Two-year changes in body composition, physical activity and selected metabolic risk factors among adolescents living in Tlokwe Municipality Area, North West Province, South Africa: the Pahl study
The increase of childhood obesity in low- to middle-income countries is linked to both individual and clustered metabolic risk factors. This study determined the changes, after two years, in body composition, physical activity (PA) and selected metabolic risk factors among adolescents from the Tlokwe Municipality district in the North West Province of South Africa. A total of 289 adolescents (boys=116; girls=173) aged 14 years participated in the study. Body composition was measured according to the ISAK standard procedures. PA level was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short version (IPAQ-S). Abdominal obesity was determined using waist circumference measurements (WC) and resting BP. Overweight increased by 7.6% and was higher among the girls (12.2%) compared to the boys (2.2%), (p≤0.001). Participation in low physical activity (LPA) increased by 8.2% for the whole group and moderate PA decreased (15.2%). With regard to the metabolic risk factors, boys had significantly higher WC at every measurement point (p≤0.001) compared to girls. The percentage in the pre-hypertensive/ hypertensive category increased (5%) and was greater for girls than boys (p≤0.001). The girls were more overweight, obese and less physically active. The boys had greater waist circumference and SBP compared to the girls.
Keywords: Obesity; Body composition; Physical activity; Metabolic risk factors; Adolescents