South African Journal of Animal Science 2023-04-18T05:52:24+00:00 Prof V Muchenje Open Journal Systems <p>The <em>South African Journal of Animal Science</em> is a peer-reviewed journal for publication of original scientific research articles and reviews in the field of animal science. The journal is published both electronically and in paper format. The scope of the journal includes reports of research dealing with farm livestock species (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and poultry), as well as pertinent aspects of research on aquatic and wildlife species. The main disciplines covered are nutrition, genetics and physiology. Papers dealing with sociological aspects of well-defined livestock production systems are also invited, providing they are scientific by nature and have been carried out in a systematic way.</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>The journal is ISI Rated (Agriculture, Dairy and Animal Science Impact factor) with an Impact Factor of&nbsp;0.678 for 2016.</p> Changes in cardiac troponin I (cTnI), T (cTnT), and some biochemical parameters in Arabian racehorses after training 2023-04-17T16:00:54+00:00 C. Ayvazoğlu Ş. Kızıltpe Ü. Yaşar Ü. Yaşar Z.G. Yaşar P. Demir A. C. Tunc <p>The aim of this study was to compare the changes in the content of cTnI, cTnT and some biochemical parameters (CK–MB, LDH, AST, ALT) in Arabian racehorses before and after training. Diagnosis of myocardial disease in horses is very difficult due to the lack of specific cardiac signs. Cardiac diseases are seen as a cause of sudden death or decreased performance in horses. It has also been reported that excessive exercise may cause transient myocardial damage. In our study, 20 healthy stallion Arabian racehorses aged 4–10 y (6.00 ± 0.52 y) were used. Five millilitres of blood was collected from the <em>V. jugularis</em> of clinically healthy horses into serum tubes before and after training. Training time was determined as 30 min for each horse. Pre-training cTnI, cTnT, CK–MB, LDH, AST, and ALT contents were determined to be 0.130 ± 0.01 ng/mL, 0.007 ± 0.00 ng/mL, 231.15 ± 8.96 U/L, 692.45 ± 34.12 U/L, 309.92 ± 18.48 U/L, and 11.83 ± 0.92 U/L, respectively. After training, cTnI, cTnT, CK–MB, LDH, AST, and ALT contents were determined to be 0.169 ± 0.01 ng/mL, 0.008 ± 0.00 ng/mL, 289.80 ± 10.96 U/L, 704.25 ± 22.03 U/L, 328.47 ± 19.58 U/L, and 15.24 ± 1.03 U/L, respectively. As a result, it was determined that exercise triggered myocardial damage to some extent in Arabian horses. Exercise stimulates troponin release and the differences that may occur in troponin tests in horses after exercise should be taken into consideration.</p> 2023-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Organic minerals, tributyrin, and blend of organic acids in the diet of commercial laying hens at the end of production 2023-04-17T16:18:47+00:00 D. A. Miranda L. F. S. Moreira A. A. de Almeida J. A. Vieira-Filho L. C. M J. K. Valentim H. F. Oliveira A. Geraldo <p>This study aimed to evaluate the responses in performance, egg quality, and health of internal organs of laying hens of Hisex White lineage. The birds were provided with diets supplemented with organic minerals (OM) + tributyrin, associated or not with a mixture of organic acids (benzoic formic, citric, and phosphoric), compared to a control treatment containing zinc bacitracin (28 ppm). In total, 160 laying hens of the commercial Hisex White lineage of 68 w and an average weight of 1.735 ± 0.025 kg were distributed in 40 experimental plots. The study employed a completely randomized design, with five treatments and eight replications/treatment. The experimental period was divided into seven production cycles of 21 days, totalling 147 experimental days. The variables analysed were egg production and loss, feed intake, mean egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion, and internal and external quality variables of eggs. At the end of the experimental period, the final weight of the birds was measured to evaluate the relative weight of liver and kidneys. No significant effect of the treatments on the productive performance and internal and external quality of the eggs was evident. The association of organic minerals with a mixture of organic acids and tributyrin did not influence the productive performance and internal and external quality of the shell of Hisex White laying hens in the period from 68 to 89 weeks of age.