Southern African Journal of Environmental Education 2020-12-18T06:31:19+00:00 Prof. Eureta Rosenberg Open Journal Systems <p>The <em>Southern African Journal of Environmental Education </em>(SAJEE) is an accredited and internationally refereed journal. It is published at least once a year, by the Environmental Education Association of Southern Africa (EEASA).</p> <p>The SAJEE aims to publish and report on a wide range of aspects relating to Environmental Education, Ethics and Action in southern Africa and elsewhere, with a strong focus on research. The journal seeks to further the academic study and the practice of environmental education by providing a forum for researchers, scholars, practitioners and policy makers. The journal aims to carry papers reflecting the diversity of environmental education practice in southern Africa. It includes a variety of research genres; conference reviews and keynote papers; comparative studies; retrospective analyses of activities or trends in a particular field; commentaries on policy issues; and critical reviews of environmental education, ethics and action in a particular country or context. The journal actively seeks out international dialogue in order to provide perspective on and for environmental education in southern Africa.</p> <p>The SAJEE aims to provide southern African and other authors with a forum for debate and professional development. The journal incorporates an author support programme to encourage new authors in the field to establish themselves as scholarly writers.</p> <p>Papers published in the Research Paper section of the journal undergo an&nbsp;academically rigorous and thorough double blind review process by two qualified reviewers. Keynote,Viewpoint and Think Piece papers are reviewed by one of the editors of the journal and/or another qualified reviewer.</p> <p>The SAJEE journal provides open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public and scholarly community supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. There are no article submission nor processing charges associated with the SAJEE.&nbsp;</p> <p>The SAJEE Editors subscribe to the open access publishing best practice code of the Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf). SAJEE is indexed on the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).</p> <p>Institutional support for the journal is provided by the Rhodes University Environmental Learning Research Centre, in the Faculty of Education at Rhodes University (South Africa).<br>For article queries please contact the Journal Manager:</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a><br>CC BY-NC-SA 4.0&nbsp;<br>2016 Environmental Education Association of Southern Africa <br>Online ISSN 2411-5959&nbsp;<br>Print ISSN 0256-7504<br>Print ISBN 1810-0333&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Editorial for Special Issue: Education for Sustainability in a Time of Crises 2020-06-24T09:24:24+00:00 Eureta Rosenberg <p><em>Please refer to the editorial in the PDF situated to the right of this section.&nbsp;</em></p> 2020-06-12T09:32:16+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Southern African Journal of Environmental Education Think Piece: Working for Living - Popular Education as/at Work for Social-ecological Justice 2020-06-15T08:07:20+00:00 Jane Burt Anna Katharine James Shirley Walters Astrid von Kotze <p>Drawing on the working lives of popular educators who are striving for socioeconomic and socio-ecological&nbsp; justice, we demonstrate how popular education is a form of care work which is feminised, often undervalued and unrecognised as highly skilled work. It is relational work that aims to forge solidarity with communities and the environment. Given the state of the planet, the radical transformations that are needed, and the future projection of ‘work’ as including the care economy in large measure, we argue that popular education is a generative site for further exploration of research into work and learning. However, to move popular education as work from the margins means to rethink the current economic system of value. Addressing the contradiction that undervalues work for life/living, popular education engages transformative action motivated by a deep sense of solidarity and a focus on imagining alternatives as an act of hope.<br><br><em>Keywords: work and learning, popular education, care work, solidarity</em></p> 2020-06-12T09:39:12+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Southern African Journal of Environmental Education Use of Indigenous Knowledge Systems in Crop and Livestock Production and Implication to Social Ecology: A Case Study of Chimanimani District of Zimbabwe 2020-06-15T08:04:52+00:00 Pindai Sithole <p>This study explored the indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) in the Chimanimani District of Zimbabwe and how they are used in crop management and grain storage. Also examined were the effects of IKS use on community food security and integrity of the environment. A qualitative interpretative research design was employed through the use of detailed in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with traditional leaders and community elders. The choice for these groups of people was informed by the general belief that they are often regarded in the community as a reservoir of indigenous knowledge systems. Phenomenological underpinnings anchored the study because it was vital to bring to the fore the various related IKS phenomena and links to food security and environmental management in the community. A socio-ecological lens was used to establish links and interrelations of factors that contribute to food security and environmental management. Major findings include that ashes and leaves from some indigenous trees are used to enrich soil quality, preserve food, and treat livestock. In addition, ashes and leaves are applied as organic pesticides for a variety of crops grown in the district. The study established that these local knowledge systems and practices contribute to low farming costs, high crop yields and good environmental management. The indigenous trees used for this purpose are held in high regard and conserved through the practice and enforcement of socio-spiritual prohibitions like taboos. The study concluded that the body of local knowledge firmly rooted in the Chimanimani people’s culture and traditions is relevant to and consistent with the national and global agenda towards strengthening and sustaining community food security and environmental management. Furthermore, the local knowledge systems found in this study have policy implications for environmental management and climate change strategies as well as knowledge management from a socio-ecological perspective.