South African Journal of African Languages https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal <span>The </span><em>South African Journal of African Languages</em><span> is a peer-reviewed research journal devoted to the advancement of African (Bantu) and Khoe-San languages and literatures. Papers, book reviews and polemic contributions of a scientific nature in any of the core areas of linguistics, both theoretical (e.g. syntax, phonology, semantics) and applied (e.g. sociolinguistic topics, language teaching, language policy), and literature, based on original research in the context of the African languages, are welcome. The journal is the official mouthpiece of the African Language Association of Southern Africa (ALASA), established in 1979.</span><div>Read more <a href="http://www.nisc.co.za/products/21/journals/south-african-journal-of-african-languages" target="_blank">here</a>. </div> NISC Pty Ltd en-US South African Journal of African Languages 0257-2117 <span>Copyright is owned by the publisher: NISC </span> Aspects of deceptive cognate derived loanwords in Kinyarwanda https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/211907 <p>Loanwords derived from French and English deceptive cognates in Rwanda have caught the researchers’ attention because of the complexity they present in the areas of language contact and language teaching and learning. Deceptive cognates very often constitute obstacles to the understanding of the meaning and the pronunciation of a word because they have tricky similarities. In Rwanda, where most English learners have already acquired French as Target Language 2, failure to use the right word in English (Target Language 3) is a serious impediment to successful communication. The tendency is to consider the meaning and the pronunciation of an English word as that of a French word, especially when both words have the same spelling.</p> Jacques Lwaboshi Kayigema Davie Elias Mutasa Copyright (c) 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 41 2 113 122 Igbo endearment terms: In-group identity construction in selected novels by Achebe and Adichie https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/211909 <p>The continuing and increasing interest in the study of identities in the humanities and the social sciences since the turn of the twenty-first century points to the significance of the subject matter in human evolution. Against such a significant backdrop, we scrutinise the symbolic parallel between the use of endearment terms and the construction of identities in the works of two prominent Nigerian novelists – Chinua Achebe and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. Despite studies on their respective novels, extensive studies on how these Nigerian novelists deploy linguistic resources to enunciate in-group identity are still inadequate. Using social constructionism and literary pragmatics as our theoretical point of reference, we contend that these novelists’ use of Igbo&nbsp; endearment terms function as a linguistic means by which in-group identities are constructed, drawing our data from four of the authors’ novels: Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and Anthills of the Savannah and Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus and Half of a Yellow Sun. Our critical and textual analysis reveals that the use of Igbo endearment terms are strategies for illuminating how literary characters use language in socio-discursive encounters to enact and re-enact as well as maintain their belonging to or membership of a group.</p> Romanus Aboh Esther Igwanyi Copyright (c) 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 41 2 123 130 Analysing linguistic stereotypes in Cell C and King Price’s multilingual South African television advertisements https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/211911 <p>This article highlights the role of television advertisements in raising awareness of the importance of being&nbsp; multilingual in the current&nbsp; transformational and technological age in South Africa, where social cohesion is the end goal. This article focuses on Cell C and King Price advertisements, where parallels are drawn, highlighting the important role of language in multilingual settings and how through speaking another language, cultural&nbsp; barriers can be avoided. This article illustrates the stereotypical perceptions of South Africans and how through language these stereotypes are removed. The authors engage in a contemporary analysis of linguistic, racial,&nbsp; cultural and gender&nbsp; stereotypes, considering South Africa’s discriminatory past. The advertisements highlight the important role of African languages&nbsp; (including Afrikaans) in the transformational agenda and debunks the myth that English creates unity in diversity. The key focus of this article is the media’s role in implementing the constitutional imperative of language equality for all, where the nine African languages are developed, used&nbsp; and promoted in high-status domains. These advertisements are pivotal, where English is being adopted across society as evidenced most recently by the English-only language of record policy for courts. The article&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; concludes with recommendations for future advertisements that can be used as tools to promote the use of African languages.