South African Journal of Education <p>The <em>South African Journal of Education</em> (SAJE) publishes original research articles reporting on research that fulfils the criteria of a generally accepted research paradigm; review articles, intended for the professional scientist and which critically evaluate the research done in a specific field in education; and letters in which criticism is given of articles that appeared in this Journal.</p><p>Indicate the relevance of the study for education research where the education system is characterised by transformation, and/or an emerging economy/development state, and/or scarce resources. Research articles of localised content, i.e. of interest only to specific areas or specialists and which would not appeal to the broader readership of the Journal, should preferably not be submitted for consideration by the Editorial Committee.</p><p>Ethical considerations: A brief narrative account/description of ethical issues/aspects should be included in articles that report on empirical findings.</p><p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;" lang="EN-ZA">SAJE is<strong> </strong><span>ISI accredited (in the Social Sciences Citation index), with an impact Factor is 0.560 (in 2015). </span></span></p><p>Other websites related to this journal: <a href="" target="_blank"></a> and <a title="" href="" target="_blank"><em></em></a></p> Education Association of South Africa en-US South African Journal of Education 0256-0100 <p align="left">If the article is accepted for publication, copyright of this article will be vested in the Education Association of South Africa.</p><p align="left">All articles published in this journal are licensed under the <a href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</a> (CC BY 4.0) license, unless otherwise stated.</p><p align="left"> </p> The challenges of implementing the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement in accounting <p>South African schools have experienced several curriculum changes over the past few years. In this article we report on the findings regarding the challenges experienced by heads of department (HODs) with the implementation of the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) in accounting. A qualitative approach, modelled on the interpretative perspective, was used to explore these challenges, namely: medium of instruction; time allocated to complete the syllabus; poor subject content foundation; progression of learners; and the integration of economic and&nbsp; management sciences (EMS). Open-ended individual interviews with 12 HODs were used as a data-collection technique. The findings indicate that&nbsp; the time allocated in the annual teaching plan (ATP) for accounting may have a negative impact on effective teaching and learning and learner&nbsp; performance. It has also been noted that EMS teachers are not sufficiently competent to teach financial literacy, which may affect learners’ subject&nbsp; choices prior to Grade 10. Grade 8 and 9 learners lack exposure to accounting due to subject integration and learner progression. Furthermore,&nbsp; accounting textbooks do not prepare learners for school-based assessments (SBAs) or examinations. Recommendations include that subject choice&nbsp; should occur in Grade 8, rather than Grade 10, and that a secondary school improvement programme (SSIP) should start from Grade 10, and not&nbsp; Grade 12.</p> Mantekana Jacobine Letshwene E.C. du Plessis Copyright (c) 2022-05-12 2022-05-12 41 2 S1 S10 Teachers’ representation of the mitigation strategies to challenges of implementing the 2015 to 2022 Zimbabwean social studies curriculum <p>The impromptu launch of the 2015 to 2022 Zimbabwean social studies curriculum invited vilifications and public outcries&nbsp; from parents, teachers and other key stakeholders professing numerous challenges. In this article, we report on the teachers’ representation of the mitigation strategies to abate the aforesaid challenges. This interpretive case study engrained in the qualitative approach, was drawn from interviews and focus group discussion (FGD) to establish the teachers’ representation of the mitigation strategies that could be employed to curtail challenges faced in implementing that curriculum. In the study, informed by the ubuntu philosophy, we used 12 purposively sampled teachers from Zimbabwean primary schools located in different contexts to generate data. The findings show that implementers of policies are too often not consulted during the policy development process leading to challenges which could be mollified by listening to the advice from the implementers, adopting the bottom-up approach and promoting good relations among educators. Considering these findings it was concluded that, for effective policy development, there must be wide consultation and involvement of all stakeholders in the planning, designing and articulation of policies before proper implementation can take place.</p> Pfuurai Chimbunde Maserole Christina Kgari-Masondo Copyright (c) 2022-05-12 2022-05-12 41 2 S1 S10 Born-free<sup>i</sup> learner identities: Changing teacher beliefs to initiate appropriate educational change <p>An earlier paper focused on how born-free learners constitute, negotiate and represent their identities after almost two and half decades of democracy in South Africa. Utilising the theoretical framework of subjective realities of educational change, in this article I set out to explore what implications teachers’ beliefs hold for born-free learners, and how teachers’ beliefs can be changed or adapted to initiate appropriate educational change. The focus of this article is on the beliefs of teachers and how the change thereof can contribute to educational change, based on how learners perceive their identities. The epistemological lens of social constructivism and the research strategy of narrative inquiry was used. Fifty-eight born-free learners across 6 research sites participated in this study. Semi-structured interviews and field notes comprised the data capture, which were analysed using the qualitative content analysis method. Findings reveal that shifting and diverse selfidentifications of born-free learners hold fundamental and crucial implications that reside at the heart of educational change, namely a change in teachers’ beliefs and in teachers’ practice.