<br><br><em>Keywords: indigenous knowledge management systems, environmental management, </em><em>food security</em></p> 2020-06-12T10:00:31+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Southern African Journal of Environmental Education Challenges of Teaching Akans (Ghana) Culturally-Specific Environmental Ethics in Senior High Schools: Voices of Akans and Biology Teachers 2020-06-12T11:20:10+00:00 Maxwell Jnr Opoku Angela James <p>Indigenous cultural groups have lived sustainably with their natural resources (land, water bodies, forests, wildlife animals and plants) by employing particular culturallyspecific environmental ethics. These include spiritual perceptions about natural environmental resources, totemic beliefs and taboos. Consequently, many scholars in the country have recommended the integration of these culturally-specific environmental ethics in environmental policies and formal school curricula. The purpose of this research was to explore the views of Akan indigenous knowledge (IK) holders and senior high school Biology teachers on challenges they predicted could confront the teaching of Akan culturally-specific environmental ethics in the senior high school Biology curriculum. An interpretivist paradigm with an ethnographic, naturalistic research style, using in-depth conversational interviews was employed to explore the views of research participants. The perceived challenges included stigma attached to culturally-specific environmental ethics; requirement of proof and experimentation; the use of a foreign language in schools; formal education; loss of the fear for the gods and spirits in nature; centralised curriculum; democracy and political biases. The research concluded that being aware of the possible challenges to the teaching of the Akan culturally-specific environmental ethics can influence policies related to these ethics as well as guide Biology curriculum developers and stakeholders.</p> <p><em>Keywords: culturally-specific environmental ethics; Akan cultural group; Akan nature </em><em>conservation; Ghana Biology curriculum</em></p> 2020-06-12T09:45:27+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Southern African Journal of Environmental Education The Practice of Environmental Training: A case of ISO 14001 Certified Businesses in Durban, South Africa 2020-06-15T08:05:39+00:00 Dianne Sennoga Fathima Ahmed <p>Environmental management has moved from a policy concept to a proactive strategy defining business responsiveness to stakeholder and market-related pressures towards improved environmentally sustainable business practices. There is increasing business responsiveness through corporate sustainability and environmental management practices. A growing number of environmental regulations make the adoption of environmental management systems such as ISO 14001 more common and this necessitates training. While environmental training is receiving international attention, it is seemingly less prominently investigated in the South African context. In this article, results from an empirical study into the environmental training practices of Durban businesses are presented. By applying the ISO 14001 certification criterion, 24 businesses were identified as research participants. The practice of environmental training was investigated considering three themes i.e. environmental attitudes and culture, training resources and commitment, and impediments to environmental training. In exploring these themes, the main questions of the extent of environmental training and its effectiveness are determined. It was found that environmental training is widely practised across all businesses sampled, with impact-focused training topics supported by positive environmental attitudes. However, other areas emerge as problematic, including limited organisational prioritisation of environmental training as well as insufficient further training topics which can limit the efficacy of training activities.<br><br><em>Keywords: environmental training; environmental education; ISO 14001; </em><em>Environmental Management Systems; corporate sustainability</em></p> 2020-06-12T10:48:44+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Southern African Journal of Environmental Education Climate Responsive Innovation within the Agricultural Curriculum and Learning System 2020-06-15T08:06:33+00:00 Wilma van Staden <p>The purpose of this paper is to outline the climate responsive innovation process within the agricultural innovation system of the North West Province, South Africa. The focus was on the embedded curriculum and learning activity system and its responses to social-ecological and earth system changes influenced by climate change. It outlines the barriers and processes hampering curriculum and learning innovations towards climate-smart responsiveness, and also examines the processes required to initiate micro and macro innovations. This paper focusses on how actors within the system can initiate curriculum innovation and climate responsiveness through micro innovations when supported and how this can lead to macro innovations. The system experienced various barriers during the innovation process and overcame many challenges during the journey towards climate-smart responsiveness through the identification of contradictions within the system, developing tools to assist in the transitioning process and expansion in the social-spatial dimension by establishing a learning network within the surrounding communities. The research indicated that the catalysing of the curriculum and learning system required specific tools, time and the understanding of the importance of micro-level innovation.