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South African Journal of Animal Science

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Rate of inbreeding and effective population size in four major South African dairy cattle breeds

A Maiwashe, KA Nephawe, RR van der Westhuizen, BE Mostert, HE Theron

Abstract


Pedigree information on the registered South African Ayrshire (n = 47 116), Guernsey (n = 18 766), Holstein (n = 892 458) and Jersey (n = 314 403) breeds was analyzed to determine the rate of inbreeding and effective population sizes for the period 1960 to 2003. Inbreeding coefficients were calculated using the Animal Breeder's Tool Kit. The mean inbreeding coefficients for 2003 were 2.02%, 2.04%, 2.30%, and 3.05% for the Ayrshire, Guernsey, Holstein and Jersey, respectively. The corresponding rates of inbreeding per year were 0.05%, 0.05%, 0.06%, and 0.07% indicating that inbreeding is accumulating at a slightly higher rate in Jersey compared to the other three breeds. However, the rates of inbreeding in the current study are still considerably lower than the acceptable rate of less than 0.5% per year. Estimates of effective population sizes were 148, 165, 137, and 108 for the Ayrshire, Guernsey, Holstein and Jersey, respectively. Results indicate that the impact of inbreeding on genetic variability is still minimal. However, the impact of inbreeding on phenotypic performance on traits of economic importance was not investigated in the current study and should therefore receive future consideration.

South African Journal of Animal Science Vol. 36(1) 2006: 50-57



http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v36i1.3986
AJOL African Journals Online