</p> Saloshna Vandeyar Copyright (c) 2022-05-12 2022-05-12 41 2 S1 S12 Using context clues to teach homographs to d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing students in Saudi Arabia <p>Teaching a homograph by using context clues is more effective than just teaching vocabulary separately. The goal of the study reported on here was to teach 12 homographs to d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing (d/Dhh) students in the sixth grade by applying metacognitive skills to understand the meanings and contexts in sentences. A single case design (multiple probe design across subjects) was employed to achieve the goal of this study with 2 profoundly deaf students in the sixth grade. From baseline to follow-up, the study was completed in 4 weeks. The results show that d/Dhh students encountered challenges in their understanding of the meanings through context.</p> Faisl Alqraini Copyright (c) 2022-05-12 2022-05-12 41 2 S1 S10 Teachers’ perceived self-efficacy in responding to the needs of learners with visual impairment in Lesotho <p>In the study reported on here I explored teachers’ perceived self-efficacy in responding to the needs of learners with visual impairment in mainstream secondary schools. A descriptive qualitative case study was used as a strategy of inquiry to source data from 6 teachers who taught in inclusive classrooms in mainstream schools. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and classroom observations. The findings reveal that while extensive experience teaching learners with visual impairment in inclusive settings influenced feelings of high self-efficacy on the participating teachers, low levels of selfefficacy, which were credited to a lack of knowledge, resources, training and support were also greatly experienced. Improving teacher self-efficacy is, therefore, essential and it requires greater investment if successful inclusive education for learners with visual impairment is to be achieved.</p> Mahlape Tseeke Copyright (c) 2022-05-12 2022-05-12 41 2 S1 S12 An investigation into policy implementation by primary school principals in the Free State province <p>Despite numerous attempts by the Free State Department of Education to train primary school principals on how to design and implement school policies, numerous schools do not implement school policies satisfactorily. In this article we examine the implementation of school policies in township primary schools in the Free State province, South Africa. The sample of the study consisted of 60 township primary school principals who were randomly selected from 160 township primary schools across the province. The participants completed a questionnaire based on policy implementation in township primary schools. Prior to completion, the questionnaire was tested for reliability using the Cronbach alpha coefficient. The questionnaire was found to have a reliability score of 0.909, which indicates a high level of internal consistency. The questionnaire was electronically analysed using the SPSS. The results of the analysis reveal that some school policies were reasonably well implemented at schools, while other policies were poorly implemented. This article concludes with recommendations on addressing the problem.</p> S.B. Thajane M.G. Masitsa Copyright (c) 2022-05-12 2022-05-12 41 2 S1 S12 The school organisational climates of well-performing historically disadvantaged secondary schools <p>In the study reported on here we investigated the nature of the organisational climates of well-performing, historically disadvantaged secondary schools. These schools were designated for Black learners during the apartheid era in townships and rural areas. Despite their “disadvantagedness”, many of these schools have consistently performed well in the National Senior Certificate (NSC)ii for 3 consecutive years or more. The Organisational Climate Descriptive Questionnaire-Rutgers Elementary (OCDQ-RE) was administered to 1,050 teachers from these schools in the Gauteng Department’s Sedibeng and Johannesburg South districts. Results reveal that although these schools are regarded as well-performing, their teachers perceived their organisational climates as closed with principal and teacher behaviours being closed. Teachers experienced very low engagement and above-average frustrated behaviour. An important consideration is that principals seemed to exhibit directive support, which seems to have led to teachers exhibiting features of engaged behaviour. The implication is for principals’ capacity-building, which should include features of holistic school organisational behaviour and development. Furthermore, the Organizational Climate Descriptive Questionnaire for Secondary Schools (OCDQ-RS) should be validated for the South African school context.