South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 2021-10-07T09:43:03+00:00 Prof Hanlie Moss Open Journal Systems <em>Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Navorsing in Sport, Liggaamlike Opvoedkunde en Ontspanning</em> / <em>The </em><em>South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation </em>is published by the Southern African Alliance for Sport Science, Physical Education and Recreation. Contributions from the fields of Sport Science, Movement Education, Recreation/Leisure Studies, Exercise Science and Dance Studies will be considered for publication. The articles submitted will be administered by the appropriate Review Editor and evaluated by two or more referees. <p>This journal's own homepage: <a href="" target="_blank"></a> </p> Incidence of injury in South African male youth footballers from an elite football academy 2021-10-07T08:10:49+00:00 Muhammad A. Dawood Karien Mostert Michelle J. Bester <p>The incidence and characteristics of injury within a population of South African male youth football players from an elite academy was determined. A cross-sectional epidemiological study design including 63 male youth footballers, aged 14-19 years, selected for the squad of an elite South African academy for the 2017 football season. A pre-season baseline demographic questionnaire was administered. All injuries were recorded throughout the 2017 competitive season using the FIFA F-MARC Injury Questionnaire. The total injury incidence was 36.4 injuries per 1000 exposure-hours. Match and training incidences were 39.6 and 34.7 injuries per 1000 exposure-hours respectively. The Under-17 team recorded the highest injury incidence, with the Under-19 team recording the lowest. Injuries most commonly occurred in the lower leg and ankle with contusions and muscle strains/ruptures being the most common. The majority of match injuries occurred due to contact with another player and most training injuries were overuse injuries. Age and previous football academy experience did not influence injury incidence in this population. Further research on larger study populations is required to determine if these results are representative of the South African elite male youth football population.</p> 2021-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Athletic identity and moral disengagement in doping 2021-10-07T08:19:32+00:00 Çağdaş Caz Ali Hasaan Sait Bardakçi Recep F. Kayhan <p>The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between athletic identity of athletes and their moral disengagement in doping. Also determined was whether athletic identity has an impact on athletes’ moral disengagement in doping. Comparisons of athletic identity and moral disengagement scores of the athletes for some variables was included. Athletic Identity Scale and Moral Disengagement in Doping Scale were completed by 364 Turkish athletes. The average age of the sample was 20.99±4.29 years. The average of the answers given to the scale items, Athletic Identify and Moral Disengagement scores were calculated. Path analysis was used and the t-test and ANOVA were applied for intergroup comparisons. The average exclusivity scores of male athletes were significantly higher than that of female athletes. It was determined that professional athletes’ social identity and exclusivity average scores are significantly higher and more meaningful than amateur athletes. The path analysis revealed that the social identity perceived by the athletes has a positive and statistically significant effect on moral disengagement in doping. In addition, the exclusivity perceived by athletes has a negative and significant effect on moral disengagement. Athletic identity and moral disengagement in doping differ according to gender, age, sport level and sport age.</p> 2021-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Analysis of perceptions of Turkish fans of video-assistant-referees in elite soccer 2021-10-07T08:38:50+00:00 Ali Hasaan Sait Bardakçi Mücahit Fişne <p>There has been considerable investment in the use of technology to ensure better accuracy of referees’ decisions in several areas of sports. Video-assistant-referee (VAR) system in football is one of them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fans’ opinions of VAR. A quantitative survey was conducted among 1019 football fans for their opinions on the effects of VAR on football. The final instrument used had five factors and 16 items. The construct validity of the 5-factor scale designed to measure the opinions of Turkish football fans on the VAR system, was examined using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Five effects of VAR on football was identified: four positive (competition, referee performance, justice, fair play) and one negative (passion killing). The results indicated that VAR increases the competitiveness between teams, helps referees feel less pressured due to the assistance of VAR and reduces the effect of human error. Fans believe that VAR brought justice and fair play to football, as VAR decision-making does not discriminate. The results of the study can help sports organisations present a better image of VAR after knowing positive and negative views of fans.