South African Journal of African Languages 2021-02-03T12:57:27+00:00 Publishing Manager Open Journal Systems <span>The </span><em>South African Journal of African Languages</em><span> is a peer-reviewed research journal devoted to the advancement of African (Bantu) and Khoe-San languages and literatures. Papers, book reviews and polemic contributions of a scientific nature in any of the core areas of linguistics, both theoretical (e.g. syntax, phonology, semantics) and applied (e.g. sociolinguistic topics, language teaching, language policy), and literature, based on original research in the context of the African languages, are welcome. The journal is the official mouthpiece of the African Language Association of Southern Africa (ALASA), established in 1979.</span><div>Read more <a href="" target="_blank">here</a>. </div> Ideology in the English translation of isiZulu praise poems 2021-02-03T11:33:52+00:00 Manqoba Victor Ndlovu <p>James Stuart, who collected and transcribed 258 isiZulu praise poems, demonstrated the significance of reducing isiZulu oral art such as praise poems to writing. Daniel Malcolm who translated them into English made their accessibility to the rest of the world possible. Later, Trevor Cope selected 26 from the 258 poems with their isiZulu versions, which he edited, annotated and published. The purpose of the present study is to explore the reflection of Trevor Cope’s ideology in his selection, which he entitled Izibongo – Zulu praise-poems, by using mainly paratextual elements. The exploration of extratexts is an attempt to link selected items to Cope’s ideology, which reveal conformity to the dominant ideology of the time.</p> 2021-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The language of Wakanda: An analysis of the use of isiXhosa in the Hollywood science-fiction film Black Panther 2021-02-03T11:38:13+00:00 Ivankosi Babayi Tessa Dowling Rethabile Possa-Mogoera <p>The focus of this article is to provide a linguistic description of the ‘language of Wakanda’ – a non-existent, fictional language that the makers of the Hollywood science-fiction blockbuster Black Panther represent by using isiXhosa. Our data is collected from the script, subtitles and linguistic performances of isiXhosa by the actors in the film. While cultural and media studies are germane to the discussion, they are not our primary focus, although we provide reference to scholarship on these topics generally, and more specifically to academic commentary on the film Black Panther. As the language of Wakanda has never before been described by linguists, our research objectives are to examine how this language features in the movie in relation to other languages used (a statistical analysis) and also how it is rendered in text by the makers of the subtitles (grammatical and syntactical observations) and by the actors (a phonological analysis).</p> 2021-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Shona-Ndebele symbolic ethnic violence in institutions of higher learning: an analysis of male toilet graffiti at Midlands State University 2021-02-03T11:41:30+00:00 Hugh Mangeya <p>This research studies the discursive ways in which male student graffiti at Midlands State University reveal ethnic tensions between the Shona and Ndebele of Zimbabwe. The study is carried out in a sociopolitical environment in which spaces for openly discussing issues of ethnicity have been greatly limited, especially in conventional media. Any discussion of ethnicity is quickly labelled as fanning tribalism and is therefore suppressed or criticised. This does not, however, mean ethnicity is not engaged with outside of conventional platforms. Graffiti is one such alternative platform appropriated by male university students to discuss ethnicity issues. It emerges that such discussions are predominantly violent in nature with each group trying to prove or assert its dominance over the other. The analysis of this data is couched in Wodak and Meyer’s discourse-historical approach as it gives precedence to the historical context in which the discursive ‘events’ are embedded.</p> 2021-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Coda violation among the Igbo-English speakers in Ilorin, Nigeria 2021-02-03T11:46:03+00:00 Kamar Adewale Rafiu Basirat Omolola Adekunle <p>The role of English as an official language in Nigeria makes it a necessity for everyone to aspire to learn it as a second language. The Igbo ethnolinguistic group is one of the largest groups in Nigeria. This study sets out to examine the contexts under which Igbo speakers of English violate coda realisation in English words. The objectives of this article are to: examine the patterns of word-final coda violation among the Igbo speakers of English; find out the reason for violating word-final coda; investigate why Igbo speakers of English insert a vowel phoneme and discover the variant vowel phonemes inserted at word-final coda of English words. Findings reveal that the Igbo speakers of English insert a vowel phoneme to open the final closed syllable. The inserted vowel phoneme is not static and the reduction of final complex coda has a specific environment. This article concludes that violation of word-final coda and word-final complex coda among Igbo speakers of English does not render their variety of English unintelligible; rather, it shows that they speak an indigenised form of English which can be referred to as ‘igboglish’ under the umbrella of Nigerian English (‘niglish’).