Climate Responsive Innovation within the Agricultural Curriculum and Learning System
The purpose of this paper is to outline the climate responsive innovation process within the agricultural innovation system of the North West Province, South Africa. The focus was on the embedded curriculum and learning activity system and its responses to social-ecological and earth system changes influenced by climate change. It outlines the barriers and processes hampering curriculum and learning innovations towards climate-smart responsiveness, and also examines the processes required to initiate micro and macro innovations. This paper focusses on how actors within the system can initiate curriculum innovation and climate responsiveness through micro innovations when supported and how this can lead to macro innovations. The system experienced various barriers during the innovation process and overcame many challenges during the journey towards climate-smart responsiveness through the identification of contradictions within the system, developing tools to assist in the transitioning process and expansion in the social-spatial dimension by establishing a learning network within the surrounding communities. The research indicated that the catalysing of the curriculum and learning system required specific tools, time and the understanding of the importance of micro-level innovation.
Keywords: curriculum innovation; climate-smart agriculture; agricultural training institutes
Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf). (2017). Revitalising Agricultural Education and Training in South Africa. Consensus Study. Academy of Science of South Africa.
Aerni, P., Nichterlein K., Rudgard S., & Sannino, A. (2015). Making Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) work for Development in Tropical Countries. Sustainability 7(1). 831-850. doi: 10.3390/su7010831
Agbedahin, A. V. (2016). A morphogenic and laminated system explanation of position-practice systems and professional development training in mainstreaming education for sustainable development in African Universities. Unpublished PhD thesis, Rhodes University, Grahamstown.
AgriSETA. (2014). Agricultural Sector Skills Plan 2011-2016. September 2014. Update.
Archer, M. (1995). Realist social theory: The morphogenetic approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Archer, M. (2007). The trajectory of thy morphogenetic approach: An account in the first-person. Sociologia. Problemas e Praticas, 54, 35-47.
Chakeredza S., Temu, A.B., Yaye, A., Mukingwa, S., & Saka, J.D.K. 2009. Mainstreaming Climate Change into Agricultural Education: Challenges and Perspectives. ICRAF Working Paper no. 82. Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Centre.
Department of Agriculture (DoA). (2005a). Norms and Standards for Extension and Advisory Services in Agriculture Directorate: Scientific Research and Development, ed., Directorate: Agricultural Information Services. Retrieved June 1, 2016 from http://www.nda.agric.za/doaDev/sideMenu/NationalExtensionSupport/docs/NORMS_AND_STANDARD_BOOKLET.pdf.
Department of Agriculture (DoA). (2005b). AET Strategy - National Education and Training Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development in South Africa.
Department of Agriculture (DoA). (2008). National Agricultural Research and Development Strategy 2008. Retrieved June 1, 2016 from http://www.nda.agric.za/docs/Policy/Research_and_Development_Strategy.pdf
Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (DAF). 2008. Evaluation of agricultural education and training curricula in South Africa. Republic of South Africa.
Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF). (2010). Agricultural Education and Training Access Barriers Report.
Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF). (2015a). Strategic Plan 2015/2016 to 2019/20. Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Department of Rural, Environment and Agricultural Development (READ). (2015b). Annual Report for 2014/2015 Financial Year Vote 13. READ Province of the North West.
Engeström, Y. (1987). Learning by expanding: An activity-theoretical approach to developmental research. Helsinki: Orienta-Konsultit.
Engeström, Y. (1999). Innovative learning in work teams: Analysing cycles of knowledge creation in practice. In Y. Engeström, R. Miettinen & R-L. Punamäki (Eds.), Perspectives on activity theory (pp. 377-406). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Engeström, Y. (2016). Studies in expansive learning. Learning what is not yet there. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). (2013). Climate-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook.
Lindley, D. (2014). Can expansive (social) learning process strengthen organizational learning from improving wetland management in a plantation forestry company, and if so how? A case study of Mondi. Unpublished PhD thesis, Rhodes University, Grahamstown.
Lotz-Sisitka, H., Pesanayi, T., Weaver, K., Lupele, C., Sisitka, L.,
Denison, J., van Staden, W. (2016). Water use and food security: Knowledge dissemination and use in agricultural colleges and local learning networks for home food gardening and small scale agriculture. Volume 1: research and development report. Report to the Water Research Commission.
Mukute, M. (2010). Exploring and expanding learning processes in sustainable agriculture workplace contexts. Unpublished PhD thesis, Rhodes University, Grahamstown.
Pesanayi, T. (2018). Boundary crossing expansive learning across agricultural learning activity systems and networks in southern Africa. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Rhodes University (in press)
Popkewitz, T. (2017). The promise of empirical evidence and
benchmarks: The Lorelei’s whispers. Research Gate. Retrieved January 28, 2018 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/32170927
Potchefstroom College of Agriculture (PCA). (2009). Prospectus: Quality assurance, design development, delivery and evaluation of training programmes, assessment and off site. Potchefstroom: PCA.
Sayer, A. (2000). Realism and social science. London: Sage.
Serage, D. May 26, 2015. Director of Structured Agricultural Training and Empowerment for the Department of Rural, Environmental and Agriculture Development for the North West province. Personal communication.
Taung Agricultural College (TAC). (2014a). Amplified prospectus – Taung.
Taung Agricultural College (TAC). (2014b). Taung Agriculture College Prospectus.
Togo, M. (2009). A systems approach to mainstreaming environment and sustainability in universities: The case of Rhodes University, South Africa. Unpublished PhD thesis, Rhodes University, Grahamstown.
Van Staden, W (2018) Online Climate-Smart Innovation Tool for management. Available at: https://www.onlineassessmenttool.com/climate-smart-innovation-tool-management/assessment-55035
Van Staden, W., Lotz-Sisitka, H. & O`Donoghue, R. 2018. Climate-Smart Innovation Tool. A curriculum innovation support tool for the agricultural learning systems. Grahamstown, Rhodes University Environmental Learning Research Centre. ISBN: 978-0-86810-644-1 Available at: http://amanziforfood.co.za/csit-resources/
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society. The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd ed.). London: Sage.
Copyright (c) 2020 Southern African Journal of Environmental Education
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The copyright belongs to the Environmental Education Association of Southern Africa (EEASA) under a Creative Commons Attribution license, CC-BY-NC-SA. It is a condition of publication that authors vest copyright in their articles in EEASA. Authors may use the article elsewhere after publication, providing the publishing details are included. More information may be found at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/.