SA Journal of Radiology 2023-02-11T03:17:38+00:00 Dr Maya Patel Open Journal Systems <p>The <em>SA Journal of Radiology</em> is the official journal of the Radiological Society of South Africa and the Professional Association of Radiologists in South Africa and Namibia. The SA Journal of Radiology is a general diagnostic radiological journal which carries original research and review articles, pictorial essays, case reports, letters, editorials, radiological practice and other radiological articles.</p><p>Other websites related to this journal: <a href="" target="_blank"></a></p> Chest radiography evaluation in patients admitted with confirmed COVID-19 infection, in a resource limited South African isolation hospital 2023-02-11T01:22:22+00:00 Sereesh Moodley Tanusha Sewchuran <p><strong>Background:</strong> Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the subsequent global outbreak (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) was declared a public health emergency in January 2020. Recent radiologic literature regarding COVID-19 has primarily focused on Computed Tomography (CT) chest findings, with chest radiography lacking in comparison.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> To describe the demographic profile of adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring hospital admission. To describe and quantify the imaging spectrum on chest radiography using a severity index, and to correlate the severity of disease with prognosis.<br><strong>Method:</strong> Retrospective review of chest radiographs and laboratory records in patients admitted to a South African tertiary hospital with confirmed COVID-19 infection. The chest X-rays were systematically reviewed for several radiographic features, which were then quantified using the Brixia scoring system, and correlated to the patient’s outcome.<br><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 175 patients (mean age: 53.34 years) admitted with COVID-19 were included. Ground glass opacification (98.9%), consolidation (86.3%), and pleural effusion (29.1%) was commonly found. Involvement of bilateral lung fields (96.6%) with no zonal predominance (61.7%), was most prevalent. Correlation between the Brixia score and outcome was found between severe disease and death (odds ratio [OR]: 12.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.58–104.61). Many patients had unknown TB (71.4%) and HIV (72.6%) statuses.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In this study population, ground glass opacification, consolidation, and pleural effusions, with bilateral lung involvement and no zonal predominance were the most prevalent findings in proven COVID-19 infection. Quantification using the Brixia scoring system may assist with timeous assessment of disease severity in COVID-19 positive patients, as an overall predicator of clinical outcome.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 An audit of CT brain findings in adults with new-onset seizures in a resource restricted setting in South Africa 2023-02-11T01:25:37+00:00 Sabelo H. Mabaso Deepa Bhana-Nathoo Susan Lucas <p><strong>Background:</strong> Globally, adults presenting with seizures account for 1% – 2% of visits to emergency departments (EDs), of which 25% are new-onset seizures. Neuroimaging is essential as part of the initial workup. Multiple studies have demonstrated abnormal CT brain (CTB) findings in these patients.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> To review the CTB findings in adults presenting with new-onset seizures in a resource restricted setting.<br>Method: A retrospective review of 531 CTBs was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Gauteng on adults presenting to the ED with new-onset seizures.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the patients was 45.6 ± 17.1 years, and the male to female ratio was 1.2:1. Generalised and focal seizure types were almost equally represented. Of the total 531 patients, 168 (31.6%) were HIV positive. The CTB findings were abnormal in 257 (48.4%) patients, albeit vascular pathology accounted for 21.9%. Infective pathology accounted for 14.1% with a statistically significant association with HIV (p = 0.003). Trauma related pathology was 2.4%, whilst neoplastic pathology was seen in 3.0%. Other causes included congenital pathology, calcifications, atrophy and gliosis. Clinical factors associated with abnormal CTB findings were age ≥ 40 years, HIV infection, hypertension, focal seizures, low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), raised cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein and presence of lymphocytes.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A high yield of abnormal CTB findings was noted in adult patients who presented with new-onset seizures, supporting the use of urgent CTB in patients with certain clinical risk factors. Patients without these risk factors can be scanned within 24–48 h in a resource restricted setting.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 CT pulmonary angiography findings in HIV-infected patients referred for suspected pulmonary thrombo-embolic disease 2023-02-11T01:29:01+00:00 Diane Wiese Leisha Rajkumar Susan Lucas David Clopton Jacob Benfield Jason DeBerry <p><strong>Background:</strong> South Africa bares a significant burden of HIV and imaging is commonly performed as part of the workup for respiratory distress.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of pulmonary thromboembolic disease (PTED) and other findings in HIV-infected patients referred for CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for suspected PTED.<br><strong>Method:</strong> Forty CTPA studies of documented HIV-infected individuals investigated for suspected PTED during a 1-year period were retrieved, anonymised and interpreted by three consultant radiologists. Inter-reader reliability was calculated using Free Marginal multi-rater Kappa.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Fourteen of the forty cases (35%) were positive for PTED. In the pulmonary embolism (PE)-positive group, 57.14% had peripheral disease and 42.86% had both peripheral and central disease. Associated findings in the PE-positive cases were pulmonary infarcts (17.5%), mosaic attenuation (17.5%) and linear atelectasis (7.5%). The most common incidental findings were solid pulmonary nodules (52.5%), non-wedge-shaped consolidation (45%), cardiomegaly (52.5%) and enlarged intra-thoracic lymph nodes (52.5%). Thirty per cent of the study population had findings related directly to the presence of PTED, whilst most cases in the study (77.5%) had pulmonary findings unrelated to PTED. In the PE-negative cases, 55% reported emergent findings that warranted immediate or urgent medical attention.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Computed tomography pulmonary angiography imaging is critical for diagnosing PE. However, further investigation into the judicious application of CTPA in HIV-infected patients with suspected PTED is required, as CTPA findings in most of the cases in this study were unrelated to PE.