</p> Zakeera Docrat Karien Brits Copyright (c) 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 41 2 131 138 The attributive adjective in Zimbabwean isiNdebele https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/211913 <p>This article discusses attributive adjectives in Zimbabwean isiNdebele. In traditional grammar, the attributive adjectives are treated as words whose function is to qualify a noun in a noun phrase. According to this analysis, an attributive adjective has the structure: adjective concord (a relative marker a- + a noun class prefix) and an adjective stem. However, there are instances where the attributive function is expressed by a construction that is larger than a word. In these constructions, the relative marker and the noun class prefix may be separated by a subject marker, negation marker, aspect markers, tense markers, inchoactive/auxiliary verbs, or a subject of the relative clause. I present an alternative analysis, according to which the attributive adjectival function is expressed by a relative clause rather than by an adjectival word category. I maintain that adjectival roots in isiNdebele are derived from class neutral roots by merging with an adjectiviser head (adj), and that the function of an adjective is to complement auxiliary verbs and inchoactive verbs in a predicate. I suggest that the relative operator is base generated as a complement of an adjective in an adjective phrase and then moves to spec C via spec in spec Pr and spec T respectively. The C-head a- then affixes to the subject of the relative clause in the formation of strategy 2&nbsp; relatives and it affixes to T in the formation of strategy 1 relatives.</p> Progress Dube Copyright (c) 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 41 2 139 148 IsiZulu task-based syllabus for medical students: Grading and sequencing doctor-patient communication tasks https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/211915 <p>The task-based language teaching approach related to the second language learning process is a widely&nbsp; researched area across many global languages. Yet this approach is given scant attention in South African tertiary education. This study, therefore, explores an isiZulu task-based syllabus design for doctor-patient communication aimed at enhancing communicative skills in the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBChB) programme at the Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.&nbsp; Specifically, the study investigates the use of tasks in a task-based syllabus design, the process involved in grading, and sequencing tasks based on cognitive complexity analysis. The cognition hypothesis and the&nbsp; stabilise-simplify-automatiserestructure-complexify (SSARC) model proposed by Robinson posits that&nbsp; pedagogical tasks should be sequenced by gradually increasing cognitive complexity. Following this view and by invoking Robinsons’ SSARC model, this article investigates how target tasks may be sequenced by&nbsp; manipulating task features of doctor and patient pedagogic tasks. This theoretical analysis intends to&nbsp; demonstrate how second language syllabus designers can advance and strengthen more widely in tertiary education the teaching and learning of isiZulu – or other African languages – for health sciences students and professionals. </p> Roshni Gokool Marianna Visser Copyright (c) 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 41 2 149 159 Ukuhlalutywa kokusetyenziswa kwepragmatiki ekuphononongeni iincwadi ezikhethiweyo zikaTamsanqa noPeteni kujoliswe kwintsingiselo efihlakeleyo https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/211916 <p>Njengoko uphandolwazi olugudle ipragmatiki lwenziwe ziingcali ngeengcali zisebenzisa ingcingane kaGrice kwanentsingiselo efihlakeleyo, oku kwenziwe kujoliswe kwiinkalo ezahlukeneyo eziphawula ngokusetyenziswa kolwimi kwiintetho zabantu, uhlalutyo kusetyenziswa ipragmatiki kuncwadi lunqongophele ingakumbi kuhlalutyo nzulu loncwadi lwesiXhosa. Eli nqaku liza kuthi ligxile kwintsingiselo&nbsp; efihlakeleyo ekuboniseni indlela abalinganiswa nababhali abathi babandakanye ngayo incoko ethi ibonakalise uphawu lwepragmatiki&nbsp; ekuthiwa yintsingiselo efihlakaleyo. Ingcingane kaGrice iza kuthi isetyenziswe ukuhlalutya iincwadi ezichongelwe eli nqaku. UGrice kule ngcingane yakhe kukho imigaqo athi yimigaqo yonxibelelwano nethi ibe nezaci ezine ezisisiseko. Ezi zaci ziza kuthi zihliwe amahlongwane phezulu kwiincwadi zikaTamsanqa ezizezi, Nyana wam! Nyana wam! Ithemba liyaphilisa, Inzala