Development and testing of recipes suitable for patients with chronic renal failure
Objectives: The main objectives of the study were to develop and test recipes that meet the nutritional requirements of and are acceptable to patients with chronic renal failure. The secondary objectives were to determine gender and racial differences in the participants’ responses
during consumer sensory testing. Design: This was a descriptive study with an analytical component. Materials and methods: Patients on haemodialysis (n = 42) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (n = 3) from Tygerberg Academic Hospital were included. Data were collected in three phases with census sampling: 1) the development and adaptation of recipes; 2) sensory testing with the nine-point hedonic scale; and 3) the rating of recipes, final nutritional analysis and the allocation of renal exchanges. Results: Recipes were developed and adapted to suit the needs of the target population. Forty-five patients took part in the sensory evaluation (acceptance, appearance, smell, texture and taste) of 30 recipes. Twenty-three recipes were deemed acceptable (> 80% of the participants scored ≥ 6 out of 9). Significant differences were found between the male and female subgroups for Fish and Vegetable Pie (p = 0.031), Chicken Pilaf (p = 0.008) and Date Fingers (p = 0.002) and between the black and Westernised subgroups for Rice Salad (p = 0.006), Wheat and Mushroom Casserole (p = 0.022), Curried Wheat Salad (p = 0.043) and Coconut Ice (p = 0.005). The 23 recipes were nutritionally analysed and renal exchanges were allocated. Conclusion: The 23 recipes that were acceptable to the study participants are recommended for inclusion in the RenalSmart software program. The recipes are suitable for patients following a Westernised diet.
Keywords: sensory evaluation, chronic renal failure, 9-point Hedonic scale