&nbsp;<br><em><br>Keywords: curriculum innovation; climate-smart agriculture; agricultural training </em><em>institutes</em></p> 2020-06-12T10:53:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Southern African Journal of Environmental Education Education in Times of COVID-19: Looking for Silver Linings in the Southern Africa’s Educational Responses 2020-12-18T06:30:09+00:00 Mutizwa Mukute Jane Burt Buhle Francis Ben de Souza <p>Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disrupted socio-economic activities, including formal and non-formal education, across the world at lightning speed. By mid-April 2020, it had interrupted the formal education of nearly 1.6 billion students in 192 countries. COVID-19’s disruption of education in Africa, and especially in southern Africa, has been severe for several reasons. However, educational responses to COVID-19 suggest that it has stimulated the appetite for developing educational innovations – silver linings to the COVID-19 cloud.<br>This paper is based on interviews conducted with 56 parents, students and educators involved in formal and non-formal education in Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. We identified the main educational challenges in these countries as being concerned with adapting to: (i) online education and learning, (ii) continuity of education from home, and (iii) community-based learning in small groups. The silver linings that we identified are: (i) putting greater emphasis on finding context-specific solutions to education and health problems (improvisation), which is important for educational relevance and reveals the value of local actors, (ii) making linkages between social and ecological systems clearer, which is making the value of education for sustainable development (ESD) in this century more explicit, and (iii) revealing structural inequality and justice issues in education, which draws attention to the need for urgently addressing them as part of transformative change in education and sustainable development.</p> 2020-12-17T06:35:05+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Southern African Journal of Environmental Education Creating Environmental Awareness using an Eco-Feedback Application at a Higher Education Institution 2020-12-18T06:31:19+00:00 Andre Calitz Margaret Cullen Francois Odendaal <p>Providing environmental education and creating environmental awareness assists future generations to conserve, preserve and sustain the environment. Organisations are supporting environmental awareness education efforts and universities are increasingly being required to exercise sound environmental behaviour and educate all stakeholders on their responsibility of being aware of their environmental impact. Gamification and eco-feedback applications in previous studies have been used to provide feedback on an individual’s<br>behaviour with the goal of creating environmental awareness. Students are generally not provided with environmental information regarding their use of electricity, water and waste management whilst on campus. In this exploratory study, an eco-feedback application was developed and used to create environmental awareness amongst postgraduate students at the Nelson Mandela University and the functionality of the eco-feedback application was evaluated. The results indicated that participants became more aware of their environmental impact after being exposed to an eco-feedback application. The functionality provided by the eco-feedback application, to assist in creating environmental awareness within an academic institution, proved to be useful.</p> 2020-12-17T06:29:26+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Southern African Journal of Environmental Education Institutional Analysis of Adoption of Agroforestry Practices in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa 2020-12-17T09:40:27+00:00 Mulatu Fekadu Zerihun <p>Agroforestry practices are innovations developed in response to problems associated with inappropriate land use practices. The latter refers to the use of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes because of an increase in urbanisation, rapidly developing industry, and investments, and, finally, gaps in laws and regulations (Cengiz, 2013). Agroforestry practices are land-based economic development strategies with a perceived positive role in supporting rural livelihoods. Using a logistic regression model with cross-sectional data, this study explores the impact of institutional factors and incentive mechanisms that affect the adoption of agroforestry innovations. The study finds that a larger number of extension services, access to credit, access to extension, information exchange among farmers, trust in local institutions, active participation in social&nbsp; groups and organisations, and prior exposure to agricultural technologies are the variables that positively affect the adoption of agroforestry innovations in the study area. These findings have policy implications in promoting integrated rural development in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.</p> 2020-12-17T06:48:42+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Southern African Journal of Environmental Education Project-based Learning for Environmental Sustainability Action 2020-12-17T09:39:31+00:00 Sharon Bramwell-Lalor Keith Kelly Therese Ferguson Carol Hordatt Gentles Carmel Roofe <p>The quest for social and economic development coupled with a growing population has led to complex and unsustainable interactions between humans and the natural resources of planet Earth. One approach to addressing complex, ‘wicked’ problems involves closing the gap between the sustainability knowledge of individuals and the competencies for positive environmental behaviours. Projectbased learning is one teaching-learning strategy which provides opportunities for cultivating a wide range of sustainability competencies to close this gap. Two cases are presented in this paper in which project-based learning was used for fostering environmental competencies and advancing sustainability. One relates to teachers in a graduate course, and the other, to students using an online learning platform. Evaluation of various qualitative documents and artefacts produced by participants revealed that i) teachers and students were motivated and enabled to take action on environmental and sustainability issues through project-based learning ii) participants’ environmental knowledge and sustainability competencies such as communication and collaboration skills were enhanced. School administrators should therefore encourage a culture where project-based learning is infused into the curriculum, and teachers’ collaborative efforts regarding projects are supported.