Non-diagnostic AIDS-associated malignant neoplasms
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) malignancies are a well-recognised and potentially lethal consequence of the disease. Three malignancies have shown an increased incidence and qualify as AIDS-defining conditions when they occur in
conjunction with HIV infection: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), including primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), and invasive cancer of the cervix. Data from the AIDS-Cancer Match Registry Study Group1 demonstrate the relative increased risk for the development of the three current AIDS-defining cancers, but also suggest an increase in Hodgkin's disease (HD) and, to a lesser degree, anal carcinoma, testicular seminoma and lip cancer. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has exerted an effect on the incidence of malignancies. Since its implementation the incidence
of KS and NHL has declined substantially, but there has been no major change in the incidence of cervical cancer or Hodgkin's disease.2 The most common source of morbidity and mortality from AIDS has been opportunistic infections (OIs). Since the improvement in survival of patients with HIV infection, due to better prevention, the treatment of infectious complications and HAART, there appears to have been an increase in the incidence of malignant tumours, in particular those non-diagnostic of AIDS.
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 11-14