Effects of dietary physical form and dietary inclusion of probiotic and enzyme on growth performance, cellular and humoral immunity, and relative weights of lymphoid organs at early period of broiler chickens fed triticale-based diets
The aim of the present study was to investigate interactions between feed form and dietary inclusion of probiotics (live organisms) and enzymes on growth performance, cellular and humoral immunity, and relative weights of lymphoid organs of broiler chicks fed a triticale-based diet. A total of 640 broiler chicks were allocated to eight treatments when they were one day old, with four replicates (n = 20 chicks in each). The dietary treatments consisted of feed form (pellets or mash) and dietary supplementation with or without a Bacillus-based probiotic (0.03% diet) and enzyme (carbohydrase, 0.05% diet) in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated based on feed intake (FI) and weight gain (WG). The WG of the broiler chicks fed the pelleted diets containing the enzyme and probiotic (alone or in combination) was greater than that of the birds fed the mash diets without these additives. Significant interaction effects of the enzyme and probiotic on FCR and FI were observed in the starter period. The heterophil : lymphocyte (H : L) ratio of the chicks fed the pelleted diet containing the enzyme and probiotic was lower than that of the birds fed the other diets. The cellular immunity of the birds fed this diet increased after 24 hours, as shown by the results of a challenge experiment with dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) or an injection of phytohemagglutinin (PHA). In conclusion, feed form and supplementation of a triticale-based diet with feed enzymes and probiotics can greatly improve the growth performance and immunity of broiler chicks.
Keywords: Dinitrochlorobenzene, Di-Pro probiotic, phytohemagglutinin, Rovabio enzyme, spleen, viscosity