Environmental Education Policy Implementation Challenges in Botswana Schools

  • MJ Ketlhoilwe


This paper analyses teachers’ responses to the introduction of environmental education policy in Botswana’s primary schools. The 1994 Revised National Policy on Education introduced environmental education into the education system through an infusion approach. This paper reflects on some of the issues and challenges confronting teachers in interpreting and implementing this environmental education policy. The findings are based on research conducted in four regions in Botswana. Data for this research were generated through interviews, questionnaires and classroom observations, and were supplemented by a genealogical analysis of key documents and interviews with policy makers. A post-structural analysis of the data indicates that various normalising (self governing) strategies were applied by teachers in their policy interpretations. The study also considers how these environmental education policy interpretations are influenced by the construction of the policy discourses, and by contextual challenges emanating from the genesis of the policy, conceptions of environmental education, support mechanisms, educators’ experiences and power relations.


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2411-5959
print ISSN: 1810-0333