</p> 2021-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effects of voiced consonants and speaker gender on the acoustic characteristics of preceding vowels in Ika 2021-02-03T11:49:36+00:00 Joy O. Uguru John Beerends <p>This article examines if the voicing of a consonant in Ika has any influence on the acoustic features of a preceding vowel. Ika (ISO 639-3 ikk) has nine vowels and this work centres on them. Nine pairs of words beginning with Ika vowels (the vowels preceding either voiced or voiceless consonants) were produced and analysed using the praat speech software. The acoustic characteristics (duration, fundamental frequency, first formant and second formant) of the initial vowels were investigated. Duration is measured in milliseconds (msec), fundamental frequency (F0), first formant (F1) and second formant (F2) are measured in hertz. The effects of voicing and speaker gender on these characteristics were observed. The results showed that the effects of voicing on the characteristics of the vowels were not statistically significant (p &gt; 0.05). Although vowels preceding voiced consonants generally manifested longer durations and had lower F1 values, the ANOVA test conducted did not show significance at 5% probability. However, there were highly significant differences (p &lt; 0.001) between the female and male speakers in the F0 and F1 values, with the female values being higher than the male values. Worthy of note is the result on the characteristics of the vowel /ɪ/ in voiced consonant environments as all the respondents (male and female) had equal values in all the acoustic characteristics analysed. This is an outstanding finding for an under studied language like Ika Igbo.</p> 2021-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Ukuqanjwa kwamagama amathempeli ebandleni lamaNazaretha 2021-02-03T11:56:57+00:00 Melusi Msomi <p>Amagama ayinto esemqoka esizweni sonke. Emhlabeni jikelele ayikho into engenalo igama. Amagama aveza imizwa yalowo owaqambayo ngalokho akuqambaya. Ebantwini abangama Afrika amagama aqanjwa ahambisane nezehlakalo abahlangabezana nazo empilweni yabo yemihla ngemihla. Zonke izintaba ezibalulekile, imifula nemigwaqo kunamagama, lokho kuveza ubumqoka bamagama ezweni. Leli phepha libheka amagama kanye nemvelaphi yokuqanjwa kwamagama amathempeli ebandleni lamaNazaretha. Wonke amathempeli ebandleni lamaNazaretha aqanjwe amagama. Amagama amaningi alama thempeli aqukethe imizwa ethile kanti amanye awo aqanjwe emuva kwezigameko ezithile. Lolu cwaningo luzosiza amalunga ebandla lamaNazaretha ukuba azi ngomlando kanye nomqondo wamagama amathempeli. Lapha kusetshenziswe insiza kuhlaziya ebizwa ngeHermeneuic data analysis. Le nsiza kuhlaziya ibuka ubuciko obusemibhalweni. Le nsiza kuhlaziya iyahambisana nalolu cwaningo ngoba ukuqamba amagama kudinga ubuciko obuyisimanga. Amagama amathempeli amaNazaretha aveza ubuciko obukhulu bomqambi wawo. Leli phepha libheka indlela okuqanjwe ngayo amagama amathempeli ebandleni lamaNazaretha Kanye nomthelela amagama anawo ebandleni. Kukhona amagama aqambeke ngendlela enemizwa emihle ngenxa yokuthi ukuqanjwa kwawo ahambisana nezigameko ezinhle, bese kuba khona amagama aqambeke emuva kwezigameko ezingezinhle. Lapha kuzobhekwa ukuthi ngabe lawo mathempeli aqanjwe emuva kwezigameko ezingezinhle kanye nalawo aqanjwe emuva kwezigameko ezinhle kunamuphi umthelela emathempelini. Kuningi okwenziwayo ebandleni lamaNazaretha uma kuqanjwa igama futhi wonke amagama amathempeli aqanjwa iNkosi ehola ibandla ngaleso sikhathi. Akekho omunye umuntu ovumelekile ukuqamba igama lethempeli.</p> <p>This article analyses the naming of different temples of the Nazareth Baptist Church. Naming expresses certain emotions of the individual that is doing the naming. In African culture, names are given according to people’s life experiences. All the significant mountains, rivers and roads have names. This shows how important it is to assign a name to something. This article investigates the naming of temples in the Nazareth Baptist Church. All Nazareth temples have names. All the names of these temples carry a certain meaning or denotate something and some of them are named after specific incidents. The names of Nazareth temples show the creativity of a person who names them. This article observes how the names are given to these temples as well as the impact they have on the congregation of the temple. The temple names are given by the King of the Nazareth Baptist Church that is leading during that period. No one else has the authority to name the temple besides the Nazareth Baptist Church leader. Hermeneutics has been used as a theoretical perspective to analyse the data. Hermeneutics is a classical discipline concerned with the art of understanding texts. One of the primary recommendations of this article is that this study should be continued so that Nazareth church members will know more about the meaning of their temple names.