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Fatal non-accidental injury in South Africa: A Gauteng hospital’s perspective on the incidence and fracture types in post-mortem skeletal surveys 2023-02-11T01:33:31+00:00 Robyn M. Wessels Halvani Moodley <p><strong>Background:</strong> In its severest form, non-accidental injury (NAI) in children is fatal. South Africa has been reported to have double the global average of child homicides. Autopsy is the main investigation in fatal NAI with post-mortem skeletal surveys (PMSS) playing an adjunctive role. Whilst fracture patterns associated with NAI in living patients have been established, this has not been investigated in PMSS in South Africa.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> To determine the incidence and characteristics of fractures in suspected fatal NAI cases. To calculate the incidence of fractures according to high-, moderate- and low-specificity fracture locations for NAI.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> A retrospective review of all PMSS performed between 01 January 2012 and 03 December 2018 was conducted at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 73 PMSS, 33 (45.2%) demonstrated fractures. No statistical significance in sex was found: 38 (52.1%) were male and 35 (47.9%) were female (p &gt; 0.05). The mean age of those who sustained fractures was 28 months (standard deviation [s.d.]: 21 months). A total of 115 fractures were sustained, of that the top five bones fractured were the ribs 37 (32.2%), parietal bone 13 (11.3%), ulna 13 (11.3%), femur 13 (11.3%), and radius 11 (9.6%). High-specificity fracture locations accounted for 40/133 (30.1%).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The fracture types in PMSS were similar to those in live skeletal surveys. Our study’s fracture rate was higher in comparison to international studies. The PMSS is a valuable adjunct to autopsy in detecting occult fractures of the limbs. We recommend that PMSS be performed in suspected fatal NAI cases at least in children up to 24 months of age.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 A retrospective review of CT pulmonary angiogram confirmed pulmonary emboli in COVID-19 patients admitted to Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town 2023-02-11T01:36:05+00:00 Petri Ahlers Mariam Q. Said-Hartley <p><strong>Background:</strong> A high incidence of thromboembolic phenomena has been widely reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. There is, however, a paucity of data detailing the incidence and characteristics of pulmonary emboli (PE) in COVID-19 patients in the South African setting.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> To describe the incidence and characteristics of PE confirmed by CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to a tertiary hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a retrospective-, descriptive study of all adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) undergoing CTPA for suspected PE while admitted to Groote Schuur Hospital. The study period was from 01 April 2020 to 30 September 2020.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The study cohort consisted of 116 patients, 59% being female, of whom 29% were pregnant or in the postpartum period. The median age for both genders combined was 49.5 years. The overall incidence of PE was 19%, with 20% in our subset of pregnant and postpartum patients. The majority (64%) of PE’s were reported as being segmental in anatomical location.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The noteworthy cohort included patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), HIV as well as pregnant and postpartum patients. The overall incidence of PE was 19% with no significant differences in demographics, comorbidities or D-dimer levels between patients with or without PE. The importance of a high clinical index of suspicion together with the role of CTPA in diagnosing PE in hospitalised COVID-19 patients is emphasised.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Concurrent cranial and cervical spine injuries by associated injury mechanisms in traumatic brain injury patients 2023-02-11T01:38:32+00:00 Pilasande Hlwatika Timothy C. Hardcastle <p><strong>Background:</strong> The incidence of concurrent traumatic brain injury (TBI) and cervical spine injury (c-spine) is relatively high, with a variety of risk factors.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and related factors associated with combined cranial and c-spine injury in TBI patients by assessing their demographics and clinical profiles.<br><strong>Method:</strong> A retrospective study of patients attending the Trauma Centre at the Inkosi Albert Luthuli Hospital as post head trauma emergencies and their CT brain and c-spine imaging performed between January 2018 and December 2018.<br><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 236 patients met the criteria for the study; 30 (12.7%) patients presented with concurrent c-spine injury. Most TBI patients were males (75%) and accounted for 70% of the c-spine injured patients. The most common mechanism of injury with a relationship to c-spine injury was motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) and/or pedestrian vehicle collisions (70%). The risk factors associated with c-spine injury in TBI patients were cerebral contusions (40%),<br>traumatic subarachnoid haematomas (36%) and skull fractures (33.3%). The statistically significant intracranial injury type more likely to have an associated c-spine injury was diffuse axonal injury (p = 0.04).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results suggest that concurrent TBI and c-spine injury should be considered in patients presenting with a contusion, traumatic subarachnoid haematoma and skull fracture. The high incidence of c-spinal injury and more than 1% incidence of spinal cord injury suggests that c-spine scanning should be employed as a routine for post MVC patients with cranial injury.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 An audit of the adequacy of contrast enhancement in CT pulmonary angiograms in a South African tertiary academic hospital setting 2023-02-11T01:40:47+00:00 Derik J. Basson Halvani Moodley <p><strong>Background:</strong> Undiagnosed pulmonary embolism carries high mortality and morbidity. Computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) is the diagnostic method of choice for accurate diagnosis. Inadequate contrast opacification is the second most common cause of indeterminate CTPAs.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> Audit the adequacy of CTPA contrast enhancement and determine whether inadequate enhancement is affected by the size and site of the intravenous cannula, flow rate, contrast volume, contrast leakage and day shift versus after hours services.<br><strong>Method:</strong> Retrospective and prospective audits of the adequacy of contrast enhancement of CTPAs at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital were conducted using the Royal College of Radiologists guidelines (≤ 11% of studies with &lt; 210 HU). Protocol variables were collected prospectively from questionnaires completed by radiographers performing the CTPAs. Adequate versus inadequate groups were analysed.