon such as healing is beyond&nbsp; comprehension, how then should healing be part of the&nbsp; curriculum? The article concludes that sacred&nbsp; knowledges should be handled ethically and that the&nbsp; ethics of dissemination of sacred knowledge such as&nbsp; ubugqirha are often embedded in their naming.&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/258323 Expressions from Zulu proverbs on the uniqueness of motherhood in mitigating the adverse effects of orphanhood 2023-11-01T09:16:15+00:00 Mfundo Mandla Masuku Masukum@ukzn.ac.za Nomusa M. Mlondo Masukum@ukzn.ac.za Tholakele Henrietta Chiliza Masukum@ukzn.ac.za <p>Proverbs are labelled as the expression of messages embedded in a language. This article analyses a selected proverb which reflects on&nbsp; motherhood and orphanhood and which is used to show the value of motherhood in the Zulu culture. The meaning of the selected&nbsp; proverb is profound in that it shows the value of the relationship between the mother and her child. After birth, the first person a child&nbsp; encounters is the mother, and through bonding and breastfeeding, the child forms its initial philosophy of life and coping mechanisms.&nbsp; This article expounds that breastfeeding leads to the total development of the child. A qualitative approach was used in exploring the proverb, intandane enhle ngumakhothwa unina (‘A good orphan is one that is licked by the mother’), specifically to critically analyse&nbsp; motherhood in an African context from Sibusiso Nyembezi’s book titled Zulu Proverbs. Referring to Zulu proverbs in the South African&nbsp; context, there is still a dearth of research in understanding the motherchild relationship during the formative years in the African context,&nbsp; and there is almost non-existent literature that analyses the significant role a mother plays in the early development of a child.&nbsp; The experiences to which a child is exposed, especially at the early stages of development, shape the way a child will view the world. This&nbsp; proverb encourages mothers to value their role in mothering their offspring. The article concludes that orphans and single mothers need security and stability as far as poverty is concerned as they face socio-economic challenges.</p> 2023-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/258324 Gender stereotyping in <i>Indlela yababi</i> and <i>Kuxolelwa abanjani?</i>: a corpus linguistics approach 2023-11-01T09:24:58+00:00 Lungile Mncwango lungile.mncwango@up.ac.za Jacomien van Niekerk lungile.mncwango@up.ac.za Elsabe Taljard lungile.mncwango@up.ac.za <p>In this article, we use corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis to examine gender stereotyping in three isiZulu novels, namely&nbsp; <em>Indlela yababi</em> (‘The path of the wicked’) by RRR Dhlomo, <em>Inkinsela yaseMgungundlovu</em> (‘The tycoon of Pietermaritzburg’) by CLS&nbsp; Nyembezi, and Kuxolelwa abanjani? (‘Who deserves to be forgiven?’) by NG Sibiya. Our investigation regarding<em> Inkinsela&nbsp; yaseMgungundlovu</em> failed to deliver significant results, therefore our analysis is centred around the other two novels. Our focus is on the&nbsp; ways in which the body parts of female and male characters are used and described in the chosen texts. The article focuses on the&nbsp; following body parts: <em>isandla and izandla</em> (‘hand’ and ‘hands’), <em>amehlo</em> (‘eyes’), <em>ikhanda</em> (‘head’) and<em> ubuso</em> (‘face’). We investigate&nbsp; whether the ways in which female and male characters use their body parts and the ways in which they are described represent male and&nbsp; female characters stereotypically, as well as whether they reveal aspects of power relations between men and women. Our study&nbsp; employs the theoretical framework of gender studies. The results reveal that female characters are depicted as caring and supportive,&nbsp; emotional and beautiful, whereas male characters are depicted as courageous, in control of their emotions, aggressive and dangerous.&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/258325 COVID-19 crisis communication in Sepedi: the quality of translation by the Limpopo Department of Health 2023-11-01T09:36:00+00:00 Napjadi Letsoalo letsone@unisa.ac.za Tshepho Justice Kgasago letsone@unisa.ac.za <p>There is a paucity of literature on the importance of translating health risk messages into South Africa’s indigenous languages as a tool&nbsp; for crisis prevention and management. This article focuses on the quality of translations of COVID-19 information from English into&nbsp; Sepedi by the Limpopo Department of Health. Sepedi translations that are already available in the public domain are selected by means&nbsp; of the purposive sampling technique. House’s translation quality assessment (TQA) model is applied to evaluate the quality and accuracy&nbsp; of the translations as part of the strategic crisis response. Based on House’s model, errors in the translations are identified