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Review of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cardiovascular disease

Vishesh Sood
Stephen Jermy
Hadil Saad
Petronella Samuels
Sulaiman Moosa
Ntobeko Ntusi


Despite ongoing advances in the treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), they remain a major global public health concern conferring an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in affected individuals. This is, in part, because of the widespread dysfunction imposed by HIV and its treatment on the cardiovascular system, including the myocardium, valvular apparatus, pericardium and coronary, pulmonary and peripheral vasculature. In recent times, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has emerged as the gold standard tool for assessment of a variety of indications, allowing comprehensive characterisation of functional, morphological, metabolic and haemodynamic sequelae of several cardiovascular pathologies. Furthermore, continued advancement in imaging techniques has yielded novel insights into the underlying pathophysiology and guides future therapeutic strategies. In this article, we review the various clinical phenotypes of HIV-associated cardiovascular disease and highlight the utility of CMR in their assessment.