</p> 2021-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) A toponomastic commemoration of King Mzilikazi: A linguistic landscaping and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs perspectives 2021-02-03T12:02:25+00:00 Beatrice Lantern Thamsanqa Moyo <p>This article presents a commemorative dimension of place names named after King Mzilikazi. The Ndebele used names linked to Mzilikazi to refer to some of the important institutions of Bulawayo city, like schools, suburbs, police stations and clinics. This article argues that this prominent use of the name Mzilikazi by the Ndebele in reference to various institutions images their efforts to reconstruct the historical treasures of knowledge they have about their king. Mzilikazi, the first king of the Ndebele people, left an indelible mark on Ndebele toponymy in the city of Bulawayo. This study seeks to unpack this inerasable symbolic legacy. Theoretical frameworks used in this article are linguistic landscaping and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The former theory is used to select various institutions in Bulawayo bearing the name Mzilikazi, while the latter is employed as an instrument to unravel the significance of these selected institutions to Ndebele people across the Zimbabwean landscape. The study concludes that significant historical icons like King Mzilikazi are remembered through place naming since each time these names are mentioned, treasured Ndebele history is immortalised. It is argued that the iconic name Mzilikazi brings up memories of pride, sufficiency, health, belonging and general unity.</p> 2021-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Cattle culture and colour symbolism as reflected in selected artworks of Sotho-Tswana in South Africa 2021-02-03T12:08:15+00:00 Mathodi Freddie Motsamayi <p>This article examines cattle culture and colour symbolism as practised among heterogeneous Sotho-Tswana people in South Africa. It aims to decode some meanings of colours that frequently feature in the designs, homestead decorations, and languages of Sotho-Tswana people. Based on an emic approach and interviews with cultural practitioners, the study hopes to advance the documentation of material culture by emphasising cultural signifiers and ethical practices linked to specific colour symbols. I argue that the interpretation of cattle culture and colour symbolism may help to identify specific colours as significant in the context of creative production and indigenous nomenclatures. Currently, heritage institutions and researchers are faced with the enormous task of interpreting cultural objects that have, to a greater or lesser degree, been forgotten by the groups that produced them, and of unearthing the background of their production so as to enable the establishment of their past and present relevance to communities. In this article, I emphasise my own findings rather than relying entirely on possibly dated literature.</p> 2021-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The depiction of cosmic images of the sun, moon and stars in selected Setswana novels 2021-02-03T12:17:14+00:00 Daniel Sekepe Matjila <p>This article examines the application of celestial images in Setswana novels. In Setswana narratives, there are echoes, resonances and symbols of celestial images. Repeated use of these symbols helps to uncover the quality and/or the essence of Setswana language practice, as well as the intents and purposes of novelists to nurture and safeguard the Setswana language and culture. The aim of the study is to identify celestial images in the novels, explicate the meaning of each and to look at their appropriateness to the text. Setswana cosmic images in this study are obtained from selected Setswana novelists. The discussion is to be presented by dividing cosmic images into three categories, namely the sun, the moon, and the stars. By using these signs, the novelists advocate for the application of Batswana/African understanding of natural science. Celestial images refer to objects in the sky or visible heavens or to the universe beyond the earth’s atmosphere. The study aims to show the knowledge of Batswana cosmology and its application to their everyday life.</p> 2021-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Dual language education: Improving the academic learning experiences of isiZulu-speaking learners in KwaZulu-Natal 2021-02-03T12:25:13+00:00 Sicelo Ziphozonke Ntshangase Sonja Bosch <p>In the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa, isiZulu is a dominant language, yet it is not used as the language of teaching and learning in schools. The linguistic rights of isiZulu-speaking learners continue to be violated as long as schools force them to be assessed in English only. The pedagogical practice based on a monolingual language policy is believed to be a hindrance to good classroom practice and does not promote the ideals of a multilingual and multicultural society as advocated by the Constitution of South Africa. The analysis of written responses provided in open-ended questionnaires indicates that pedagogical translanguaging could ease the academic woes of isiZulu speaking learners in KwaZulu-Natal. The model advocated is not monoglot bilingual or multilingual education where isiZulu and English are used as separate and independent languages of teaching and learning. Instead, a model is proposed which aims at expanding the existing language repertoires of learners in a form of multilingual pedagogical translanguaging, which is the theory framing the argument raised in this investigation.</p> 2021-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Shinyiha noun derivation 2021-02-03T12:29:39+00:00 Devet Goodness <p>This article investigates the derivational processes involving nouns in Shinyiha. It focuses on two main issues: derivation by attaching an affix that changes meaning and a word category (for example, from verb to noun), and derivation by prefixing a stem which has its inherent class prefix. The study also identifies the use of associative phrases to express meanings which could be expressed by derived nouns. It reveals that noun derivation in Shinyiha is a complex phenomenon which involves both simple and complex verbs. It is affected by adding either a prefix, a prefix plus a nominalising suffix or a prefix plus verb extension suffixes. It is noted that the final vowels attached to deverbatives are not default vowels; they contribute to the meaning of the derived noun. The study reveals that one nominalising suffix may induce multiple meanings, depending on the nature of the verb root. The same meaning may be expressed by different suffixes. In addition, associative constructions can occur with infinitives to express agentiveness to compensate for nouns that cannot be derived in a regular way.