and classified&nbsp; as either ‘dimensional mismatches’ or ‘non-dimensional mismatches’. It is found that, in pursuit of covert translation, the target text&nbsp; from the Limpopo Department of Health does not retain the equivalent function of the source text. It is also observed that House’s model&nbsp; of TQA is applicable and useful in the field of translation of communications of health information. Furthermore, current studies in&nbsp; effective health communication miss the importance of translation during a crisis. Thus, this article bridges this gap by investigating&nbsp; the role of translation during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa. The article suggests that future research could investigate the&nbsp;&nbsp; experience of translators during the pandemic.</p> 2023-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/258326 Morphophonological realisation on inflected verbal roots with initial vowel sounds in Sepedi 2023-11-01T09:45:10+00:00 Napjadi Letsoalo letsone@unisa.ac.za <p>In instances where verbs that start with vowel sounds and a vowel prefix is attached, the hiatus is repaired through resyllabification, i.e.&nbsp; the manifestation of an initial underlying sound called a glottal catch. This sound fills the onset position of vowel initial verbs in Sepedi,&nbsp; and is responsible for the drastic alternation when the verb comes into contact with a reflexive prefix or an object concord. This article&nbsp; examines the effect of morphophonological realisation on inflected verbal roots with initial vowel sounds in Sepedi. The data collected&nbsp; through documents and semi-structured interviews shows that the glottal catch makes verbs follow the CV syllable pattern. The vowel reflexive prefix which threatens to create a hiatus is repaired through epenthesis by adding a sound to the interior of a word (at the&nbsp; beginning of prosthesis). This repair strategy ensures that the CV syllable structure of Sepedi is maintained. This article provides new data&nbsp; that offers innovative understanding of Sepedi on the concepts such as epenthesis and hiatus, relating to alternations in&nbsp; morphophonological environments using the optimality theory.&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/258327 Exposing impropriety and the degeneration of ubuntu through satire in selected isiZulu poems 2023-11-01T10:01:55+00:00 Isaac Mndawe ikmndawe@uj.ac.za <p>This article examines the skill employed by poets in creating satirical isiZulu poems and the extent to which these satirical elements have&nbsp; been used in exposing indecent and immoral acts that reveal the degeneration of ubuntu culture. IsiZulu writers and researchers have&nbsp; not dealt with the aspects of satire as a literary genre much. As a result, this article discusses model satirical poems to unearth rare skills&nbsp; used in isiZulu satire. This is beneficial to reluctant writers and those who have little exposure to satire. The article is centred on five&nbsp; poems by four prominent writers chosen for their richness in elements of satire. The study adopts a discourse analysis method as a&nbsp; qualitative approach to textual analysis. Critical discourse analysis is used to support the interpretation and analysis of the idiomatic&nbsp; language used in the poems. The author argues that some of the satirical isiZulu poems resemble traditional praise poems where the&nbsp; poets criticise and ridicule those in power for their stupidity or vices. The study concludes that the poets use certain elements of satire&nbsp; depending on the context of the poems.&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/258328 The categorisation of questions in the assessment of language subjects for multilingual learners in South African primary schools 2023-11-01T10:16:34+00:00 Nonhlanhla Ntuli Nonhlanhla.Ntuli254@gmail.com Ramona Kunene Nicolas Nonhlanhla.Ntuli254@gmail.com <p>This study examines the structure and cognitive demands of questions found in Grade 5 learners’ English first additional language (FAL)&nbsp; and isiZulu home language (HL) subject workbooks. Using document analysis as the qualitative method, the present study provides an&nbsp; analysis of different comprehension task questions using Bloom’s revised taxonomy of educational objectives (BRT) as a framework for&nbsp; evaluating the standard and existence of a continuum of thinking skills expected of learners from the curriculum. The results show that English and isiZulu language subjects do not follow an equitable assessment order from basic remembering to the highest level category&nbsp; of creating in the categorisation of questions. This implies that English FAL enjoys a more systematic categorisation of questions, allowing&nbsp; learners to answer questions at a lower processing level to a higher cognitively demanding level of question processing.