</p> 2023-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 The relationship between the internal and external morphological parameters of honeybee queens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and the determination of morphological variation 2023-04-17T16:29:21+00:00 G. Özmen Özbakır <p>This study was carried out to determine the crucial external and internal morphological characteristics for evaluating queens in three rearing periods (May, June, and July). Data of 65 queens reared from the local honeybees of the Sanliurfa (<em>Apis mellifera</em> L.) and Anatolian (<em>Apis mellifera anatoliaca</em>) honeybee colonies were used. Discriminant and principal component analyses (PCA) were done for thirty-one external and internal morphological characteristics of queens. The highest weight of the queen at emergence was determined in May for the Sanliurfa queens and in June for the Anatolian queens. The averages in ovary weight and spermathecae diameter of queens were found to be non-significant according to groups and periods. The number of ovarioles of the queens was different according to rearing period. Using the left basitarsus width variable, the Sanliurfa and Anatolian queens were classified correctly to their pre-assigned groups using discriminant analysis (73.8%). According to the result of PCA applied to all variables of queens, nine components explained 81.68% of the total variation. The seven variables in the first principal component were the left basitarsus length, the right hindleg length, the left hindleg length, the right basitarsus length, the left tibial length, the right tibial length, and the left basitarsus width. The forewing and the hindwing characteristics were included in the second principal component, and the number of ovarioles was included in the third principal component. The study shows that genotypes can be discriminated using the hindleg variables, in particular, as well as the internal and external morphological parameters of the queens.</p> 2023-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Principal Component Analysis of morphometric traits and body indices in South African Kalahari Red goats 2023-04-17T16:35:46+00:00 T.L. Tyasi O. Tada <p>Principal component analysis (PCA) is a vital statistical technique for defining the morphological structure of livestock but has not been used in South African Kalahari Red goats. Thirteen morphometric traits and eleven body indices from two hundred and ninety-six (296) South African Kalahari Red goats (269 does and 27 bucks) aged 2–3 years were used to define morphological structure using PCA. The coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>), root mean square error (RMSE), Akaike’s information criterion (AIC), Mallows' Cp-statistic (Cp), and coefficient of variation (CV) were used to select the best fit model. Body weight was correlated with all morphometric traits in both sexes. The first two principal components explained 87.31% of the variation in measurements from male goats and 62.32% of the trait variation in the females. The inclusion of head length, body length, canon circumference, rump length, rump width, body condition score, wither height, and rump height increased the accuracy to 98% with smaller RMSE (2.42), AIC (55.35), Cp (10.00), and CV (3.98), and the use of PC1 and PC2 included 94% of the variation (RMSE, 3.62; AIC, 72.26; Cp, 3.00; CV, 5.94 in males). In females, the inclusion of all morphometric traits included 87% of the variation (RMSE, 2.93; AIC, 590.63; Cp, 13.00; CV 5.87). The use of PC1 and PC2 included 82% of the variation (RMSE, 3.41; AIC, 663.60; Cp, 3.00; CV, 6.84). PCA can therefore be used in breeding programs to define the morphological structure of South African Kalahari Red goats with a severe reduction in the number of morphometric traits to be recorded.</p> 2023-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Serological and haemato-biochemical insights into bovine leukosis in dairy cattle in D.I. Khan, Pakistan 2023-04-17T16:45:24+00:00 Habib Ullah A. Nasir M. Kashif M. Sajid A. Sikandar M. Umer Farooq A. Rahman F. Ullah <p>Bovine leukosis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV). The study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, haemato-biochemical effects, and risk factors pertinent to the prevalence of bovine leukosis in Holstein–Friesian purebred dairy cattle in the D.I. Khan region of Pakistan. A total of 192 sera were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 31.3% (60/192) cattle were detected as seropositive. There was a marked increase in total leukocyte count (11.29 ± 0.48×10<sup>3</sup>/μl), lymphocytes (5.73 ± 0.42%), monocytes (0.81 ± 0.06%), haemoglobin (11.09 ± 0.46 g/dl), red blood cells (7.23 ± 0.37 ×106/μl), and packed cell volume (31.75 ± 1.48%) in seropositive cattle. Serum biochemical parameters in seropositive cattle showed a marked increase in the liver enzymes, alanine transaminase (24.25 ± 1.03 U/l) and aspartate aminotransferase (49.33 ± 3.31 U/l), with a marked decrease in glutathione peroxidase (1365.63 ± 12.03 (U/l) and superoxide dismutase (2.14 ± 0.13 U/ml) activity. A significant association of age, pregnancy, breeding method, milk yield, and health status of seropositive animals with bovine leukosis was also recorded. The prevalence was higher in animals which were older, pregnant, artificially inseminated, low milk producers, and had a history of ailments. The current study found that bovine leukosis virus could cause changes in internal homeostasis, oxidative stress, and liver dysfunction, all of which should be considered during a control regimen. It was concluded that bovine leukosis was moderately prevalent in the D.I. Khan region in Pakistan.</p> 2023-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Evaluation of <i>Phyllanthus niruri</i> L. powder on growth performance, haematology, and intestinal morphology of broilers 2023-04-17T16:53:24+00:00 T. Pasaribu M. Sukirman Y. Sani B. Bakrie S. Rusdiana <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary supplementation of <em>Phyllanthus niruri</em> L. powder (meniran powder, MeP) on the productivity, haematology profiles, and intestinal morphology of broilers. A total of 200 female, one-day-old chickens were allocated to five treatments randomly, with four replications (10 birds per replicate): control, without antibiotic and MeP; T2, Zn-bacitracin 0.05%; T3, MeP 0.02%; T4, MeP 0.03%; and T5, MeP 0.05%. A completely randomized design was employed. The results showed that MeP supplementation at 0.02%, 0.03%, and 0.05% did not affect the body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, haemoglobin, packed cell volume; and lymphocyte, red blood cell, heterophil, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil counts, but at 0.03% and 0.05%, appeared to reduce white blood cells (WBCs) compared to those in the control and Zn-bacitracin groups. Microscopically, MeP supplementation in the diet increased the height and cellular growth of the mucosal villi of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, but the villi appeared fragile as mucosal epithelial cell necrosis was noted in the taller villi. Thus, it is concluded that MeP did not affect broiler performance and haematology profiles, except that the number of WBCs at 0.03% and 0.05% was less than that in the control and Zn-bacitracin groups</p> 2023-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Synthesis and antibacterial activity of a ZnO-fibre complex 2023-04-18T05:52:22+00:00 Fawn Dai Tao Lin; Xia Huang Mujia Shi Fei Zhao Yaojun Yang Xiang Nong <p>In this experiment, a ZnO-fibre complex was prepared using the hydrothermal methods of "water solubility," "coupling agent," and "high temperature and high pressure". Binding rate, antibacterial activity, microstructure, and the infrared spectrum were measured using biomimetic digestion, bacterial proliferation tests, and ultra-fine electron microscopes. At first, ZnO-fibre complexes were prepared with different ratios of material and water. They was divided into five groups with ratios of 1:0, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:10, respectively. The ZnO-fibre complexes were prepared with different coupling agents on the basis of experiment 1. They were divided into four groups. The ratio for material and water in the control group was 1:0, and in the treatment group, was 1:4. Treatment groups 2 and 3 had 10% guar gum or 10% bamboo fibre polymer composites (BFP) added on the basis of group 1. A ZnO-fibre complex was successfully prepared by adding 10% BFP at a ratio of material:water of 1:4, at a high temperature of 120 °C and a high pressure of 0.3 MPa for 20 min. The ZnO-binding rate reached 99.05%. The zinc oxide may bind to the carbonyl group of bamboo powder and adhere to the surface of and gaps in the bamboo fibre. The growth inhibition rate of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus was double that of the common ZnO additive and Zn concentration. It is expected to be used as a slow-release ZnO additive.