</p> 2020-12-17T06:26:33+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Southern African Journal of Environmental Education Epistemic Cartography: Evaluating Net-Map as a Frontline Tool for Navigating Informal Knowledge Networks 2020-12-17T09:11:27+00:00 Luke Metelerkamp Eva Schiffer <p>Sustainability transitions are dependent on the development and diffusion of transformative skills and competencies. However, the prevailing notion that learning for sustainability transitions will be led by universities, technical colleges and other similar institutions is practically not feasible in much of the global south. Net-Map is a social network analysis tool that uses interviews and mapping to help people understand, visualise, discuss, and improve situations in which many different actors influence outcomes (Schiffer &amp; Hauck, 2010). In response to the pressing need for new approaches to the development and diffusion of sustainability skills, this paper evaluates Net-Map’s suitability as a methodological tool for educators, knowledge brokers and students seeking to enhance the navigability of the often complex and uncharted occupational pathways they encounter. To do this, the research applied Net-Map to an emerging sustainability niche within the food system in order to map the learning pathways of successful sustainability pioneers. We found that Net-Map was helpful in identifying diffuse informal knowledge networks and teaching resources. Being free, quick to learn and easy to use, Net-Map is a potentially low-cost method for circumventing traditionally costly approaches to curriculum development and accreditation – assisting community-based actors to make sense of the informal knowledge and competency networks that support emerging career fields. In emerging career fields such as organic farming, where pioneer knowledge is fragmented, poorly documented and often disregarded by mainstream-science, Net-Map could be useful in the preparatory phase of curriculum planning and design, providing training designers, course conveners and facilitators with contextually informed insights.</p> 2020-12-17T06:32:15+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Southern African Journal of Environmental Education Viewpoint: Coronavirus Pandemic- The Roles of Environmental Education and Conservation Message Framing in Curbing Zoonotic Diseases 2020-12-17T09:14:09+00:00 Tayo Akeem Yusuf <p>This viewpoint paper posits that it is helpful to frame environmental problems as human health problems. The most fundamental way to protect ourselves from zoonotic diseases (such as COVID-19) seems to be support healthy ecosystems that have resilience. Humans around the world are sometimes motivated by selfish motives and sometimes by altrustic motives. This viewpoint paper proposes an integrative view of environmental behaviour with dimensions of both selftranscendence (altruism) and self-enhancement (egoism), in the hope that both kinds of values could lead to an increase in pro-environmental behaviour.</p> 2020-12-17T06:49:33+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Southern African Journal of Environmental Education Viewpoint: Repurposing ESD to Help Adapt to a Post-COVID World – Reflections from India and Africa 2020-12-17T09:27:58+00:00 Jim Taylor Supriya Singh Olivia Copsey <p>The world, as we are experiencing it, is in transition because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The crisis has engulfed every aspect of life forcing a re-evaluation of policies, priorities and practices. This viewpoint proposes that community embedded values inherent in some Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) practices could be used in the rebuilding of a post-COVID world. It contends that mere digitalisation of content will not suffice. We need to adopt an approach that considers situated and intergenerational thought and practice. We need to create a world that draws on indigenous knowledge practices and fuses these with the wonders of modern technology and multi-stakeholder interactions. Examples of community projects in Africa and India are used to point to how ESD practitioners could innovate and radically reorient learning environments.</p> 2020-12-17T06:45:11+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Southern African Journal of Environmental Education Think Piece: Learning, Living and Leading into Transgression – A reflection on decolonial praxis in a neoliberal world 2020-12-17T10:54:20+00:00 Injairu Kulundu Dylan Kenneth McGarry Heila Lotz-Sisitka <p>Three scholar activists from South Africa reflect on what it means to transgress the limits of a neoliberal world and its crisis times, particularly considering transgressions in the service of a decolonial future. The authors explore three questions: i) What kind of learning can help us transgress the status quo? ii) How do we extend this learning into a commitment to actively living in transgressive ways? iii) What does it mean to lead in ways that re-generate a transgressive ethic in a neoliberal world? In a dialogical conversation format, the authors outline nine different but interconnected perspectives on learning, living and leading into transgression, with the aim of concurrently revealing the multiple layers of work that a decolonial future depends on, while demonstrating the ambitions of a pluriversal decolonial future through their writing. The intertwined narrative is not conclusive, as the processes marked out in brief are experiences that still need to be fully practised in new relations in times to come within academia-in-society-and-the-world with human and more-than-human actors. However, they do offer a generative set of questions, concepts and metaphors to give courage to boundary-dwelling scholar activists attempting transgressive research. These reflections seek to regenerate the transgressive ‘decolonial gestures’ ( that we can undertake in a neo-liberal world, as an important part of environment and sustainability education practices. It draws out what an embodied practice of transgressive learning can entail when we become discerning of hegemonic discourses that reproduce the status quo. We pay homage to those decolonial scholars in the field of environment and sustainability education as we traverse this terrain, recognising their imagination and the transgressive movement that has come before us, but importantly we seek to also open pathways for those yet to come.</p> 2020-12-17T06:31:04+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Southern African Journal of Environmental Education