&nbsp; Whereas, in isiZulu HL, the categorisation is mixed from a higher level of question processing to a medium level of processing in a non- systematic manner. It is suggested that curriculum developers harmonise these assessment levels and standards to better scaffold Grade&nbsp; 5 learners’ (average age 10 to 11 years old) ability to answer questions correctly according to their cognitive levels.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/258329 Ukushayisana kwesiko nemfundo enovelini ethi Impi yabomdabu isethunjini 2023-11-01T10:24:03+00:00 Melusi Msomi msomimelusi@gmail.com <p>Leli phepha lihlaziya ukushayisana phakathi kwesiko nemfundo okwenzeka enovelini ethi: Impi yabomdabu isethunjini ebhalwe ngu JC&nbsp; Buthelezi ngowezi-2015. Kule noveli kubonakala sengathi kukhona ukungaqondi kwabanye abalingiswa ukuthi imfundo iyini nokuthi uma&nbsp; umuntu esefundile kufanele aziphathe kanjani. Lokho kugcina sekudala uqhekeko nokungezwani emndenini. Lokhu kungaqondwa&nbsp; kweqhaza elibanjwe imfundo nesiko emndenini kugcina kudale ukuthi imindeni ingasahambelani ngenxa yokungezwani okudalwa&nbsp; ukusetshenziswa kwemfundo ngendlela engafanele. Kuleli phepha kuhlaziywa izinto ezidala umonakalo ekhaya uma amalungu omndeni&nbsp; engaliqondi isiko okumele lenziwe uma intombazane ithole izingane ekhaya yabe isiyogana yazishiya ekhaya lezo zingane. Uma leli siko lingaqondwa, lokho kungadala omkhulu umonakalo kuze kuhlukane umuzi phakathi imbala. Inhloso yaleli phepha ukuthola ukuthi ikuphi&nbsp; okumele kwenziwe uma imindeni inenkinga yokungaboni ngaso linye ekusetshenzisweni kwamasiko kanye nemfundo. Leli&nbsp; phepha lihlose ukuveza ukuthi imfundo kanye nesiko kungahlanganiswa kanjani ukubumba imindeni ngaphandle kokubukelana phansi.&nbsp; Kuleli phepha kusetshenziswe indlela yekhwalithethivu ukuqoqa ulwazi. Kusetshenziswe isampula ebizwa ngeprobability kanye&nbsp; nepurposive ukuthola ulwazi kubantu abathile ababambe iqhaza ocwaningweni. Insizakuhlaziya esetshenziswe kulolu cwaningo ibizwa&nbsp; ngokuthi yi-Cultural theory. Le nsizakuhlaziya iveza ukuthi isiko liyindlela yokuphila elandelwa ngabantu abaningi esizweni. Lakhiwe&nbsp; indlela abantu abaziphatha ngayo eyenza ukuba ligcine seliyinto eyamukelekile. Leli phepha lithole ukuthi abantu abafundile bazibona&nbsp; bengcono kunalabo abangafundile abalandela amasiko. Okuvelile ngukuthi eqinisweni ukufunda okuhle ukubheka impilo ngeso elibanzi,&nbsp; elikwazi ukuhlanganisa amasiko nolwazi lwemfundo ngobuhlakani nangenhloso yokwakha isizwe esisha esingacwasani ngokwezinga&nbsp; lempilo.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em><strong>English title: The conflict between culture and education in the novel Impi yabomdabu isethunjini</strong> </em></p> <p>This article analyses the conflict between&nbsp; culture and education in the novel Impi yabomdabu isethunjini by JC Buthelezi, published in 2015. Some characters in this novel seem to&nbsp; lack understanding of the relationship between culture (traditional practices) and education.&nbsp; Characters such as Bafana and Popi think&nbsp; that culture is for uneducated people; they think education is more significant than&nbsp; culture. This conflict becomes problematic because some characters end up losing everything they have, arguably because of not&nbsp; adhering to their culture. Bafana and Popi think that education makes them better than other community members. This analysis uses a qualitative approach as the data-collection method. Cultural theory is used to analyse data because of how it exhibits the ways humans&nbsp; interpret their environments. The findings indicate that there is a conflict between education and culture in this novel: those who had the&nbsp; privilege of receiving an education think that they are better than those who are not formally educated and who adhere to cultural&nbsp; practices. Those who are uneducated respect both culture and education because they believe that both are important in their lives. In&nbsp; the end, the characters who do not respect and follow culture lose everything that they worked for. Those who respect and follow culture have everything they want in life. The article concludes that a good education is one that views life from a more nuanced perspective, that&nbsp; can hold both life-giving traditional practices and education in high regard in order to build a nation of people that do not look down&nbsp; on others.&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/258330 Malawian and Nigerian migrants’ perceptions of the isiZulu interlocutors’ values and the effects on their willingness to acquire isiZulu 2023-11-01T10:28:58+00:00 Shoaib Mzoma mzoma4@gmail.com <p>This article explores Malawian and Nigerian migrants’ perceptions of their isiZulu interlocutors’ values in Johannesburg. The aim was to&nbsp; determine the effects of such perceptions on the migrants’ willingness to acquire isiZulu. The study adopted a qualitative&nbsp; phenomenological research approach. Data were collected from one-on-one interviews and thematically analysed. Three categories of&nbsp; isiZulu interlocutor that were preferred by the migrants in this study emerged: (1) older women, (2) younger women, and (3) older men.