South African Journal of Education <p>The&nbsp;<em>South African Journal of Education</em>&nbsp;(SAJE) publishes original research articles reporting on research that fulfils the criteria of a generally accepted research paradigm; review articles, intended for the professional scientist and which critically evaluate the research done in a specific field in education; and letters in which criticism is given of articles that appeared in this Journal.</p> <p>Indicate the relevance of the study for education research where the education system is characterised by transformation, and/or an emerging economy/development state, and/or scarce resources. Research articles of localised content, i.e. of interest only to specific areas or specialists and which would not appeal to the broader readership of the Journal, should preferably not be submitted for consideration by the Editorial Committee.</p> <p>Ethical considerations: A brief narrative account/description of ethical issues/aspects should be included in articles that report on empirical findings.</p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-ZA" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;">SAJE is ISI accredited (in the Social Sciences Citation index), with an impact Factor is&nbsp;0.560 (in 2015).&nbsp; </span></p> <p>Other websites related to this journal: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a> and <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US <p align="left">If the article is accepted for publication, copyright of this article will be vested in the Education Association of South Africa.</p><p align="left">All articles published in this journal are licensed under the <a href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</a> (CC BY 4.0) license, unless otherwise stated.</p><p align="left"> </p> (Prof. Ronél Ferreira) (Ms Estelle Botha (Administrative Editor)) Wed, 30 Aug 2023 06:36:10 +0000 OJS 60 “What if we give them too much voice?”: Teachers’ perceptions of the child’s right to participation <p>Article 12 (1) of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child sets out the right of children who are capable of forming their own views to freely express them in matters that affect them. Such views should be considered in schools when making decisions, paying attention to the child’s age and maturity. In this study we explored teachers’ understanding and perceptions of the implementation of the child’s right to participation in matters that concern them in the school context. Using a qualitative research approach, data were obtained from 12 purposively selected high school teachers from selected schools in the Johannesburg South district through semi-structured individual interviews. The findings indicate that while understanding of this right was limited among teachers, there was a high preference to accord children this right. Opportunities to participate were mainly viewed as very limited and only in minor issues at school. Several challenges to promote this right were highlighted by teachers and are discussed in this article. Recommendations such as educating teachers about children’s rights to participation and creating opportunities for them to participate in decision-making in matters that concern them are made.</p> Lucia Munongi Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Parental educational support to adolescents: Exploring the role of emotional capital in low-income single-mother families in South Africa <p>In this article I explore the emotional resources activated by single mothers to support their adolescent children’s educational journeys. Mothers’ emotional work is often regarded as something that mothers must do (Gillies, 2006). However, this view does not recognise the power and influence that mothers exert to create opportunities for educational success. By centring the mother as the head of her family and drawing on the concept of emotional capital as a legitimate and valuable resource within single-mother families, it becomes possible to show how mothers in a low socio-economic community invest in their children’s schooling. This article is based on a qualitative case study of single-mother families from a South African community. The findings show that the single mothers maintained strong bonds with their children, which enhanced perceived support and contributed positively to their education. Maintaining open communication channels, demonstrating authoritative parenting, and communicating pride in non-academic qualities were significant emotional practices that served to maintain these strong bonds. By engaging in these practices, these single mothers from low-income contexts activated their emotions strategically to support their adolescent child’s education.</p> Carmelita Jacobs Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Sign language education in pre-school: Prospective pre-school teachers’ views about the Turkish sign language course <p>Pre-school education is significant in the education of deaf children. The pre-school teacher is a gateway to realising the inclusion of deaf children in schools. In this study we investigated prospective pre-school teachers’ opinions and thoughts about sign language in deaf children’s education. In this descriptive study we employed the qualitative research method: semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 prospective pre-school teachers who took the elective sign language course in the fall semester of the 2018–2019 academic year. The main themes obtained from the interviews were as follows: “Quality in early childhood education”, “Innovative practices in teacher training”, “Inclusive education in the pre-school period”, “Effective teaching for deaf children” and “Sign language competence of teachers.” The research findings suggest that prospective teachers must learn sign language that would contribute to their professional competence and that they would actively use sign language in their future professional lives.</p> Pelin Pistav Akmese, Nilay Kayhan Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The use of a cooperative approach to enhance learner performance in life orientation <p>Education in the 21st century has had an evolutionary impact on teachers’ teaching approaches in South African schools. Teachers are continuously faced with challenges in improving teaching and learning approaches in response to addressing the particular needs of a diverse group of learners. With this article we aimed to explore life orientation teachers’ use of a cooperative teaching and learning approach to enhance learners’ performance in secondary schools. A qualitative research design was employed with an interpretivist-constructivist paradigm to obtain the views of the secondary teachers who responded via face-to-face interviews. We employed purposive convenient sampling of seven (<em>N </em>= 7) teachers from the Northern Cape province in South Africa. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis and supported by the literature review and the theory underpinning this study. Findings of this study reveal that some teachers were favourably implementing cooperative teaching methods, despite the lack of resources and many other challenges they faced. School managers must infuse cooperative learning in their daily teaching praxis to ensure that teachers become confident and continuously employ this approach.</p> A.C. Seherrie, A.S. Mawela Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Life orientation teachers’ perspectives on a pastoral approach to the topic: “Development of the self in society” <p>Life Orientation (LO) teachers should be prepared to employ a pastoral approach – i.e., emotional support to learners – particularly when facilitating the topic “Development of the self in society” as prescribed in the curriculum and assessment policy statement (CAPS). Currently, LO teachers have limited knowledge and strategies to develop a pastoral approach due to limited training and resources. The purpose of this article is to present 10 LO teachers’ perspectives on employing a pastoral approach. Two unstructured focus-group interviews were conducted, and the data were analysed inductively following a qualitative research design. The analysis indicates that LO teachers are constrained by their lack of access to resources, assistance, expertise and competencies to establish a pastoral approach. To address this, it is recommended that a variety of teaching strategies are applied, attachment relationships are developed, proficiencies akin to those of community counsellors are acquired, cooperative partnerships are set up, and contextually appropriate interventions are tailored. Implementing suggestions that emerged from the findings might support LO teachers to employ a pastoral approach. Recommendations from the findings imply possible LO curriculum reformation and training. This might bring about a change in the attitude of school communities towards the compulsory nature of LO as a subject. It might also provide more nurturing and supportive relationships in schools and a more socially just dispensation for all involved.</p> Carmen Joubert Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Partnership as a strategy to overcome the difficulties associated with policy implementation: South African teachers’ views <p>The purpose of the study reported on here was to investigate the role of partnerships in helping in-service teachers overcome the difficulties associated with performing practical work prescribed in the Life Sciences Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS), an educational policy intended to transform the South African school curriculum in the wake of the apartheid years. CAPS is the latest of a plethora of educational policies that have been introduced in post-apartheid South Africa. However, teachers have lamented the lack of skills and resources necessary for its effective implementation. With this study we investigated how partnership between schools and 1 university in South Africa helped teachers to acquire practical skills and techniques related to CAPS implementation. A qualitative research approach with purposeful sampling was used. Data were collected through focus-group interviews, document analysis and observations that entailed observing teachers performing the experiments prior to the training. Teachers from 22 secondary schools participated in this research. Collected data were analysed using Creswell’s method of coding. Findings of this study indicate that partnership with the University helped equip teachers with the necessary skills and knowledge to perform science experiments, ultimately resulting in improved learner performance. Partnerships between schools and institutions of higher learning to enhance policy implementation are, therefore, recommended.</p> Florah Moleko Teane Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The development of a scale to measure the influence that school administrators have on the adaptation of newly appointed teachers in Turkey <p>In Turkey, teacher appointment is made centrally by the Ministry of National Education and is made without considering where the teachers want to work. Many teachers are assigned to places very different from the cultural environments in which they grew up resulting in them encountering very different school types and administrator habits. The negative situations encountered affect the motivation of newly appointed teachers and weaken their organisational commitment. The draft scale was created with a pool of questions obtained as a result of examining the legal texts and similar studies on the subject. This draft scale includes 28 items and was developed for the adaptation of new appointed teachers to the profession. The rotated principal component analysis was used to test the construct validity of the scale. As a result of the analysis, the Kaiser-Meyer- Olkin (KMO) value was determined as 0.949, while the Bartlett test was found to be significant. The analysis showed that 2 of the 28 items were loaded on more than 1 factor and as their load values were low, the 2 items were removed from the scale. The remaining 26 items formed a 3-factor structure with an eigenvalue higher than 1.00. Factor 1 of the scale is called “Compliance with the profession”; Factor 2 “Environmental compliance” and Factor 3 “Compliance with school.” While Factor 1 with an eigenvalue of 5.86 explained 22.55% of the total variance, Factor 2, with an eigenvalue of 4.97 explained 19.13% of the total variance. Factor 3, with an eigenvalue of 4.71 explained 18.11% of the total variance. The alpha reliability coefficient of the composite scale was found to be .955. Internal consistency coefficients of the factors of the scale were .91 for all 3 factors.</p> Mehmet Emin Usta Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Popular conceptions of democracy in a mathematics teacher-education programme <p>While the meaning of democracy remains multi-faceted centuries after the concept was first conceived of and subsequently formulated, democratic principles have spread to the extent of bringing about democratisation in all fields of education. Thus, with this study we sought to examine the popular conception of democracy in mathematics-education programmes at South African universities. A qualitative research approach and a case study research design were used in this study. Six mathematics teacher educators and 75 second- to fourth-year mathematics education student teachers from 3 different universities constitute the sample for the study. The findings from the study revealed that participants had a contested notion of democracy, since the majority understood it as involving deliberative participation, a shared decision-making process, as well as freedom of expression. Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that participants were aware of what democracy should look like and were willing to live according to democratic tenets. This understanding was, however, greatly influenced by their experiences and way of life in a democratic South Africa.</p> Babawande Emmanuel Olawale, Vusi Mncube, Clive Harber Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the resonance between how mentor teachers experienced being mentored and how they mentor pre-service teachers during teaching practice <p>With the study reported on here we aimed to explore and compare the experiences of pre-service teachers with their mentor teachers and of mentor teachers with their own mentor teachers when they were pre-service teachers. The design of this qualitative research was narrative inquiry. The study group consisted of senior pre-service pre-school teachers taking the Teaching Practice I course (<em>n </em>= 8) in the Faculty of Education at a state university and their mentor teachers (<em>n </em>= 4) teaching in public kindergartens. Qualitative data was collected through individual narrative interviews with pre-service teachers and their mentor teachers. The data was subjected to content analysis using inductive coding. Three themes emerged from the content analysis: (1) mentoring experiences of pre-service teachers and their mentor teachers, (2) mentoring memories of preservice teachers and their mentor teachers, and (3) wishes of pre-service teachers and of their mentor teachers about mentoring. The most striking finding of this research was that the memories and wishes of pre-service teachers and their mentor teachers about mentoring were similar. The findings of this research are anticipated to bring about different perspectives and contribute to the content and effectiveness of teaching practice courses.</p> Koray Kasapoglu, Bulent Aydogdu, Ozgun Uyanik Aktulun Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Principal mentoring in one education district in the Western Cape: A case study <p>The aim with this study was to investigate mentoring as a professional developmental strategy for principals and to establish whether there was a need for a formal mentoring programme for principals and circuit managers. An interpretive, qualitative case study approach was adopted, with 13 participants being selected for interview via purposive sampling. Data were generated from semi-structured interviews. The findings reveal that the professional developmental strategies to which principals are exposed are not sustainable. The findings also show that principals were exposed to informal mentoring practices but were never part of a formal mentoring programme, and that there was a need for such a programme. We, therefore, recommend that a mentoring programme for principals be developed and phased in accordingly, namely the connection between the mentee and the mentor, relationship building and implementation, assessment (reflection), and separation of the mentee and mentor from the mentoring relationship.</p> Martin Combrinck, James Daniels Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of an in-service PE teacher training programme on the fitness levels of learners <p>Although physical education (PE) provides a school-based platform for the enhancement of learners’ physical health, implementation challenges can have a detrimental effect on learners’ motivation to participate in physical activities and their fitness levels. Within the framework of the Self-determination Theory (SDT), meeting learners’ basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness in the PE class, can promote their fitness levels by enhancing their intrinsic motivation to be physically active. The purpose with this study was to investigate the effect of an in-service PE teacher training programme including needs-support teaching strategies on the physical and motor fitness levels of the learners of the participating teachers. Using a pre- and post-test experimental design, the fitness of 1 control and 4 experimental groups were assessed using standardised tests before and after the intervention programme. The intervention included implementing the needs-support teaching strategies acquired by the teachers during the once-off, 5-day teacher training programme, for 4 months while receiving continued support from the instructors of the course during those 4 months. The results show that the programme had a positive effect on the fitness levels of the learners in most of the tested fitness components, warranting the recommendation of SDT-based in-service training of PE teachers to support learners’ motivation towards physical activity and fitness.</p> Stephan J. Van der Westhuizen, Dorita du Toit, Niekie van der Merwe Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Professional development for physical education teachers: A participatory approach to identifying learning needs <p>Predetermined professional development (PD) programmes delivered by external experts are the usual approach to enhancing the teaching of physical education (PE) in disadvantaged school contexts. This generally does not result in sustained learning and development once the PE professionals withdraw. Addressing the lack of teacher- and context-driven PD, we propose an evidence-based, collaborative, and transformative PD approach that involves teachers themselves in designing, implementing, and evaluating ongoing learning opportunities suited to their context. To enable teachers to improve their practice in a sustainable manner, we adopted a participatory action learning and action research design, using qualitative data generation tools. With this article we report on the first cycle, namely that of action and reflection, where teachers generated and analysed qualitative data to identify their learning needs. Four themes emerged, namely (1) the need to interpret and adapt the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) (2); ability to teach PE in their specific low-resource context while; (3) generating support from colleagues and management, and (4) coping with systemic issues impacting on their teaching. We discuss the implications of these needs for the continuing PD of teachers.