<br><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 63 (retrospective) and 130 (prospective) patients were included with inadequate contrast enhancement rates of 19% (12/63) and 20.8% (27/130), respectively. The majority of CTPAs were performed during the day 56.2% (73/130) with a 20G cannula 66.2% (86/130) in the forearm 33.8% (44/130) injecting 100 mL – 120 mL contrast 43.1% (56/130) at 3 mL/s 63.1% (82/130). The median flow rate (3 mL/s) and contrast volume (80 mL) were identical in both adequate and inadequate groups, while the remaining variables showed no statistical difference.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The rate of inadequately enhanced CTPAs in this study was high. The protocol variables did not have a significant influence on the rate of inadequate enhancement. Further research, particularly using flow rates &gt; 4 mL/s, is required for protocol optimisation.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 A digital audit of emergency upper gastrointestinal fluoroscopy workflow in children with bilious vomiting 2023-02-11T01:43:45+00:00 Bradley C. Messiahs Richard D. Pitcher <p><strong>Background:</strong> Bilious vomiting in children requires an urgent evaluation with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) fluoroscopy as it may herald life-threatening midgut malrotation with volvulus (MMWV). There are no published data available on the duration of time-critical UGI workflow steps.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> A digital audit of workflow in emergency UGI contrast studies performed on children with bile-stained vomiting at a large South African teaching hospital.<br><strong>Method:</strong> A retrospective study was conducted from 01 May 2012 – 31 May 2019. A customised search of the institutional radiology information system (RIS) defined all children with bilious vomiting who underwent emergency UGI fluoroscopy. Extracted RIS timestamps were used to calculate the median duration of the ‘approval’, ‘waiting’, ‘study’ and ‘reporting’ times. Oneway analysis of variance and Chi-squared tests assessed the association between key parameters and the duration of workflow steps, with 5% significance (p &lt; 0.05).<br><strong>Results:</strong> Thirty-seven patients (n = 37) with median age 0.8 months were included, of whom 20 (54%) had an abnormal C-loop. The median ‘total time’ from physician request to report distribution was 107 min (interquartile range [IQR]: 67−173). The median ‘approval’ (6 min; IQR: 1–15) and ‘reporting’ (38 min; IQR: 17–91) times were the shortest and longest workflow steps, respectively. Abnormal C-loops (p = 0.04) and consultant referrals (p = 0.03) were associated with shorter ‘approval’ times. The neonatal ‘waiting’ time was significantly longer than that for older patients (p = 0.02).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The modern RIS is an excellent tool for time-critical workflow analyses, which can inform interventions for improved service delivery.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Paediatric minor head injury applied to Paediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network CT recommendations: An audit 2023-02-11T01:46:34+00:00 Jacques du Plessis Sharadini K. Gounden Carolyn Lewis <p><strong>Background:</strong> Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of paediatric morbidity and mortality, with higher TBI rates in low- and middle-income countries. Non-contrast brain CT is the gold standard for diagnosing intracranial injuries; however, it exposes patients to ionising radiation. The Paediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) clinical decision rule (CDR) aids clinicians in their decision-making processes whilst deciding whether a patient at very low risk of a clinically important TBI (ciTBI) requires a CT scan.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> To establish whether the introduction of the PECARN CDR would affect CT utilisation rates for paediatric patients presenting with minor blunt head injuries to an academic hospital in Gauteng, South Africa.<br><strong>Method:</strong> This was an audit of paediatric patients who presented with minor blunt head injuries and were referred for CT imaging at an academic hospital in Gauteng, compared with PECARN CDR recommendations, over a 1-year period.<br><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 100 patients were referred for CT imaging. Twenty patients were classified as very low risk, none of whom had any CT findings of a TBI or ciTBI (p &lt; 0.01). A total of 61 patients were classified as intermediate risk and 19 as high risk. In all, 23% of the intermediate and 47% of the high-risk patients had CT features of a TBI, whilst 8% and 37% had a ciTBI, respectively.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Computed tomography brain imaging may be omitted in patients classified as very low risk without missing a clinically important TBI. Implementing the PECARN CDR in appropriate patients would reduce CT utilisation rates.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Diagnostic accuracy and inter-reader reliability of the MRI Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (version 2018) risk stratification and management system 2023-02-11T01:50:14+00:00 Ranjit Singh Mitchell P. Wilson Florin Manolea Bilal Ahmed Christopher Fung Darryn Receveur Gavin Low <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed non-invasively, provided certain imaging criteria are met. However, the recent Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) version 2018 has not been widely validated.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and reader reliability of the LI-RADS version 2018 lexicon amongst fellowship trained radiologists compared with an expert consensus reference standard.<br><strong>Method:</strong> This retrospective study was conducted between 2018 and 2020. A total of 50 contrast enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies evaluating focal liver observations in patients with cirrhosis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) or prior HCC were acquired. The standard of reference was a consensus review by three fellowship-trained radiologists. Diagnostic accuracy including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV) and area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated per LI-RADS category for each reader. Kappa statistics were used to measure reader agreement.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Readers demonstrated excellent specificities (88% – 100%) and NPVs (85% – 100%) across all LI-RADS categories. Sensitivities were variable, ranging from 67% to 83% for LI-RADS 1, 29% to 43% for LI-RADS 2, 100% for LI-RADS 3, 70% to 80% for LI-RADS 4 and 80% to 84% for LI-RADS 5. Readers showed excellent accuracy for differentiating benign and malignant liver lesions with AUC values &gt; 0.90. Overall inter-reader agreement was ‘good’ (kappa = 0.76, p &lt; 0.001). Pairwise inter-reader agreement was ‘very good’ (kappa ≥ 0.90, p &lt; 0.001).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The LI-RADS version 2018 demonstrates excellent specificity, NPV and AUC values for risk stratification of liver observations by radiologists. Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System can reliably differentiate benign from malignant lesions when used in conjunction with corresponding LI-RADS management recommendations.