</p> Mgadla Isaac Xaba Salome Kelly Mofokeng Copyright (c) 2022-05-12 2022-05-12 41 2 S1 S11 Transformational leadership and the learner-centred teaching approach <p>Adopting learner-centred teaching approaches is important to advance student performance in Mexican rural communities, which have historically been disadvantaged. Yet, little research exists on the factors that might promote the use of this teaching approach. In the study reported on here we examined the associations between principals’ transformational leadership, school climate, teacher commitment to learners, and learner-centred teaching practices. In total, 174 teachers were selected from 26 tele-secondaries in the state of Tabasco, Mexico. A structural equation model was calculated. Results do not provide evidence to support a direct association between transformational leadership and the use of learner-centred teaching. However, an indirect relationship was found between the effects of school climate and teacher commitment. These findings indicate that enhancing school climate and teachers’ commitment through a transformational leadership style are key to foster an environment for learner-centred teaching.</p> Deneb Elí Magaña-Medina Silvia Patricia Aquino-Zúñiga Angel Alberto Valdés-Cuervo Lizeth Guadalupe Parra-Pérez Copyright (c) 2022-05-12 2022-05-12 41 2 S1 S12 Would female student teachers at primary teacher education colleges study mathematics were it optional? <p>In this this article we discuss findings from an investigation of whether female student teachers would choose to study mathematics if it were optional for primary teacher education in Malawi. A mixed methods research methodology was used to collect data through survey and focus group discussions (FGDs). Five hundred and twenty three female students from 6 public teacher education colleges completed a questionnaire, and 160 of them participated in FGDs. A descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on the quantitative data while a thematic analysis was conducted on the qualitative data. The findings show that 68% of female students would choose to study mathematics while 32% would not. This correlated with the students’ mathematics scores at the end of their secondary school national examination. Those students with high score passes opted for mathematics and those with low score passes did not, suggesting that performance at secondary school influenced their confidence in studying mathematics. Female student teachers’ reasons for choosing or not choosing mathematics were it optional are classified into 5 categories: the perceived usefulness of mathematics, inner motivation to study mathematics, the nature of the college mathematics content, how mathematics courses are taught at colleges, and gender stereotype in mathematics lessons. We discuss these in relation to the Malawian government’s agenda of increasing participation of females in mathematics, science, technology, and engineering.</p> Lisnet Mwadzaangati Mercy Kazima Copyright (c) 2022-05-12 2022-05-12 41 2 S1 S10 Learning statistics and probability through peer tutoring: A middle school experience <p>The academic effects of learning statistics and probability through peer tutoring were analysed in the research reported on here. Two hundred and eight students enrolled in Grades 7, 8 and 9 participated. Fixed- and same-age peer tutoring was implemented 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Each tutoring session lasted approximately 25 minutes. The main aims of this research were to quantify the effect of peer tutoring and to determine any differences among grades. A pre-test-post-test design was employed. Students were assigned to control or experimental conditions. Effect sizes were calculated and nonparametric statistical tests were performed. No statistically significant differences were reported in the pre-test analysis. Statistically significant improvements were reported with the implementation of the programme for all grade courses, both individually and globally (Mann-Whitney U test = 5436.79, p &lt; .01). The reported global effect size may be considered as medium to large (Hedges’ g = 0.72). The comparison among courses did not report any significant differences. It can be&nbsp; concluded that using peer tutoring for learning statistics and probability could be academically beneficial for middle school students.</p> Francisco Alegre Lidón Miravet Gil Lorenzo-Valentin Ana Maroto Copyright (c) 2022-05-12 2022-05-12 41 2 S1 S9 The curriculum tracker: A tool to improve curriculum coverage or just a tick-box exercise? <p>Research on teacher professional development generally states that teachers do not take new innovations on board easily. The study reported on here focused on the uptake of a curriculum tracker tool designed to improve curriculum coverage by mathematics teachers. The tool formed part of the Jika iMfundo (JiM) programme launched by the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Education and a partner organisation. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which secondary mathematics teachers and heads of department (HoDs) used the tools for their intended purposes. The study was carried out with teachers and department heads from 14 schools located in 2 districts of KwaZulu-Natal. Data were generated by 21 interviews, supplemented by secondary data sourced from responses to previous surveys conducted by JiM. The findings show that most teachers considered the tool as a tick-box activity, instead of using it to guide their planning in a meaningful manner. Furthermore, there was misalignment between planning undertaken by the provincial education department and JiM. It is crucial that teachers on the ground are consulted first in order to jointly identify how certain problems can be addressed before any professional development activity is implemented.