South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation

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Okulere motoriese beheer funksies en visueel-motoriese integrasie status van n geselekteerde groep 6- tot 8- jarige leerders met ADHD

Yolanda Van Wyk, Anita E Pienaar, Dané Coetzee


The aim of the study was to determine, as ascertained by ocular motor control functions and visual-motor integration, what the nature and scope of visual-motor problems are in 6- to 8-year-old learners with ADHD. Fifty-seven learners (32 boys and 25 girls) were divided into an ADHD group (n=39, mean age 6.95 years) and a group without ADHD (n=18, mean age 7.11 years). The Sensory Input Systems Screening Test and Quick Neurological Screening Test II (QNST-II) were used to evaluate ocular motor control and the Beery Visual-Motor Integration Test (VMI 4th ed. was used to evaluate visual motor integration, motor coordination and visual perception. Two-way frequency tables were used to determine the relationship between ADHD and ocular motor control functions, while an independent t-test (p<0.05) was used to analyse group differences. Practical significance of differences between groups was established with effect sizes (d>0.5). The results confirmed more ocular motor control problems among learners with ADHD, especially in visual tracking and convergence-divergence. The visual perception (p<0.05; d=0.37) and motor coordination (p<0.05; d=0.49) of the groups differed significantly, where the group with ADHD obtained lower scores. The learners with ADHD experienced problems with ocular motor control, fine motor control and visual perception which should be rectified by intervention.

Keywords: ADHD; Ocular motor control; Eye muscles; Visual-motor integration (VMI); Motor coordination; Visual perception

South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 2012, 34(2): 215-226

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