</p> 2021-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Anxiety of students practising competitive sports: Part of a vicious circle, or not? 2021-10-07T08:52:43+00:00 Corina Pantea Serban Gligor Mihaela Oravitan <p>The main objective of this study was to assess the presence and the level of anxiety in the case of students who practise competitive sports. There were 102 participants (27 females and 75 males) who were selected from within the students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports. At that time, all the students were practising sports at professional level. The Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) was applied and the results showed that the average level of anxiety in the group was low. It was not related to the athletes' experience or to the competition level, but to gender and/or type of sports. The female athletes presented a significantly higher level of anxiety (p=0.0011), and the athletes who practise individual sports were also more anxious compared to those who practise team sports (p=0.0355). Those involved in training performance athletes should apply specific methods of lowering anxiety, particularly, to these categories. When the anxiety level has a negative effect on one or more aspects of athletic performance, is the moment when anxiety steps into the vicious circle.</p> 2021-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Observational practice intervention for improving visual search behaviour, quiet eye and motor performance in children with autism spectrum disorder 2021-10-07T09:00:37+00:00 Brandon S. Shaw Souri Heidari Afkham Daneshfar Ali Abasskhanian Mahmoud Sheikh <p>Since autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that is considered a major emerging public health issue, this study investigated the effect of observational practice on visual search behaviour, quiet eye and motor performance in overarm throwing skills in children with and without ASD. Children aged 7-10 years with and without ASD were matched for gender and randomly assigned into an experimental group (EG) with children with ASD (n=10; 8 boys and 2 girls), control group (CG) with children with ASD (n=10; 7 boys and 3 girls); EG with children without ASD (n=10; 7 boys and 3 girls) or CG with children without ASD (n=10; 7 boys and 3 girls). While all groups were homogenous at pre-test, results indicated that both EGs that performed visual exercises were found to have significant (p&lt;0.05) improvements in throwing accuracy, visual search behaviour and duration of quiet eye. No such improvements were found in both CGs at the conclusion of the study. Visual exercises could be a useful tool to improve motor learning in children with ASD in school- and physical therapy settings, and may be used to improve speech/language skills, and social communication skills in children with ASD.</p> 2021-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effect of image feedback by drones on elementary school students’ satisfaction with after-school soccer classes 2021-10-07T09:13:10+00:00 Jae Eun Shin Junga Lee Hee Chan Kim Hyun Suk Lee <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of video feedback using drones on elementary students’ satisfaction with after-school soccer classes and to verify the effectiveness of teaching and learning using drones to improve the quality of physical education (PE) instruction. Participants were fourth-grade boys (n=90) attending after-school soccer classes from three elementary schools in Seoul, South Korea. Participants were divided into an Experimental Group (image feedback group using drones), a comparative group (image feedback group using mobile phones) and a Control Group (oral feedback group). All groups underwent the same four lessons on each school day. The independent variables of this study were the three groups listed above. The dependent variable was learners’ satisfaction level. This study examined students’ educational, physical and psychological satisfaction. The results revealed that the group to receive image feedback using drones had higher educational, physical and psychological satisfaction than did the groups that received image feedback using mobile phones or oral feedback [F(2.89)=25.900, p&lt;0.001]. Drones provide wide and high images from various angles to provide novel visual feedback. PE classes would benefit from utilising drones more often as the images provided promote students’ satisfaction with PE.</p> 2021-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effects of creeping exercise on upper limb strength 2021-10-07T09:19:05+00:00 Maya Dolenec Petra Prevc Vedrana Sember Rok Fratina Katja Tomazin <p>This study determined the influence of creeping exercise on the strength and endurance of the upper body. A total of 32 young football players were divided into an experimental (EXP) and a control group (CON). The EXP group included 17 boys&nbsp; (11.6±0.6years), while the CON group included 15 boys (10.5±1.1years). Upper body strength and endurance were measured by five motor performance tests: push-ups, pull-ups, pulling and pushing on a bench and a complex creeping exercise ("driving a wheelbarrow"). Strength training consisted of a creeping exercise (6 weeks, 2-3 sets, 2-3 times a week, 10-15 minutes). The EXP group improved their performance in push-ups and pull-ups by ~90% (p&lt;0.05) and ~26% (p&lt;0.05), respectively. No significant differences were observed when pulling or pushing on the bench, while the EXP group improved performance scores in "driving a wheelbarrow" by ~13% (p&lt;0.01). For the CON group, motor tests either remained unchanged or decreased. A significantly lower number of repetitions (~20%; p&lt;0.05) was achieved only for pull-ups. Creeping exercises improved the results in the selected upper body strength and motor performance tests. This improvement could be attributed to changes in the neural mechanisms of muscular force generation in the shoulder girdle and trunk.