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Appropriateness of imaging modality choice by doctors at the Kenyatta National Hospital’s Accident and Emergency Department 2023-02-11T01:53:03+00:00 Salman S. Ahmed Callen K. Onyambu Eunice Omamo Alfred Odhiambo <p><strong>Background:</strong> Clinical imaging guidelines assist doctors in selecting the most appropriate radiological investigation(s) according to the patient’s clinical presentation and also help to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> This study aimed to determine the appropriateness of choice of imaging procedures requested by the doctors in the Accident and Emergency Department (A&amp;E) of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).<br><strong>Method:</strong> Request forms sent to the KNH Radiology Department from the A&amp;E Department from 01 July 2019 to 31 October 2019 were captured digitally. The request forms were de-identified to ensure confidentiality of patients and requesting doctors. Only the demographic data, clinical summary and radiological examination requested were extracted.<br><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 1053 imaging request forms were captured and analysed using the American College of Radiology (ACR) appropriateness criteria. Adequate clinical summary was provided in 81.3% of the request forms. Appropriate imaging requests were 51.9% whilst inappropriate imaging requests were 34.6%. The clinical scenarios of 13.6% of the imaging requests were not found in the ACR database. Imaging modalities using ionising radiation formed the bulk of the inappropriate investigations at 72.8%. Of these, CT scan had the highest individual inappropriate requests of 49.3%. Only 18.4% of female patients in the reproductive age group had a documented last menstrual period.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Imaging modalities using ionising radiation had the highest percentage of inappropriate radiological requests, especially CT scans requested in the trauma setting. In addition, some clinical scenarios were not captured in the ACR appropriateness criteria, hence the need for local imaging guidelines.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 A 6-year audit of public-sector MR utilisation in the Western Cape province of South Africa 2023-02-11T01:56:45+00:00 Yusuf Parak Razaan Davis Michelle Barnard Amanda Fernandez Keith Cloete Matodzi Mukosi Richard D. Pitcher <p><strong>Background:</strong> Disparities in MR access between different countries and healthcare systems are well documented. Determinants of unequal access within the same healthcare system and geographical region are poorly understood.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> An analysis of public sector MR utilisation in South Africa’s Western Cape province (WCP).<br><strong>Methods:</strong> A retrospective study of WCP MR and population data for 2013 and 2018. MR units/106 people, studies, and studies/103 people were calculated for each year, for the whole province and the ‘western’ and ‘eastern’ referral pathways, stratified by age (0–14 years, &gt; 14 years)<br><strong>Results:</strong> Between 2013 and 2018, the WCP population increased 8% (4.63 vs 5.08 × 106 people) while MR resources were unchanged (‘western’ = 2 units; ‘eastern’ = 1), equating to decreasing access (units/106 people) for the province (0.65 vs 0.59; –9.2%), the ‘western’ (0.97 vs 0.9; –7.2%) and ‘eastern’ (0.39 vs 0.35; -10.3%) pathways. In 2013, 40% (4005/10 090) of studies were in the ‘eastern’ pathway serving 55% (2 066 079/4 629 051) of the population. Between 2013 and 2018 ‘eastern’ population growth (n = 286 781) exceeded ‘western’ (n = 168 469) by 70% (n = 118 312). By 2018, 38% (7939/12 848) of studies were performed in the ‘eastern’ pathway, then serving 56% (2 849 753/5 084 301) of the population. Among 0–14-year-olds, ‘western’ utilisation (studies/103 people) exceeded ‘eastern’ by a factor of approximately 2.4 throughout. In patients &gt; 14 years, the utilisation differential increased from 1.78 to 1.98 in the review period.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Ensuring equitable services on the same healthcare platform requires ongoing surveillance of resource and population distribution. MR access can serve as a proxy for equity in highly specialised services.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 The effectiveness of the pregnancy adapted YEARS algorithm to safely identify patients for CT pulmonary angiogram in pregnant and puerperal patients suspected of having pulmonary embolism 2023-02-11T01:59:38+00:00 Riaan Potgieter Piet Becker Farhana Suleman <p><strong>Background:</strong> Pulmonary thromboembolism is one of the leading causes of maternal death worldwide. Globally there has been increasing physician reliance on CT pulmonary angiogram for definitive diagnoses and exclusion of pulmonary thromboembolism. The problem, however, arises when considering the high radiation penalty from performing these investigations, highlighted by the low diagnostic yield. Of recent, the pregnancy-adapted YEARS algorithm has shown promise in international studies as a possible alternative for stratifying risk of pulmonary thromboembolism during the pregnancy and puerperal period.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> To determine the effectiveness of the pregnancy adapted YEARS algorithm to safely minimise the number of true negative CT pulmonary angiograms for patients suspected of having pulmonary embolism in our clinical setting.<br><strong>Method:</strong> A cross-sectional study was performed in a tertiary hospital in Gauteng on puerperal and pregnant patients suspected of having pulmonary embolism. We retrospectively applied the pregnancy adapted YEARS algorithm and reviewed the various outcomes.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The pregnancy adapted YEARS algorithm proved effective in safely identifying patients for CT pulmonary angiography. By retrospectively applying the algorithm, there could have been a 25.7% scan reduction, whilst maintaining a negative predictive value of 100.0%.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> As physician reliance on radiological investigations increases, we must remain cognisant of the added radiation exposure and the long-term adverse effects of ionising radiation. The pregnancy-adapted YEARS algorithm provides a safe, reproducible alternative to aid our bid going forward.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Stereotactic breast biopsies: Radiological-pathological concordance in a South African referral unit 2023-02-11T02:05:28+00:00 Natasha Alexander Ilana Viljoen Susan Lucas <p><strong>Background:</strong> Stereotactic breast biopsies have become the gold standard for tissue diagnosis in non-palpable, sonographically occult breast abnormalities seen on mammogram. Only limited data exist in South Africa on the correlation between imaging findings and stereotactic biopsy histology.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> To describe the mammographic findings and histological diagnosis in patients who underwent stereotactic breast biopsy at a referral hospital. In addition, to evaluate the proportion of malignancy in each Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category.