kaMlungisi nekaPeteni ethi, KwaZidenge ukutyhila ukuba ababhali bathe bazibonakalisa njani ekubaliseni kwabo. Ezi zaci zezi zilandelayo; Isaci somgangatho, Isaci sobalo, Isaci sonxulumano kunye nesaci sobunjani. Eli nqaku lihlalutya iindlela abathetha ngazo abalinganiswa njengokuba umyalezo abawudlulisayo kufuneka kube lula ukuwuqanda ungabi mbaxa. Eli nqaku liye lafumanisa ukuba izaci zisetyenziswe ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo ngababhali apho ziye zilandelwe nalapho zityeshelwayo khona ngabalinganiswa kwiintetho zabo. Phantsi kwesaci ngasinye kuphawuleka&nbsp; ukusetyenziswa ngokukuko kwesaci ngumbhali, okanye umlinganiswa, nokungasetyenziswa ngokukuko kwaso, ukutsho oko ukutyeshelwa kwezaci ezo, oku kuza kutyhilwa xa kuhlalutywa iincwadi ezichongiweyo zesiXhosa. Ingcingane yepragmatiki kaGrice echaza banzi ngentsingiselo efihlakeleyo iza kuthi isetyenziswe njengesiseko sokuhlalutya iincwadi zesiXhosa ezikhethelwe eli nqaku.</p> <p><em><strong>English title: Pragmatic analysis of implicature in Tamsanqa and Peteni’s selected works</strong></em></p> <p>Research that uses Grician theory as a framework has been conducted by a number of scholars dealing with language issues and people’s use of language. The use of pragmatics and implicature as a framework in the analysis of literature is an area in need of development in isiXhosa. This article examines the implicature that is portrayed in the selected isiXhosa texts through the writer’s and characters words. A Gricean idea of implicature will be employed as the framework in analysing Tamsanqa’s Nyana wam! Nyana wam!, Ithemba liyaphilisa, Inzala kaMlungisi and Peteni’s KwaZidenge. Grice’s maxims of quality, quantity, manner and relevance have been employed to analyse and understand the conversation in the selected texts. The integration of literature and language reveals that literature finds its expression in language; hence the characters’ and writers’ words are analysed using implicature. Grice’s theory explores the fact that speakers do not always obey maxims in conversation. In the isiXhosa texts chosen for this article, the characters’ and authors’ utterances are explored in order to reveal their intentions and identities, which are hidden behind their language. This article reveals that characters assume that entering into a conversation with each other implies that the co-operative principle and its regulative conventions are obeyed. It has been noted that some characters’ utterances do not conform to these maxims.</p> Pumla Pamella Cutalele Linda Loretta Kwatsha Copyright (c) 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 41 2 160 171 Stereotyping in the novel Moelelwa: The dichotomy between laziness and maternal duties https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/211918 <p>Some Sepedi authors perceive women as having to be confined to the home to only perform maternal duties, and women are ridiculed for not being able to fulfill the responsibilities of womanhood. This perception extends to community members who criticise women for not living up to ethnic and cultural expectations. Some books which portray women negatively are still prescribed and read in schools and universities, thereby perpetuating these stereotypes among the youth. This article aims at establishing whether or not laziness is a hindrance to maternal duties and to compare it with modern society’s expectations of married women. The ethnographic design and comparative analyses were used in which Moelelwa, as a character, served as a guide for understanding the issue of stereotyping women and laziness in the past and in the modern era. The cultural theory which discusses how cultural values and rituals play an important role in acculturation and enculturation processes has been employed for comparison between Sepedi, seSwati and modern cultural ways of being. The findings show that women in traditional settings are subjected to this labelling, whereas modern career women avoid this criticism by making use of helpers in their homes. The study illustrates that women are not necessarily lazy if they do not perform their domestic roles. The recommendation is that some of the Sepedi classics could be revived by being used in comparative studies as was done with Moelelwa. </p> Mmamoyahabo Constance Makgabo Refilwe Morongwa Ramagoshi Nompumelelo Bernadette Zondi Copyright (c) 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 41 2 179 186 Exploring the attitudes of isiZulu first language students towards learning Sepedi as an additional language at university level https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/211919 <p>A significant number of isiZulu first language students enrolled for the Language Practice course at Tshwane University of Technology in&nbsp; Soshanguve. Considering the linguistic diversity of South Africa, plurality of cultures and the different roles played by languages, this university has developed a programme that seeks to provide access to learning additional languages for first language students. This study sought to understand the attitudes of isiZulu students towards learning Sepedi as an additional language for communicative&nbsp; purposes. The study adopted a mixed methods approach which used questionnaires and interviews for data collection. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics for quantitative data and thematic analysis for qualitative data. Findings from the study indicate that&nbsp; isiZulu first language students have mixed feelings regarding the learning of Sepedi as an additional language at university level.&nbsp;&nbsp; Respondents and participants from the selected samples confirmed that they acknowledge the importance of learning Sepedi as an additional&nbsp; language because it might open career opportunities in business for graduates. Furthermore, the respondents and participants have a positive attitude and understanding that learning Sepedi as an additional language might also assist them in becoming multilingual.</p> Getrude N. Mbatha Itani P. Mandende Christopher Rwodzi Moshidi M. Makgato Copyright (c) 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 41 2 179 186 Family language policy: The case for a bottom-up approach in conserving Zimbabwe’s minoritised languages https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/211920 <p>This article focuses on the perspectives of selected members drawn from three language and culture&nbsp; associations to understand their bottom-up initiatives in the conservation of minoritised languages in Zimbabwe. By triangulating the reversing language shift theory and the concept of family language policy, the study sought to discuss the contributions of ZILPA, KLCDA and TOLACCO as bottom-up players in language policy. Language and culture associations are considered important reversing language shift agents whose language&nbsp; awareness and language ideologies potentially impact family language policy and encourage the use of minoritised languages by all three generations in the family. Findings of the study demonstrate that language and culture associations are vital cogs in the articulation of family language policy. They deploy a range of language intervention measures to enthuse minoritised language families to use their heritage language at home. The study concludes by making a case for further exploration of family language policy as a bottom-up&nbsp; approach in minoritised language conservation, given that the core component of language transmission is its use in homes.</p> Busani Maseko Copyright (c) 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 41 2 187 195 Developing summary writing skills through translanguaging https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/211921 <p>Translanguaging, an umbrella term used to refer to pedagogical approaches that engage the learners’ home languages as a resource, is praised for positive outcomes when its techniques are employed in teaching and learning in multilingual settings. This article examines the effects of translanguaging on learners’ ability to reorganise texts after reading texts in isiXhosa as the learners’ home language, and English as their first additional language. The study adopted a Solomon four-group quasi-experimental design in which there were four groups of participants, viz. two experimental groups and two control groups. Four Grade 4 rural schools comprising 215 learners aged between 9 and 12 years participated in the study. The results showed a positive correlation between the translanguaging techniques employed and learner performance in the ability to write summaries. However, learner performance improved less in English than it did in the home language. The study demonstrates that substantial gains can be obtained in reading development in elementary grades when translanguaging techniques are exploited. It, therefore, attempts to provide alternative means to address concerns about substandard reading abilities of African learners at elementary grades in South Africa.</p> Vukile D. Mgijima Leketi Makalela Copyright (c) 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 41 2 196 206 ‘Go beka’: Legato le bohlokwa la lenyalo la setšo https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/211922 <p>Nepokgolo ya nyakišišo ye ke go tsinkela lenyalo la setšo sa Bapedi go hlokometšwe kudu setšhaba sa ba Matlala ba tikologo ya Moutse. Go bile le dinyakišišo tšeo di dirilwego mabapi le lenyalo la setšo sa Bapedi. Le ge go le bjalo dinyakišišo tšeo di lebane le lenyalo la Bapedi ka kakaretšo leo le sa hlalošego magato a lenyalo ao ka Sepedi le ona a amogelegago mo lenyalong, bjalo ka legato la ‘Go beka’. Ge go lekolwa lenyalo la setšhaba se sa ba Matlala, go lemogwa gore sona se na le magato a lenyalo a go fapana le tšeo tše dingwe. Phapano ye&nbsp; kgolo ya lenyalo la setšo sa ba Matlala e theilwe godimo ga tshepedišo ya kgato ya go ikgetha ya go bitšwa legato la ‘Go beka’, leo ge le ka se phethagatšwe go thwego lenyalo la setšo ga se le felelele.