</p> 2023-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Effects of far infrared ray illumination on the performance, blood biochemistry, and faecal microflora of laying hens at different production stages 2023-04-17T17:08:46+00:00 C.I. Lim H.W. Kim A.S. You K.N. Heo H.J. Choo <p>This study investigated the effect of far-infrared ray (FIR) illumination on performance, blood biochemistry, and faecal microflora of laying hens at different production stages. A total of 360 Hy-line brown laying hens were randomly allocated in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with six replicates. Hens were distributed in two production stages (30–39 and 45–54 weeks-old). Each group was exposed to two light types (light emitting diode; LED and LED+FIR) in separate rooms. The LED treatment illuminated a wavelength of 650 ± 10 nm (0.65 ± 0.01 μm), while LED+FIR treatment emitted 15 ± 10 μm with an LED wavelength. The results showed an interaction between egg production stages and light types on the serum triglyceride concentration. The hens exposed to the LED+FIR and LED treatments showed similar egg production, feed intake, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR), as well as albumen height, haugh unit, and shell thickness of eggs. LED+FIR substantially decreased the concentration of serum cholesterol (CHOL), HDL cholesterol (HDLC), and triglyceride (TG) compared to LED lighting. LED+FIR substantially reduced the number of total microbes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella in faeces compared to birds exposed to LED light. These findings suggest that LED+FIR lights may improve hen health and the hen house environment.</p> 2023-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Effects of mulberry leaves on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of Japanese quail 2023-04-17T17:17:26+00:00 A.M. Ustundag M. Ozdogan <p>This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of mulberry leaves on performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of Japanese quail. A total of 240 one-day-old Japanese quail chicks were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and fed a basal diet (control) and the basal diet plus 50 g/kg and 100 g/kg mulberry leaf meal (MLM) for 42 days. By the end of the study, performance parameters of quail fed the 100 g/kg MLM-supplemented diet were affected negatively. The highest carcass weight and carcass yield levels were exhibited in the control group. In terms of meat quality, the shear force of the breast meat of quail fed the diet with 100 g/kg supplemented MLM was higher than the other groups. The highest L* and hue angle values of breast meat were found in the 50 g/kg MLM group. Released water from the thigh meat in the control group was higher than in the experimental groups. The current study indicates that 50 g/kg MLM can be used easily in quail rations without any negative effects.</p> 2023-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 The effect of formaldehyde treatment of canola oilcake meal and sweet lupins on the <i>in situ</I> dry matter and crude protein digestibility 2023-04-17T17:29:18+00:00 T.S. Brand J.H.C van Zyl O. Dreyer <p>The value of feed protein sources in ruminant nutrition is measured by how effectively the protein is degraded in the rumen and converted into microbial protein. High-producing ruminants acquire high nutritional requirements to sustain their metabolic demands for production and performance. However, protein sources occasionally fall short in supplying the required amount of rumen undegradable protein and amino acids. Chemical treatment (formaldehyde) could be used to increase the efficiency of protein sources, which are highly degradable in the rumen. Canola oilcake meal (CM) and sweet lupin seed (SL) were treated with formaldehyde (40% w/v) at concentrations of 10 g/kg (F10) and 15 g/kg CP (F15). In this study, six Dohne Merino wethers fitted with rumen cannulas were used to determine the effect of formaldehyde treatment on the <em>in situ</em> dry matter and crude protein digestibility. The treatments entailed CM control (CMF0), CM treated with 10 g/kg CP formaldehyde (CMF10), CM treated with 15 g/kg CP formaldehyde (CMF15), SL control (SLF0) SL treated with 10 g/kg CP formaldehyde (SLF10) and SL treated with 15 g/kg CP formaldehyde (SLF15). Treatments were incubated in the rumen at time intervals of 0, 2, 4, 12, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hours. Overall, formaldehyde treatment significantly decreased rumen degradation at all outflow rates of both CM and SL. Therefore, formaldehyde treatment could be used to increase the rumen undegradable protein fraction. Potential improvement in animal performance in terms of live weight gain, average daily gain, and feed conversion efficiency has to be evaluated in production studies.