<br><strong>Method:</strong> A retrospective review of stereotactic breast biopsies was performed. Imaging characteristics (including BI-RADS category) and histological diagnosis were recorded. Using histopathology, cases were classified as benign, high-risk or malignant.<br><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 131 biopsies, from 123 patients, were included in the study. Most biopsies were performed on asymptomatic patients (79.3%, 104/131). The majority were categorised as BI-RADS 4 and demonstrated calcifications. Histology revealed a malignant diagnosis in 40 (30.5%) patients, a high-risk lesion in 8 (6.1%) patients and a benign diagnosis in 83 (63.4%) patients. There was a stepwise increase in the proportion of malignancy from BI-RADS category 3 to 5. When compared with surgical histology, the stereotactic biopsies demonstrated an overall ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) underestimation rate of 10.3%.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Despite resource restrictions, stereotactic breast biopsies performed in a South African context produce radiological-pathological concordance in keeping with BI-RADS guidelines, as well as with local and international studies.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Temporal trends in ultrasound utilisation in the radiology department of a tertiary hospital 2023-02-11T02:08:39+00:00 Nwabisa Siyeka Michelle Da Silva Richard D. Pitcher <p><strong>Background:</strong> Little is known about the combined impact of increasing ultrasound usage by clinical disciplines outside radiology and technical advances in other specialised radiological modalities on the role of ultrasound in tertiary-level radiology departments.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> The aim of this study was to evaluate temporal trends in ultrasound utilisation in a tertiary-level radiology department.<br><strong>Method:</strong> An institutional review board-approved retrospective descriptive study in the radiology department of Tygerberg Hospital (TBH). The nature and number of ultrasound performed in 2013 and 2019 were retrieved from the TBH radiology information system (RIS). These were compared, expressed as a proportion of the overall annual radiology workload and stratified by location (ultrasound suite, interventional suite, mammography suite). Ultrasound suite examinations were analysed by body part and age (0–13 years; &gt; 13 years) and interventional suite workload by procedure.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The overall radiology workload decreased by 8%, reflecting the interplay between decreased plain radiography (–19%) and general fluoroscopy (–0.3%) and increased computed tomography (27%), magnetic resonance (23%) and fluoroscopically guided procedures (22%). There was a 12% increase in ultrasound utilisation. Ultrasound remained the second most common specialised imaging investigation throughout, after computed tomography. Ultrasound suite services were stable (–1%) representing a balance between decreased abdominal (–22%) and arterial (–16%) scans, and increased musculoskeletal (67%), small part (65%) and neonatal brain scans (41%). There were substantial increases in interventional (90%) and mammography suite (199%) services.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Ultrasound remains a key modality in the tertiary-level radiology department, with an evolving pattern of clinical applications.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Diagnostic yield and accuracy of paediatric image-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of deep organ tumours 2023-02-11T02:12:32+00:00 Tichayedza Bondera Pawel Schubert Anel van Zyl Richard Pitcher Asif Bagadia <p><strong>Background:</strong> Paediatric tumour cytological diagnosis by image-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) has not gained wide acceptance despite increasing publications advocating the procedure.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> The primary aim was an audit of the diagnostic yield and accuracy of paediatric image-guided FNAB with ROSE at a single institution. Evaluation of safety was a secondary aim.<br><strong>Method:</strong> Details of consecutive cases of paediatric image-guided FNAB with ROSE for suspected non-benign deep-seated lesions performed from 01 January 2014 to 30 April 2020 were retrieved from the institutional radiology and laboratory databases. Diagnostic yield and accuracy were evaluated using clinico-pathological-radiological correlation and/or subsequent histological specimen diagnosis correlation. Complications and the frequency of key radiological features potentially affecting yield and accuracy were described.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Of 65 cases retrieved, cytology showed malignancy in 52, benign features in five and one indeterminate diagnosis; seven samples were insufficient for cytological assessment. Of the 65 cases, 58 had subsequent formal histological diagnosis. The overall diagnostic yield was 98.5%, with 94.5% sensitivity, 100.0% specificity, 100.0% positive predictive value, 75.0% negative predictive value and 95.3% diagnostic accuracy. All cases (n = 26) demonstrating restricted diffusion on MRI yielded adequate samples and cyto-histopathological correlation.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Paediatric image-guided FNAB with ROSE has a relatively high diagnostic yield, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and accuracy in the diagnosis of deep-seated tumours. The relatively low negative predictive value may reflect insufficient samples obtained from cystic and/or benign lesions. Sampling from areas of restricted MRI diffusion may enhance diagnostic yield.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Radiation induced cataracts in interventionalists occupationally exposed to ionising radiation 2023-02-11T02:15:54+00:00 André Rose William I.D. Rae Margaret A. Sweetlove Lumko Ngetu Mohamed A. Benadjaoud Wayne Marais <p><strong>Background:</strong> Occupational exposure to ionising radiation may have detrimental health effects. Longer and more complex fluoroscopic procedures have placed interventionalists at increased occupational health risks especially for developing cataracts in the radiosensitive lenses of the eyes.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> This study aimed to determine the prevalence of occupational related cataracts and describe the risk factors for cataracts in occupationally exposed interventionalists compared with unexposed doctors.<br><strong>Method:</strong> A cross-sectional study using multiple methods. A survey was conducted. The radiation workload was determined based on a self-administered questionnaire and dose area product values determined in previous studies. Both groups had slit lamp examinations. The data were analysed analytically using R software version 9.3.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The study included 98 interventionalists. The combined prevalence of posterior subcapsular (PSC) and cortical cataracts was 18.8% in the exposed and 13.9% in the unexposed group. The prevalence of PSC cataracts in the exposed group was 5.9% and 2.8% in the unexposed group, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58; 8.61). Posterior sub-capsular cataracts were more common in the left eye. The increase in cataracts was not statistically significant in the exposed group but is of clinical significance.