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em><strong>English title: ‘Be engaged to...’: An important stage of traditional marriage</strong></em></p> <p>The main aim of this article is to analyse the Bapedi traditional marriage system, with special reference to the final stage of marriage called Go beka of the Matlala tribe, who live within the Moutse area. Some research has already been conducted relevant to the traditional marriage system of the Bapedi. However, research to date focuses on the marriage system of the Bapedi in general, but does not explain in detail one of the stages of marriage that is acceptable and critical in Sepedi culture. This final stage of marriage, known as the Go beka, is one in which a young married woman is required to leave her parents’ family to join and to live with the family of the in-laws on a permanent basis. When critically analysing or assessing the marriage system of the Matlala tribe, it is evident that it has conventions in the marriage process that are different from some other ethnic groups. The main difference in the marriage system of the Matlala group is that it is based on the obligations pertaining to the final stage of marriage, called Go beka, which, unless this aspect is fulfilled, the marriage&nbsp; cannot be regarded as complete in terms of Bapedi traditional culture.</p> Moiponi Magdalina Sefoka Mawatle Jeremiah Mojalefa Copyright (c) 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 41 2 207 213 The impressions of writers of isiXhosa literary texts about the pre-Soviet and Soviet-era Russia https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/211924 <p>The argument of this transdisciplinary article is that isiXhosa poetry is a primary source of historical evidence. The article argues that&nbsp; through the study of isiXhosa literary texts we can discern the impressions of isiXhosa writers about the sociopolitical and economic&nbsp; relationship of South Africa with pre-Soviet and Soviet Russia. The support of the Boers by Russia during the Anglo-Boer War of 1899–1902 resulted in resentment of Russia as a Xhosa writer demonstrated support for Britain, which was, according to him, less oppressive. A revolution in Russia, which led to the founding of the Soviet Union, attracted the attention of Xhosa writers who admired the socialist principles of non-racialism and equality. In South Africa, the anti-socialism legislation of the segregation and apartheid governments&nbsp; resulted in caution and a mute voice about Russia. During the post-Sharpeville massacre era, linguistic devices which were intended to evade censorship were utilised to conceal the calls for support from the East or Russia in the struggle against apartheid. Some writers in the seventies were ‘interpellated’ by the anti-socialism/Russia/Communism/Soviet ideology propagated by the apartheid regime. The writers of the late eighties and nineties rebutted the abovementioned stance with compliments and expressions of gratitude to Russia for military support for the liberation struggle in South Africa. </p> Godfrey Vulindlela Mona Copyright (c) 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 41 2 214 221 Resituating ‘African-language’ literatures in African literature: The case of BW Vilakazi https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajal/article/view/211925 <p>In this article, a concern is expressed about the marginal place of African literatures written in African languages in the field of African literary studies. The first fictional novel to be published in isiZulu by one of the most notable writers in South Africa, BW Vilakazi’s Noma Nini, is looked at. It is disturbing that the publication of Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart in 1958 is said to have marked the birth of African literature, while many African writers had been writing way before Achebe wrote his novel. However, not only is Vilakazi’s novel and others like it relegated to being inferior to the literature written in English, but they are excluded from the field of African literature, so that when one speaks of African literature, it is taken for granted that they are speaking about the literature written in English. It is argued that Vilakazi’s Noma Nini anticipated novels like Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s The River Between, to mention just two novels of the so-called canons of African literature that engage with Africa’s encounter with the West. It is suggested that the literatures written in African languages are part of African literature as much as those written in English, and that if we have to qualify and add ‘African languages’ for novels like Noma Nini, then we need to qualify that Things Fall Apart is African literature in English.</p> Nkosinathi Sithole Copyright (c) 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 41 2 222 229