</p> 2023-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Differential gene expression in the <i>Longissimus dorsi</i> of Nguni and Bonsmara bulls finished on low and high energy diets 2023-04-17T17:41:50+00:00 D.A. Linde E. van Marle-Köster M.M. Scholtz M.G. Gonda J.L. Gonzalez-Hernandez M. D. MacNeil <p>Objectives of this research were to examine differential gene expression profiles of Nguni and Bonsmara cattle fed diets differing in their energy density. The ultimate goal was to improve understanding of the mechanisms that underlie differences between these breeds and the potential interactions of the differences between breeds with the nutritive environment. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet (12.5 MJ/kg DM vs. 10.9 MJ/kg DM). The initial feeding trial had 10 bull calves per treatment. However, financial constraints limited RNA sequencing to six animals per treatment and the RNA generated from one animal was of insufficient quality to be useful. Transcripts with false discovery rate P-values &lt;0.05 and fold-changes &gt;2.0 were considered significant. Bonsmara had a faster growth rate, heavier live and carcass weights, and better feed conversion compared to Nguni. However, lower levels of fat were observed in Nguni. Twenty different genes were differentially expressed, with three exhibiting interaction effects and all 20 having differences in transcript abundance between the breeds. A dietary effect was only observed for the one gene and that gene was also subject to an interaction effect with breed. Observed differences in gene expression between Bonsmara and Nguni by several genes affecting the structure or function of the mitochondria imply differences in energy metabolism between the breeds. Interaction effects on the abundance of some gene transcripts indicate the need to consider the diet when evaluating breed differences and conversely, consider breed when evaluating diets.</p> 2023-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 <i>In vitro</i> ruminal fermentation parameters of canola meal protein in response to incremental doses of gamma irradiation 2023-04-18T05:30:28+00:00 M Sekali V Mlambo U Marume M Mathuthu <p>Rapid ruminal degradation of canola meal (CM) limits its feed value for high-producing ruminants. Attempts to reduce ruminal degradability of CM through gamma irradiation have generated conflicting results. While this strategy has the potential to reduce CM degradability, the optimal radiation dose is unknown for this valuable co-product. Therefore, this <em>in vitro</em> ruminal fermentation study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of gamma irradiation to protect CM protein from ruminal degradation. Canola meal was irradiated at 0 (CM0), 15 (CM15), 30 (CM30), 45 (CM45), 60 (CM65), 75 (CM75), and 90 kGy (CM90). Irradiated CM was then analysed for proximate composition and incubated with rumen fluid to determine <em>in vitro</em> degradability of dry matter (DMD) and nitrogen (ND). The data were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects using response surface regression analysis. Neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre linearly decreased as irradiation dosage increased. Quadratic responses were observed for total nitrogen (N) content, DMD12, and DMD36 in response to increasing irradiation dosage. Gamma irradiation linearly increased the rapidly soluble fraction (a) and effective degradability (ED) of dry matter. There were no irradiation effects on ND12, ND36, ND48, fractional rate constant (c), and potential degradability, but significant quadratic trends were observed for ND24, a, slowly degradable fraction (b), and ED of N. It was concluded that although gamma irradiation altered the chemical composition of CM, it was not an effective method to protect CM from extensive ruminal degradation</p> 2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Effects of yeast hydrolysate versus plasma powder on growth, immunity, and intestinal morphology of weanling piglets 2023-04-18T05:36:54+00:00 X.Q. Hu Z. Gao J.P. Hu W.B. Wang J.J. Dai AQ. Gong X.D. Wang <p>Yeast hydrolysate (YH) is rich in amino acids, small peptides, B vitamins, glutathione, and nucleotides, which makes it a possible substitute for spray-dried plasma powder (SDPP). This research was conducted to estimate the application of YH instead of SDPP in creep feed of weaned piglets. The experiment had four treatment