&nbsp; Key values identified by the migrants include the interlocutors’ friendliness, openness, willingness to interact with the destination- language learners and willingness to guide and help learners in their learning process. The study established that migrants’ perceptions about interlocutors’ personal values have the potential to influence migrants’ willingness to acquire a destination language. Perceptions&nbsp; about interlocutors’ values affect both the direction and processes of language acquisition. Furthermore, the findings showed that&nbsp; migrants’ interest in learning a target language increases when interlocutors’ values are perceived to be desirable by the learners. Thus,&nbsp; perceived values can either promote or hinder interest and effort in acquiring a destination language.&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/258331 Lexical change: a case of the Hehe language 2023-11-01T10:33:50+00:00 Ernest Mapunda ernestmapunda@yahoo.co.uk <p>The article reports the results on the lexical change in Hehe, grounded in substratum theory. This exploration focused on the extent of&nbsp; lexical change. The qualitative data were collected in Kilolo District through reversetranslation and documentary-review methods. Forty- eight purposively selected informants were asked to interpret 120 lists of words and 10 phrases written in both English and Kiswahili. The&nbsp; qualitative analysis of the data, using descriptions, informants’ quotations and tables, revealed continuous lexical change in Hehe&nbsp; through time. The changes are both swift and sluggish. The results revealed that the Hehe language has undergone lexical borrowing, loss, replacement, maintenance and the change of meaning. The data obtained also revealed that lexical change is as a result of&nbsp; language contact. The non-linguistic factors are corrosion of generational transmission of the language, deterioration of socialisation&nbsp; intervals between elders and youths, education, and the advancement of science and technology. Every identified lexical change was&nbsp; classified based on its lexical class and other patterns. The lexical class with the highest number of affected items was the nouns. The&nbsp; authors opine that lexical change in Hehe language has been strongly affected by Kiswahili, the national language, as well as Bena and&nbsp; Kinga, the languages of neighbouring ethnic groups.&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/258332 Personal names and naming theoretical concepts in selected texts of Yvonne Vera and Petina Gappah 2023-11-01T10:41:10+00:00 Tendai Mangena tendaimangena@gmail.com <p>This article analyses the ways in which two internationally renowned Zimbabwean women writers, Yvonne Vera and Petina Gappah, show&nbsp; a fascination with names in their novels, and in the process call attention to theories and key concepts about personal names and naming&nbsp; practices. One of the main aims of this article is to complement the isolated discussions of the value of names as narrative&nbsp; strategies in Vera and Gappah’s novels. In particular, this article explores how onomastic statements and contexts highlighted in selected&nbsp; novels by Vera and Gappah could be interpreted as significant contributions to an understanding of personal names and&nbsp; naming practices in a specific socio-politico-cultural context of (post)colonial Zimbabwe. The selected onomastic statements and contexts&nbsp; are analysed in this article as comments on nicknames and nicknaming as a form of othering, and personal names and naming&nbsp; as significant pointers to human co-presence and interdependence.</p> 2023-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/258342 The impact of poor reading skills on Grade 12 isiXhosa Home Language exam results 2023-11-01T11:42:58+00:00 Pumla Cutalele-Maqhude pcutalele@uwc.ac.za <p>IsiXhosa is one of the 11 official languages offered as a subject in the South African school curriculum at Home Language (HL) level. The&nbsp; examination of this subject in grade 12 (the school-exit year) consists of three papers: Paper 1 (P1), which focuses on reading for&nbsp; understanding and language usage; Paper 2 (P2), which focuses on reading for analysis using prescribed genres; and Paper 3 (P3), which&nbsp; focuses on writing. The Department of Basic Education (DBE) publishes a diagnostic report after every examination session, following the&nbsp; completion of marking of the final examinations, detailing the performance of the grade 12 learners in each subject written. The&nbsp; 2018 and 2019 reports show that the performance of candidates in isiXhosa HL is poor and suggests that they cannot read for&nbsp; understanding. This study sought to analyse the impact of poor literacy skills on grade 12 candidates’ performance in the