Post-stroke depression: Prevalence, associated factors and impact on quality of life among outpatients in a Nigerian hospital
Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of post-stroke depression (PSD), its associated factors and impact on quality of life (QoL) among outpatients in a Nigerian hospital.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 140 adults made up of 70 stroke survivors and matched controls with stable hypertension. Participants were administered questionnaires to profile their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Subsequently, they were assessed with the modified mini-mental state examination (MMSE), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), schedule for clinical assessment in neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQoL-BREF).
Results: The mean ages (± s.d.) of stroke survivors and controls were 57.43 (± 9.67) years and 57.33 (± 9.33) years, respectively. Majority of stroke survivors (n = 55 [78.6%]) had infarctive stroke, and 37 (52.9%) had right hemispheric lesion. Sixteen (22.9%) stroke survivors had PSD, with moderate to severe depression (F32.1) being the most prevalent, while none of the controls was clinically depressed. PSD correlated positively with monthly health bill above 10 000 naira ($61), significant post-stroke disability and poorer scores on all QoL domains (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Depression was 20-fold prevalent in stroke survivors compared to controls with stable hypertension, and sevenfold the life-time prevalence reported among adult general population in Nigeria. Furthermore, increased health care bills per month, significant post-stroke disability and poorer QoL indicated survivors more likely to have depression. Findings in this study support the need to pay closer attention to psychosocial needs of stroke survivors to improve well-being. Future longitudinal study on psychosocial burden of stroke is warranted.