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings are important as they highlight the need for greater vigilance for protecting the radiation healthcare workforce in a developing country setting.<br><strong>Contribution:</strong> The research is the first of its kind in South Africa and Africa and contributes to determining the prevalence in this highly skilled and occupationally vulnerable group.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Differentiation between various types and subtypes of intracranial meningiomas with advanced MRI 2023-02-11T02:18:50+00:00 Mousam Panigrahi Narendra K. Bodhey Saroj K. Pati Nighat Hussain Anil K. Sharma Arvind K. Shukla <p><strong>Background:</strong> Meningiomas are the most prevalent of all intracranial tumours. Although they are mostly benign, about 20% of meningiomas are atypical or malignant. Knowledge of their histologic grade can be clinically useful while planning surgery.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> To differentiate between various grades and subtypes of meningiomas with advanced MR parameters.<br><strong>Method:</strong> We assessed the advanced MR imaging characteristics of 27 histopathologically confirmed meningiomas on a 3T MRI, of which 23 were grade I meningiomas (2 fibroblastic, 9 meningothelial, 9 transitional, 3 unspecified) and 4 were grade II/III meningiomas (2 atypical, 1 papillary, 1 anaplastic). Analysis of the ADC, FA, λ1, λ2, λ3 and mean diffusivity was performed using standard post-processing software.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The mean size of atypical meningiomas (5.9 cm ± 0.7 cm) was significantly higher (p = 0.038, 95% confidence interval [CI]) than that of typical meningiomas (4.6 cm ± 1.6 cm) with a cut-off value of 6.05 cm (75% sensitivity and 87% specificity). The mean cerebral blood flow (CBF) (ASL) of atypical meningiomas (286.70 ± 8.06) was significantly higher (p = 0.0000141, 95% CI) than that of typical meningiomas (161.09 ± 87.04) with a cut-off value of 276.75 (66.7% sensitivity and 75% specificity). Among the typical meningiomas, transitional subtypes had the lowest ADC. High FA and planar coefficient (CP) values and low λ3 and spherical coefficient (CS) values were seen in fibroblastic meningiomas. Fibroblastic meningiomas also showed the lowest vascularity among typical meningiomas.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Tumour size and ASL perfusion are two parameters that could differentiate between typical and atypical meningiomas while ADC, FA, λ3, CP, CS, rCBF and rCBV may be helpful in distinguishing different subtypes of typical meningiomas.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Spontaneous bleeding in COVID-19: A retrospective experience of an Italian COVID-19 hospital 2023-02-11T02:25:49+00:00 Mirko Trentadue Plinio Calligaro Gianluigi Lazzarini Fabio Bonomi Boseggia Elena Residori Jennifer Hu Silvana Vanti Linda Lillo <p><strong>Background:</strong> Haemorrhages in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients require proper knowledge and management.<br><strong>Objectives:</strong> To highlight the characteristics of haemorrhages in patients with COVID-19 infection.<br><strong>Method:</strong> A retrospective study examined CT scans performed over a 13-month period in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 infection to determine those who developed spontaneous bleeding. The authors also investigated correlations between the bleeding events and the patients’ characteristics.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Haemorrhages occurred in 2.22% (31/1396) of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 infection (7.88%, 19/241 in the intensive care unit). Bleeding, major in most cases, occurred in anticoagulated patients, especially males with multiple comorbidities, aged between 60 and 79 years and mainly appeared in a single anatomical region (especially retroperitoneal), with the most voluminous in the chest wall. The complication was diagnosed on average 16.7 days after admission and occurred predominantly in critically ill patients undergoing invasive ventilation and pronation-supination cycles. In just under half of the cases, the haematomas were active, and in these cases, mainly with a single contrast blush and with earlier onset after the start of anticoagulation than in non-active bleeding. Major bleeding was also earlier in the presence of multiple morbidity. The vast majority of patients were treated conservatively and survived.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> At COVID-19 hospital centres, it is advisable that there is knowledge of such a complication for which CT imaging is essential for diagnosis and proper management. Although some authors have expressed doubts about anticoagulant treatment in patients with COVID-19, the bleeding complication in this study did not significantly affect the outcome.<br><strong>Contribution:</strong> Spontaneous haemorrhage did not significantly affect the outcome in this series.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 A review of teleradiology in Africa – Towards mobile teleradiology in Nigeria 2023-02-11T02:28:20+00:00 Mohammed Y. Tahir Maurice Mars Richard E. Scott <p>eHealth is promoted as a means to strengthen health systems and facilitate universal health coverage. Sub-components (e.g. telehealth, telemedicine, mhealth) are seen as mitigators of healthcare provider shortages and poor rural and remote access. Teleradiology (including mobile teleradiology), widespread in developed nations, is uncommon in developing nations. Decision- and policy-makers require evidence to inform their decisions regarding implementation of mobile teleradiology in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan countries. To gather evidence, Scopus and PubMed were searched using defined search strings (September 2020). Duplicates were removed, and titles and abstracts reviewed using specified selection criteria. Full-text papers of selected resources were retrieved and reviewed against the criteria. Insight from included studies was charted for eight a priori categories of information: needs assessment, implementation, connectivity, evaluation, costing, image display, image capture and concordance. Fifty-seven articles were identified, duplicates removed and titles and abstracts of remaining articles reviewed against study criteria. Twenty-six papers remained. After review of full-texts, ten met the study criteria. These were summarised, and key insights for the eight categories were charted. Few papers have been published on teleradiology in sub-Saharan Africa. Teleradiology, including mobile teleradiology, is feasible in sub-Saharan Africa for routine X-ray support of patients and healthcare providers in rural and remote locations. Former technical issues (image quality, transmission speed, image compression) have been largely obviated through the high-speed, high-resolution digital imaging and network transmission capabilities of contemporary smartphones and mobile networks, where accessible. Comprehensive studies within the region are needed to guide the widespread introduction of mobile teleradiology.