isiXhosa HL&nbsp; final examinations. This was done by analysing the DBE’s 2018 and 2019 isiXhosa HL Diagnostic Reports for P1 and determining how a&nbsp; lack of reading skills affects learners’ comprehension and analysis skills. The South African Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements&nbsp; (CAPS) emphasise the importance of reading for different purposes. The findings of this study suggest that learners do not&nbsp; have a solid foundation in reading and textual analysis and that reading is not given priority in the classroom, which ultimately leads to&nbsp; poor performance. The article concludes that reading and academic performance go hand in hand and that learners should be exposed&nbsp; to different texts; this can be achieved when teachers prepare well for their reading lessons and use not only the prescribed works.&nbsp; Furthermore, every learner should be given a chance to read, as no learner will ever perform well in their academics if their reading skills&nbsp; are poor.&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/258343 Future-time markers in expressing English future time by Sesotho L1 speakers 2023-11-01T11:50:15+00:00 Matsitso Eugenia Morato-Maleke malekemm00@gmail.com Francina Liako Molo malekemm00@gmail.com <p>The expression of future time in the English language seems to lack uniformity. The lack of consistency is influenced by speakers’&nbsp; intentions, so these various ways of marking future time in English pose a challenge to second-language (L2) learners. Therefore, this&nbsp; article investigates first-language (L1) Sesotho speakers’ ways of expressing English future time within the basic linguistic theory&nbsp; framework. It further seeks to identify factors influencing the students’ formation of future-time expressions. In this qualitative study,&nbsp; data was collected through 30 written compositions by third-year Linguistics students at the National University of Lesotho. The study&nbsp; reveals that L1 Sesotho speakers mark English future time through will and shall. They also use the phrasal markers such as want to, have&nbsp; to, hope to, be going to, be supposed to, be about to, <em>will</em> + be + PROGRESSIVE, <em>will</em> + have + PERFECT PARTICIPLE and <em>will</em> + have +&nbsp; been, which they use appropriately. Would + be, would + progressive, would + have + PERFECT PARTICIPLE are also used but incorrectly.&nbsp; The article further demonstrates that they use would erroneously to express English future time. In addition, Sesotho, by virtue of having&nbsp; equivalents of some of these markers, influenced the students’ formation of future-time expressions. Therefore, L1 interference plays a&nbsp; great part in L2 learning. The study concludes that the use of <em>will</em> is more dominant than <em>shall</em> because even British English, which was&nbsp; known for the common use of <em>shall</em> has started to shift and to lose this distinction like American English has done.</p> 2023-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/258344 Advanced tongue root effect in Igbo affixation: perspectives from Èwùlu 2023-11-01T11:56:57+00:00 Don Chukwuemeka Utulu dcutulu@delsu.edu.ng <p>Èwùlù (Igboid: West Benue–Congo, southern Nigeria) is a type 2IU dialect with a rather pervasive advanced tongue root (ATR) effect in its&nbsp; productive affixation morphology. Consequently, all vowels in affixes and those in adjoining root morphemes acquire the same value for&nbsp; ATR feature, with the latter morphemes determining with what specific ATR value the vowels in the former morphemes are specified. This&nbsp; sort of root-controlled ATR/vowel harmony system is yet to be independently explored in western dialects of Igbo (in particular,&nbsp; Èwùlù) spoken in Delta State, Nigeria. The goal of this article, therefore, is to describe the spread of ATR from roots to the adjoining&nbsp; affixes of the endangered dialect, with a view to advancing understanding of a typology of long-distance assimilation of vowel features&nbsp; across a string of vocalic elements in stems despite an intervening string of consonants. In order to insightfully capture the ATR-spread&nbsp; effect from roots to affixes, the study employs autosegmental theory, the mechanism of which uses association lines to link features to&nbsp; their specific melodic units operating independently on different tiers in phonological representations. The finding of this study showed&nbsp; this generalisation: if the dominant harmony feature of a root vowel is [+ATR], the adjoining prefix or suffix takes on the exact feature,&nbsp;&nbsp; otherwise it takes on the opposing feature, [−ATR].</p> 2023-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/258345 In India and East Africa/E-Indiya nase East Africa: a travelogue in isiXhosa and English 2023-11-01T12:14:40+00:00 Lukhanyo Elvis Makhenyane lmakhenyane@ufh.ac.za <p>No Abstract.</p> 2023-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023