</p> 2021-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Dictionary usage in teaching a mother tongue with reference to Sesotho 2021-02-03T12:37:42+00:00 Tankiso Motjope-Mokhali Inge M. Kosch Munzhedzi James Mafela <p>This study investigated the effectiveness of dictionary use in reading and writing Sesotho as a mother tongue.<br>The study was prompted by the fact that some students believe that they do not need dictionaries in a mother tongue class and as a result, Sesotho dictionaries are not used in Lesotho schools. The aim of the study was to determine if there was any significant difference in the students’ performance when reading and writing with or without the assistance of a dictionary. The study employed a communicative-oriented approach. It compared the scores of dictionary users and non-dictionary users for reading comprehension and production of sentences. All 434 (Grade 11) of the participating high school students from the lowlands and the highlands areas of Lesotho were given the same test. The participants were tested on their capability to use the selected words in sentences and on their comprehension of the target words. One group in each of the locations used dictionaries, while the other group answered the questions without the use of dictionaries. Among the dictionary users, some made use of the Sesuto-English Dictionary, which is a bilingual dictionary, while others consulted Sethantšo sa Sesotho, a monolingual dictionary. The study reveals that dictionary usage in a mother tongue language class improved students’ performance significantly as compared to non-dictionary use.</p> 2021-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Locative enclitics in Ruruuli-Lunyala, Runyankore-Rukiga and Luganda: Form and functions 2021-02-03T12:41:40+00:00 Fridah Katushemererwe Saudah Namyalo <p>In this article, we describe the form and functions of locative enclitics in Ruruuli-Lunyala, Runyankore-Rukiga and Luganda. We demonstrate that although locative enclitics play the role of locative references, there are other non-locative functions which have not yet been reported in these three languages. The article pursues two objectives: (1) To describe the form of locative enclitics in the three languages; and (2) to describe the locative and non-locative functions of enclitics. Data for Luganda and Runyankore-Rukiga were collected using interviews and focus group discussions. For Ruruuli-Lunyala, examples were drawn from a spoken corpus of Ruruuli-Lunyala, a Ruruuli-Lunyala dictionary and elicitations from two native speakers. The findings show that locative enclitics in Ruruuli-Lunyala, Runyankore-Rukiga and Luganda play the role of locative reference in addition to non-locative functions. The non-locative functions attested in the three languages include partitive, politeness, comparative, adverbial, tense and aspect. Some encliticised words have become lexicalised, while others are used in idiomatic expressions.</p> 2021-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) War songs and hope during the Second Chimurenga in Zimbabwe: a critical discourse analysis approach 2021-02-03T12:46:05+00:00 Vimbai M. Matiza David Mutasa <p>War songs played a pivotal role during the struggle for independence in Zimbabwe. War songs provoked people’s thoughts, feelings and mood to fight for the liberation of the country. Slogans, songs and music that were sung and performed during the war of liberation, popularly known as the Second Chimurenga (1971–1979), instilled hope in both the liberation fighters and the masses as they gave them the strength to continue fighting until the attainment of independence. The war songs that were inextricably linked to the hard-fought struggle were the bedrock or cornerstone in boosting the fighters’ morale. Thus, the aim of the article is to discuss the pivotal role of war songs in winning the struggle against colonialism through instilling hope in both the masses and fighters. The language embedded in war songs oozed with power and urged the African fighters to soldier on despite all odds. Using critical discourse analysis of six war songs, namely <em>Maruza imi</em> (You have been defeated), <em>Rova ngoma Mutavara</em> (Hit the drum, Mutavara), <em>Nyika yedu yababa</em> (Our country, the land of our forefathers), <em>Mhoroi mose mose</em> (Greetings everyone), <em>Tichafara tasvika muZimbabwe</em> (We will be happy when we get to Zimbabwe) and <em>Mbuya Nehanda kufa vachitaura</em> (Grandmother Nehanda died speaking), the article argues that war songs are embedded with messages and emotions that give participants the vigour and energy to succeed despite the odds.</p> 2021-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) CORRIGENDUM 2021-02-03T12:52:38+00:00 Anonymous <p>Persohn B. 2019. /mu/ and mu-reduction in Nyakyusa. South African Journal of African Languages 39(2): 191–203.<br>On page 202, note 2 should read as follows:<br>The long vowel sequences /(a)mʊʊ, ɲɪɪ, ɲʊʊ, anɪɪ, amɪɪ/ are attested as the outcome of contact between prefixes and stem-initial vowels.</p> 2021-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)