HIV infection and the kidney
There is a wide clinical spectrum of renal disease in the course of HIV infection, which includes potentially reversible acute renal failure (ARF) (more recently known as acute kidney injury), electrolyte and acid-base disturbances, and intrinsic renal disease unrelated to HIV itself (e.g. co-morbid diabetes mellitus and hypertension).1,2 In addition, there is
the group of HIV-associated glomerulonephropathies that may present with acute or chronic renal failure. Histologically, this group is divided into the ‘classic\' HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (HIV-FGS), HIV-associated immune complex disease (HIV-IC), and HIV-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/ haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HIV-TTP/HUS).3 It is this group that is primarily implicated in the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the HIV-infected population.
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine Vol. 9 (1) 2008: pp. 12-17