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Spinal Chloroma – Herald of blast crisis in a patient with chronic myeloid leukaemia: A case report 2023-02-11T02:31:13+00:00 Stuti Chandola M. Sarthak Swarup Radhika Batra Alpana Manchanda <p>Myeloid sarcoma or chloroma is a localised tumour characterised by extramedullary proliferation of precursor myeloid cells. Commonly occurring in association with acute myeloid leukaemia, chloroma can occasionally be seen in myeloproliferative disorders with subsequent blastic transformation. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and evaluation of this entity. A case of chloroma involving the dorso-lumbar vertebral region is presented in a patient with chronic myeloid leukaemia with subsequent blastic transformation.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 A case of carotid web: Cause of stroke in healthy and young patients 2023-02-11T02:33:31+00:00 Sanjay M. Khaladkar Darshana Dilip Rahul Arkar Vijetha Chanabasanavar Purnachandra Lamghare <p>Carotid webs are important, often undiagnosed causes of cryptogenic and recurrent strokes. CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography adequately demonstrate webs as linear filling defects in the carotid bulb. However, findings are overlooked unless viewed in optimal planes and easily misdiagnosed as dissection flaps or atheromatous plaques, altering management and outcome. A case of unilateral carotid web is presented, detected during imaging in a young lady presenting with hemiparesis without other risk factors for stroke.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Otosyphilis: A rare cause of acute bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a HIV-negative patient 2023-02-11T02:36:11+00:00 Johan Sothmann Shaun Adam Gideon van Tonder Razaan Davis Leon Janse van Rensburg <p>Bilateral acute hearing loss is rare, and the aetiology is poorly defined. Less common treatable pathologies such as otosyphilis must be part of the differential diagnosis and should be actively excluded. We present a case of a 23-year-old woman who developed acute bilateral hearing loss due to otosyphilis, confirmed on audiometry and laboratory tests. In this article, the CT, MRI and clinical findings are presented and discussed.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Primary giant cell tumour of the breast with recurrence: A rare case report 2023-02-11T02:38:22+00:00 Farhana E. Suleman Moipone N. Vilakazi Meshack Bida Richard Edwards <p>Giant cell tumour (GCT) arising from the soft tissues of the breast is a rare disease with only eight cases previously reported in the literature. We present a case of histologically proven GCT of the breast, which demonstrated recurrence a few months after resection.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Sellar spine: A rare Bony variant of the Sella Turcica 2023-02-11T03:16:42+00:00 Luke D. Metelo-Liquito Thandi E. Buthelezi <p>A sellar spine is a rare osseous projection from the dorsum sellae, resulting in variable compression of sellar and suprasellar structures and varied clinical presentations. CT is the diagnostic modality of choice, while variable signal intensity on MRI may mimic a pituitary microadenoma. A patient presented with hypoprolactinaemia and puerperal alactogenesis due to a sellar spine diagnosed on CT Brain. Neurosurgical and endocrine review and pituitary MRI were recommended with subsequent loss to follow-up.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Diagnosing rare intraductal biliary neoplasms – Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct: A case report with typical imaging findings 2023-02-11T02:43:19+00:00 Saumya Pandey Nitin Agarwal Vidushi Gupta Ashok Sharma Anil Aggarwal Sunita Gupta Ram Krishan <p>Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPN-B) is a rare preinvasive intraductal pathology of the biliary tract. It should be differentiated from other more common benign or malignant causes of biliary obstruction and dilatation such as calculi or cholangiocarcinoma because the management and prognosis of this condition differs significantly. This case report describes a case of IPN-B in a 45-year-old female patient who presented with non-specific complaints of chronic abdominal pain without jaundice for three months.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Cervical extension of pancreatic pseudocyst: An unusual cause of neck stiffness and dysphagia 2023-02-11T02:45:35+00:00 Sneha C Harish Rashmi Dixit Sapna Singh Anjali Prakash <p>Pancreatic pseudocyst is a common complication that can occur following acute or chronic pancreatitis. Commonly, they are peripancreatic in location. Rarely, they can extend to the mediastinum, and further extension to the neck is even rarer. A 55-year-old man who presented with neck stiffness and dysphagia and on imaging, was found to have a cystic lesion in the neck. Aspiration of the lesion revealed raised amylase levels suggestive of a pancreatic pseudocyst.&nbsp;</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Factor XIII deficiency in a neonate presenting as subpial haemorrhage 2023-02-11T02:47:38+00:00 Monish G. Karthikeyan Poojitha Ronda Prabhu C. Sugumaran <p>Subpial haemorrhage is a rare cause of seizures in term neonates. A 3-day-old male infant, born at term with no history of perinatal hypoxia, presented with seizures and unremarkable physical examination in the interictal state. Imaging demonstrated left temporal subpial haemorrhage with the classic ‘yin-yang sign’ on MRI. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with factor XIII deficiency. Follow-up at 6 months and 12 months revealed encephalomalacia in the previous haemorrhagic areas with normal developmental milestones.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 A rare case of tuberous sclerosis complex-associated renal cell carcinoma 2023-02-11T02:50:29+00:00 Humphrey Mapuranga Bianca Douglas-Jones Danelo du Plessis Camilla E. le Roux Christel du Buisson Shahida Moosa <p>Renal cell carcinoma is rarely described in paediatric patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. This report describes a case of an 11-year-old male with tuberous sclerosis-associated renal cell carcinoma.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 A case report of multinodular hepatic steatosis mimicking pseudotumors of the liver 2023-02-11T02:53:28+00:00 Pavel Burko Nitin Juggath Ruslan Iliasov Mariya Fedorova Natalia Nazarova <p>Fatty liver disease (FLD) is a common, benign pathology often found incidentally. We present a clinical case in which metastatic liver disease was suspected on initial imaging studies. Following further investigations, a diagnosis of ‘non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), multinodular type’ was postulated. Subsequent histology confirmed the presence of liver steatosis. Multinodular type hepatic steatosis is a rare, but clinically important pathology to identify and differentiate from other multifocal lesions of the liver parenchyma.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 A lumpy bumpy stomach: The more the murkier 2023-02-11T02:56:20+00:00 Binit Sureka Siddhi Chawla Sudeep Khera Ashish Agarwal Chhagan L. Birda Sandeep Bairwa <p>This report describes the radiological and endoscopic findings in a 54-year-old male who presented with epigastric pain. The patient underwent an upper gastrointestinal (GI) barium study followed by axial imaging, which demonstrated nodular gastric wall thickening. The classic findings of aggressive primary gastric diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma are presented with a brief review differentiating the pathological subtypes, important for patient prognostication and planning of therapy.