groups: (1) basal diet (CON group), (2) CON + 4% YH (YH group), (3) CON + 2% YH + 2% SDPP (SY group), and (4) CON + 4% SDPP (SDPP group). Growth performance, biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin levels, and intestinal tissue morphology were measured. No substantial difference in growth performance between the YH, SY, and SDDP groups was found; however, compared with the CON group, the performance of these three groups was substantially improved. The contents of serum globulin and ALP in the CON group were markedly decreased compared to the other groups, but the AST level was substantially increased. The IL-10 concentration in the other groups was substantially higher than the CON group, and the highest content was in group YH; the TNF-α content showed an opposite trend. The levels of serum IgG and IgA in the CON group were the lowest among all groups. There were substantial differences among the groups in villi height and crypt depth in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The results showed that YH effectively increased IL-10 concentration and decreased TNF-α level to promote intestinal development, while not differing from SDPP in terms of growth performance.</p> 2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Assessing the efficiency of smallholder wool farmers in the changing paradigms of the Free State province of South Africa 2023-04-18T05:40:45+00:00 A. D. Ntsiapane J. W. Swanepoel A. E. Nesamvuni T. O. Ojo <p>The South African population is predicted to increase to almost 66 million by 2030. This necessitates paradigm shifts to improve agricultural efficiency. However, South African wool production has continuously declined over the past three decades. The study analysed the efficiency of smallholder wool farmers and identified the determinants of technical inefficiency in wool production in Thaba ‘Nchu and Botshabelo in the Mangaung Metro (Free State province, South Africa). A multistage sampling technique was used to select 351 participants. A stochastic frontier model was employed to analyse the efficiency of wool farmers. The results indicate that increases in feed and veterinary costs negatively affect the efficiency of smallholder wool production. Wool quality and use of social media were found to have a negative and statistically significant influence on the variation in the inefficiency of wool production (i.e., as these variables increase, inefficiency decreases). Poor extension services and poorly managed farmers’ associations increase the inefficiency of smallholder wool producers. Furthermore, only 7% of smallholder farmers were efficient, and most smallholder wool farmers were not producing at full capacity; there is thus much room to improve production. To increase the efficiency of smallholder wool production in Mangaung, it is recommended that farmers are trained to improve the quality of their wool and, consequently, increase the wool price. Further recommendations include improvement of extension services, better management of farmers’ association</p> 2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Performance, carcass yield, and meat quality of buffalo (<i>Bubalus bubalis</i>) fed on diets with different levels of concentrate 2023-04-18T05:51:26+00:00 S. A. F. Melo A.L.R. Magalhães M.L.M.W. Neves F.F.R. DE Carvalho A. A. S. Melo G. H. P. Vieira D.O. Lima D.M. De Lima Júnior R.A.S. Pessoa <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of diets with increasing concentrate levels on performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of Murrah buffaloes in feedlot. Twenty-four animals, with an initial body weight of 240 ± 50.5 kg and mean age of 9 months, were distributed to four treatments: 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% concentrate. After 114 days, the animals were weighed, slaughtered, and meat quality and performance data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The dry matter intake and average daily gain increased linearly. The final body, hot carcass, and cold carcass weights responded linearly to increases in concentrate level. The subcutaneous fat thickness, protein, and ether extract of meat increased linearly with an increase in concentrate level. The colour parameters, cooking losses, and shear force of the meat were not affected by increasing the concentrate. The inclusion of concentrate in feedlot diets increases performance, characteristics of carcass, and meat quality of Murrah buffalo in a feedlot.</p> 2023-04-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0