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Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in children

Nasreen Mahomed
Gary Reubenson


Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) refers to a collection of inflammatory disorders, predominantly related to infectious processes that manifest after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and can be classified as unmasking or paradoxical. The prevalence of IRIS in children in sub-Saharan Africa is low. Approximately half of all cases are associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It may be difficult to distinguish IRIS from tuberculosis and other opportunistic infections radiologically; therefore, radiological findings must be interpreted with clinical and laboratory findings. In this review article, we describe the clinical and radiological manifestations of IRIS in children and provide illustrative radiological examples.