</p> Samantha Kahts-Kramer, Lesley Wood Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Middle schoolers’ book selection and reasons for discontinuing reading <p>In this qualitative research we employed the case study method to identify the factors that affect Turkish fifth to eight graders’ selection of books to read and the reasons that cause them to stop reading the books they have selected. To identify those factors and reasons, data were collected from a total of 32 participating students who were selected using stratified purposive sampling. A group was formed for each grade. Each grade group included 8 students who borrowed books from public libraries and voluntarily participated in the study. The participants were interviewed using open-ended questions. Interviews revealed that in selecting books to read, the students considered theme, genre, and structural features such as title, cover design, author, publisher, and recommendations made by peers, teachers, and family members as criteria. The students also stated that the events and themes in the books, language features, font size, insufficient time to read, and the library’s requirement to return a book in 15 days were the reasons to give up reading a selected book.</p> Halit Karatay, Kadir Vefa Tezel, Ahmet Demirel Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Pedagogical issues of Senior Phase teachers when teaching the matter and materials strand of natural sciences <p>The study reported on here was a qualitative interpretative case study. We explored the pedagogical issues of Senior Phase natural sciences teachers when teaching the matter and materials strand in some of the schools in the Siyabuswa circuit. This study was motivated by the concerted focus on the Fourth Industrial Revolution in developing countries with a particular focus on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects, fast-tracked by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The following question guided the study: What are the classroom practices of teachers when teaching the matter and materials strand in the Senior Phase? Semi-structured interviews and observations were used to collect data from 2 purposefully sampled participants. The findings show that some natural sciences teachers are frustrated with the teaching of natural sciences as they are teaching out of their fields of expertise. Furthermore, they are not qualified to teach the subject and the workshops presented are not capacitating them to teach the strand. Their limited content knowledge (CK) and weak subject matter knowledge (SMK) result in misconceptions, which could be transferred to their learners. Moreover, the lack of CK and SMK also impacts on their choice of instructional strategies as they still prefer traditional methods of teaching, which promotes memorisation. In the study, even the teacher who was qualified to teach the subject still lacked content knowledge and instructional strategies like the unqualified one. The challenge is that the core resource in increasing interest and uptake in the STEM subjects, the teacher, is lacking knowledge and instructional strategies. It is, therefore, prudent to recommend tailor-made content enrichment workshops on the matter and materials strand. These workshops should also be intertwined with pedagogical issues. We also recommend studies on specific topics in the matter and materials strand as this study focused only on a broad overview of the strand.</p> Thuli G. Ntuli, Awelani V. Mudau Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Curriculum integration of physical sciences, engineering science, technology subjects in relation to the technical sciences curriculum <p>The aim with this study was to analyse and explore how physical sciences, engineering science and technology subjects (technical electrical technology, technical civil technology, technical mechanical technology) can contribute to the alignment of the technical sciences curriculum. We used document analysis to collect data. An analysis of the curriculum and assessment policy statements (CAPS) for technical sciences, physical sciences, electrical technology, civil technology, mechanical technology, and textbooks for engineering science was done. The findings of the study suggest that the technical science curriculum is a replica of the physical science curriculum. We recommend that the technical sciences curriculum be reviewed such that relevant scientific concepts can be used to bridge the gaps identified in the curriculum. The implications are that a new, aligned technical sciences curriculum that is relevant for technology subjects must be developed.</p> Mabel Julia Moloi, Abraham Tlhalefang Motlhabane Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Motivation to teach as a predictor of resilience and appreciation: An examination in terms of the self-determination theory <p>The aim with this research was to investigate the correlation between the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of teacher candidates regarding their desire to teach, and the variables of resilience and appreciation. In order to establish this correlation, we used the resilience scale, originally developed by Wagnild and Young in 1993 and adapted to the Turkish context by Terzi in 2006. Additionally, the motivation-to-teach scale, developed by Kauffman, Yilmaz Soylu and Duke in 2011 and adapted to the Turkish context by Güzel Candan and Evin Gencel in 2015, as well as the gratitude, resentment and appreciation test-revised short (GRAT-RS), developed by Thomas and Watkins in 2003 and adapted to the Turkish context by Oğuz Duran in 2017, were employed. The participants in this study comprised 328 fourth-year teacher candidates enrolled in undergraduate programmes in the Faculty of Education at the Ege University during the 2019–2020 academic year. According to the findings, the motivation to teach demonstrates predictive qualities for both resilience and appreciation. The teacher candidates with high motivation to teach, that is, the teacher candidates who studied at a faculty of education by choice, showed more positive emotions towards their profession (Ayık &amp; Ataş, 2014). This research shows that the level of autonomy is effective over positive emotions. If we aim to have better education and teachers who inspire students with positive energy, it may be easier to achieve this with teachers who have a higher level of autonomy.</p> Aylin Mentiş Köksoy, Mehmet Uğur Kutluer Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 30 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000