</p> T. Mkhwanazi A.Z. Ndlovu S. Ngema S . Bansilal Copyright (c) 2022-05-12 2022-05-12 41 2 S1 S9 Intersections of class and gender in learners’ conceptualisations of sexuality education at a private, all-girls school <p>In this article I explore the role that class, and its intersections with gender, play in shaping the way that learners at a private, all-girls school in South Africa conceptualise their sexuality education. Drawing on data from focus group discussions with 2 friendship groups of Grade 10 learners, the evidence reveals the multiple, intersecting and contradictory ways in which middle-class young women navigate class and gender. Firstly, learners, in drawing on a discourse of middle-class excellence, reproduced class difference in their discussion of attending a private school. Secondly, they drew on this class capital to position themselves as immune to many of the issues dealt with in sexuality education, particularly teenage pregnancy. Finally, a discussion of the gender exclusivity of their school revealed that this class capital was not always available to them, as they prioritised a discourse of heterosexual desirability over middle-class excellence in speaking about their interactions with boys. The findings reveal the complex and changing ways in which young middle-class women discursively reproduce, resist and navigate the intersecting classed and gendered systems of power that shape their particular schooling context.</p> Kylie Kuhl Copyright (c) 2022-05-12 2022-05-12 41 2 S1 S10 Irrational beliefs and stress levels: Evidence among orphaned students in Kenyan secondary schools <p>In the study reported on here we examined the relationship between irrational beliefs and stress levels among orphans in public secondary schools in Kenya. Rational Emotive Behaviour Theory was adopted. In the study we adopted a cross-sectional correlation research design. A sample size of 350 double orphaned students in secondary schools was obtained using stratified and simple random sampling techniques. The Irrational Belief Inventory and Perceived Stress Scale were used to collect data. The reliability results indicate the Cronbach’s alpha values ranging from 0.672 to 0.756. Quantitative data from questionnaires were analysed using inferential statistics such as Pearson correlation and regression analysis. The findings established a weak positive (n = 314, r = .149; p = .008 &lt; .05) Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between demandingness and stress levels; a weak positive (n =314, r = .243; p &lt; .05) correlation between awfulizing and stress levels; a weak positive (n = 314, r = .191; p &lt; .05) correlation between irrational belief for low frustration tolerance and stress levels; and a weak positive (n =314, r = .167; p = .003) correlation between irrational belief of worthlessness and stress levels. The implication of these findings is that orphaned students are overwhelmed with stress because of their state of irrational beliefs. It is recommended that school counsellors should train orphans in secondary schools on rational beliefs through therapy techniques such as positive self-talk to counter the irrational beliefs.</p> Millicent Awino Umija Peter J.O. Aloka Washington O. Wachianga Copyright (c) 2022-05-12 2022-05-12 41 2 S1 S11 Development of TPACK and EQ-based 21st century learning through the teacher certification programme in Indonesia <p>The aim of the research reported on here was to identify teachers’ comprehension of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) integrated with emotional quotient (EQ). We used mixed-method research with an explanatory model. The subjects of this research were 30 teachers who participated in the teacher certification programme and 30 who did not participate in the programme. Purposive sampling was used to select the sample. Data were collected through questionnaires and interviews. We used descriptive statistics and t-tests of the quantitative data analysis, while qualitative data analysis was&nbsp; carried out by reduction. The findings of the research point out that programme comprehension had an&nbsp; effect on TPACK&nbsp; integrated with EQ. These findings were supported by the average score of the teachers who participated in the programme,&nbsp; which was higher than those who did not participate in programme. In this regard, the factor was not only the experience of&nbsp; teachers at school but&nbsp; also the interactions between teachers in the process of the programme. Based on the research&nbsp; findings, the authors recommend all teachers to&nbsp; participate in programme.&nbsp; </p> Nazari Iskandar Jumadi Jumadi Sastradika Dedi Defrianti Denny Copyright (c) 2022-05-12 2022-05-12 41 2 S1 S9 Gangster school: The role of the school environment in gang recruitment strategies in Port Elizabeth, South Africa <p>Gangs and gang violence continue to be serious challenges throughout South Africa, but especially in cities such as Cape Town and Port Elizabeth. In the northern areas of Port Elizabeth, hardly a day goes by without at least 1 report in the local news media about gang-related incidents. Most of the gangs in the northern areas have organised and relatively sophisticated recruitment strategies that they use to recruit new members. Various factors contribute to the gravitation of most youths to the gang lifestyle. With this article I seek to examine 1 of those factors, namely the school environment. I argue that various factors affecting the school environment make it possible for gangs to target school-going youths for recruitment. The article is based on both the literature and the use of primary data from my research into gangs in the northern areas of Port Elizabeth. The article concludes with some recommendations on how to combat gang recruitment in the school environment.</p> Theodore Petrus Copyright (c) 2022-05-12 2022-05-12 41 2 S1 S8