</p> 2021-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Implementation of a teaching model of postmodern physical education 2021-10-07T09:23:05+00:00 Wei-Yuan Shih Yih-Lih Pu Tu-Kuang Ho <p>This study aimed to explore 12-year-old sixth-grade students’ learning outcomes in the context of beliefs of pluralism, innovation, criticism, and reflection after implementing the Teaching Model of Postmodern Physical Education (TPPE). This quasi-experimental study included teaching observations and semi-structured interviews. The pre- and post-test scores were significantly different in the experimental group. The post-test scores showed an improvement in the scores for pluralism, innovation, criticism and reflection. Analysis of covariance showed that after adjustments, the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variables were significantly different for the post-test scores of pluralism, innovation, criticism and reflection in both the experimental and control groups, with better scores in the experimental group than in the control group. Both the teaching observation journals and student interview records received positive feedback and affirmation. Thus, TPPE could be an effective way to enhance the learning process in this population.</p> 2021-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Does foot posture influence plantar pressure? 2021-10-07T09:31:10+00:00 Deniz Simsek Elvin O. Gungor Gulcan Harput Günay Yildizer Berfin S. Ors <p>This study compared plantar pressure distribution among asymptomatic individuals with pes rectus, pes cavus and pes planus feet during walking. Feet were divided into three groups based on the arch index (AI) values: Pes cavus (n=38); Pes rectus (n=72); Pes planus (n=62). Force time integral (FTI), maximal force (MF), peak pressure(PP), pressure-time integral (PTI), contact time (CT), contact area (CA), and maximum force normalised to body weight[MF(%BW)] were evaluated for each part of the foot and total foot during barefoot walking. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. Peak pressure at the 5th metatarsophalangeal joints (MTPJs) in the pes planus foot group was lower compared to the pes rectus and pes cavus foot groups. The pes planus group displayed increased MF and CA in the middle foot while walking compared to the pes rectus and pes cavus groups(p&lt;0.05). When compared to pes rectus and planus feet, cavus feet displayed higher pressure in the hind foot and lateral forefoot and lower PP, MF and CA in the midfoot (p&lt;0.05). High and low arch structures display different plantar pressure characteristics that may be linked to lower extremity injuries. When designing a prophylactic exercise programme for asymptomatic individuals, foot types and associated pressure characteristics should be considered.</p> 2021-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Screening and comparison of elite male and female soccer players for ecg changes associated with sudden cardiac death 2021-10-07T09:38:30+00:00 Rahman Soori Bahar Hashemi Ali Akbar Nezhad Gharehlo Parisa Pournemati Ina Shaw Narges Hashemi <p>Young athletes are twice as prone to sudden cardiac death (SCD) when compared to young non-athletes. The paper aimed to determine the differences in ECG changes between elite male and female soccer players and how ECG changes can be used to predict the possibility of SCD. In this cross-sectional study, 148 elite soccer players (77 men, 71 women), 14-21 years, were randomly selected. Following the anthropometric measurements, an ECG was used to determine the parameters related to sudden death. The American Heart Association questionnaire (AHA) was used to determine the demographic information and health history of participants. Related to normal ECG findings, a significant difference was found between genders for right ventricular hypertrophy, sinus bradycardia and sinus arrhythmia. Increased QRS voltage and early repolarisation/ST-segment elevation were seen only in men. Related to incomplete Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB), no significant differences were observed between genders in terms of T wave inversion in V1-V3, ectopic atrial or junctional rhythm, and 1°AV (atrioventricular) node block. Related to abnormal ECG findings, there were significant differences between genders for T wave inversion and T wave inversion local. Using an ECG during screening and check-ups is vital for all soccer players</p> 2021-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)