"Black gold" grade12-learners: relationship between leisure/sport and satisfaction with life

  • Stefan Kruger
  • Energy Sonono
Keywords: Leisure, Sport, "Black gold", Satisfaction with life, Holiday, Rural townships, Structural Equation Model


There tends to be an increase in scholarly literature regarding the leisure and sport participation of high school learners. However, in the South African context there are many black high school learners within townships who might not have access to leisure/recreation and sport facilities. "Black gold" (based on ethnicity and different cultural backgrounds), refers to black Grade 12 learners from a diverse group of South Africans. This study aimed to determine whether "black gold" leisure and sport participation during a previous holiday influenced their satisfaction with life. Questionnaires were used and 288 were completed. An Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) on attitude towards and viewpoint on leisure and sport activities, as well as leisure and sport benefits after participation during a previous school holiday resulted in two factors. The highest means belonged to physical/mental health aspects and physical benefits. Satisfaction with life (SWL) was identified as a single factor. Positive medium to high correlations were achieved between the factors. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) revealed that statistical significant relationships exist between attitude towards and viewpoint on leisure and sport, leisure and sport benefits and satisfaction with life. Overall, a good model fit was achieved.

Key words: Leisure; Sport; "Black gold"; Satisfaction with life; Holiday; Rural townships; Structural Equation Model.


Journal Identifiers

print ISSN: 0379-9069