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 A case of leiomyosarcoma of the ovarian vein with obstructive uropathy and hepatic metastasis 2023-02-11T03:01:28+00:00 Satvik Dhirawani Rajesh Kuber Karthik Mohanan Tejvir Singh Sanjay M. Khaladkar <p>Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a smooth muscle-derived malignant mesenchymal tumour. Primary LMS arising from the ovarian vein is uncommon. A 51-year-old female presented with left loin pain and was diagnosed with a LMS arising from the gonadal vein. The patient refused any treatment. Early detection and timely diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses will improve the prognosis and survival rate in these patients. CT imaging plays an important role in diagnosis.<br>Contribution: Retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma of vascular origin is a rare entity. CT plays crucial role in diagnosing them by demonstrating the extent of the tumor along the gonadal vein. Early detection and timely diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses will improve the prognosis and survival rate in these patients.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Revisiting the forgotten remnant: Imaging spectrum of Meckel’s diverticulum 2023-02-11T03:03:52+00:00 Manish Kumar Priya Singh Priti Kumari Rohit Kaushik <p>Meckel’s diverticulum is a true diverticulum of the alimentary tract occurring resulting from the persistence of remnants of the vitello-intestinal duct. They are often asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed during surgery. Complications such as intestinal obstruction, diverticulitis, intestinal haemorrhage and perforation may occur with Meckel’s diverticulum, which renders them symptomatic. The clinical and imaging diagnosis of Meckel’s diverticulum is very challenging. As a result of the rare occurrence of complicated Meckel’s diverticulum and the difficult preoperative diagnosis, knowledge of its imaging features is limited. The presented case series describes a spectrum of complications caused by Meckel’s diverticulum and its CT imaging features. It highlights the importance of a high clinical suspicion by carefully searching for a Meckel’s diverticulum on CT in its characteristic location to avoid missing it preoperatively.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Scar endometriosis: Looking beyond the diagnosis - A case series 2023-02-11T03:06:18+00:00 Stuti Chandola Anju Garg <p>Scar endometriosis usually affects the abdominal wall or the perineum. Virtually all cases are linked with some form of surgical manipulation. Although the clinical diagnosis of scar endometriosis may be straightforward with classical symptomology, imaging with ultrasound and MRI are important for the determination of its extent, which is imperative for adequate preoperative planning. In addition, assessment of perineal scar endometriosis also requires the identification of anal sphincter complex involvement, which can significantly impact the surgical approach. Radiology plays a vital role in its diagnosis in atypical clinical scenarios.<br>Contribution: This series of four cases describes the morphology and highlights the importance of imaging in the surgical management of scar endometriosis; three with abdominal wall involvement and one with the involvement of perineum.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Imaging of the neurological manifestations of dengue: A case series 2023-02-11T03:08:20+00:00 Varsha Rangankar Divyajat Kumar Rajesh Kuber Tushar Kalekar <p>Dengue fever, the most common arboviral tropical disease, has shown a rapid increase in incidence over the last few decades. Increasing evidence of the various neurological manifestations in dengue has been documented in the literature. Patients positive for dengue on serology and with neurological manifestations were analysed and included in the present case series and brief review. The cases reveal a spectrum of neurological findings in dengue infection and include dengue haemorrhagic encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES), intracranial haematoma, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), with a focus on the relevant imaging features.<br>Contribution: The present case series emphasises the importance of understanding the relevant imaging findings and potential aetiopathogenesis of neurological involvement in dengue infected patients in order to make the correct diagnosis for effective treatment and improved outcome.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Case discussions of missed traumatic fractures on computed tomography scans 2023-02-11T03:10:45+00:00 Amy J. Spies Maryna Steyn Desiré Brits Daniel N. Prince <p>Radiological diagnostic errors are common and may have severe consequences. Understanding these errors and their possible causes is crucial for optimising patient care and improving radiological training. Recent postmortem studies using an animal model highlighted the difficulties associated with accurate fracture diagnosis using radiological imaging. The present study aimed to highlight the fact that certain fractures are easily missed on CT scans in a clinical setting and that caution is advised. A few such cases were discussed to raise the level of suspicion to prevent similar diagnostic errors in future cases. Records of adult patients from the radiological department at an academic hospital in South Africa were retrospectively reviewed. Case studies were selected by identifying records of patients between January and June 2021 where traumatic fractures were missed during initial imaging interpretation but later detected during secondary analysis or on follow-up scans. Seven cases were identified, and the possible causes of the diagnostic errors were evaluated by reviewing the history of each case, level of experience of each reporting radiologist, scan quality and time of day that initial imaging interpretation of each scan was performed. The causes were multifactorial, potentially including a lack of experience, fatigue, heavy workloads or inadequate training of the initial reporting radiologist. Identifying these causes, openly discussing them and providing additional training for radiologists may aid in reducing these errors.<br>Contribution: This article aimed to use case examples of missed injuries on CT scanning of patients in a South African emergency trauma setting in order to highlight and provide insight into common errors in scan interpretation, their causes and possible means of mitigating them.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Corrigendum: Radiology subspecialisation in Africa: A review of the current status 2023-02-11T03:13:13+00:00 Efosa P. Iyawe Bukunmi M. Idowu Olasubomi J. Omoleye <p>No Abstract.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 ‘Techtorial’: Changing paradigms 2023-02-11T01:18:25+00:00 Maya Patel <p>No Abstract.</p> 2023-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0