South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 2022-09-24T01:54:41+00:00 Prof Hanlie Moss Open Journal Systems <em>Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Navorsing in Sport, Liggaamlike Opvoedkunde en Ontspanning</em> / <em>The </em><em>South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation </em>is published by the Southern African Alliance for Sport Science, Physical Education and Recreation. Contributions from the fields of Sport Science, Movement Education, Recreation/Leisure Studies, Exercise Science and Dance Studies will be considered for publication. The articles submitted will be administered by the appropriate Review Editor and evaluated by two or more referees. <p>This journal's own homepage: <a href="" target="_blank"></a> </p> Associations between body mass index, physical activity and socio-economic status in Zimbabwean adolescents 2022-09-24T01:34:55+00:00 Khanyile Dlamini Jeanne M. Grace <p>Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) continue to be a global public health challenge for both developed and low and middle-income countries, with inactivity, overweight and obesity contributing to mortality. The study aimed to determine the body mass index (BMI), objectively measured physical activity (PA) levels, and socio-economic status (SES) of Zimbabwean adolescents and to establish the associations between their BMI and their PA and SES, and between their PA and their SES. Participants (N=126) aged 12−19 years were included in the study. BMI was classified according to the WHO BMI z-scores. Participants’ PA levels were measured with a pedometer. SES was determined with the Family Affluence Scale III. The groups’ mean BMI was 20.45 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, with 18.9% of the females and 11.5% of the males being overweight. The groups’ mean average number of steps taken per day for seven days was 9 459, and their SES was classified as low. The association between the males, females and groups’ BMI with their PA levels was insignificant, negative and weak. There was a significant positive, weak association between BMI and SES for the males (r = 0.289; p &lt; 0.05) and the group (r = 0.227; p &lt; 0.05). The association between the females' PA and their SES was significant, negative and weak (r = -0.338; p &lt; 0.05) with a significant, negative and moderate association between the males’ PA and their SES (r = -0.448; p &lt; 0.05). The higher the participants' BMI, the higher their SES, and the higher their PA levels, the lower their SES.</p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Isokinetic knee muscle strength asymmetry in university sweep rowers 2022-09-24T01:37:31+00:00 Leon Lategan Kirsten S. Nolan <p>The prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in sweep rowing is high. As nearly 50% of power during sweep rowing is contributed by the legs, the presence of muscle imbalances may predispose rowers to overuse injuries. The purpose of the study was to assess knee muscle strength symmetry between dominant and non-dominant limbs of male and female rowers. A descriptive, quantitative research design was used. Twenty-four male and 13 female rowers aged 18–26 years participated. Bilateral isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque and hamstrings/quadriceps (H/Q) ratios were assessed at 60°/s and 180°/s using an isokinetic dynamometer. The data was analysed using Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon rank tests and significance was set at p≤0.05. In males, the dominant knee extension torque values at 60°/s and 180°/s were significantly larger than that of the non-dominant side (p≤0.05). In females, the non-dominant eccentric H/Q ratio at 60°/s was 15% larger than that of the dominant side (p=0.019). Bilateral differences observed in knee extension torque for males and in H/Q ratio for females highlight the need for isokinetic testing of sweep rowers, to improve performance and prevent injury.</p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effect of proprioceptive and strength exercises on calf muscle endurance, balance and ankle angle applied: Latin dancers 2022-09-24T01:40:35+00:00 Meriç Ödemiş Yeliz Pinar Bergun M. Bingul Cigdem Bulgan Ercin <p>The aim of the study was to examine the effect of proprioceptive and strength exercises applied in addition to dance exercises on the endurance of calf muscles, balance and ankle angles. Participants were randomly divided into two groups as Training Group (n=14; 7 males, 7 females) and Control Group (n=13; 7 males, 6 females). The training group performed a 12-week training programme that included proprioceptive and strength exercises twice a week, just before dance training. Anthropometric measures, static-dynamic balance tests, single heel rise test and 3D kinematic tests were conducted. When the groups were compared, significant changes were observed in the double leg dynamic balance values of the training group, right leg dynamic balance values of the control group, and left leg dynamic balance values of both groups (p&lt;0.05). When ankle angles were compared, the first single heel rise and angle of movement of the last single heel rise values of the training group differed significantly (p&lt;0.05). The balance performance and calf muscle endurance of the dancers can be improved with proprioceptive and strength training, which can contribute positively to movements during the dance.</p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) An experiential learning-teaching model in recreation studies: reflections on implementation 2022-09-24T01:43:29+00:00 Cornelia Schreck Theron Weilbach Gerda Reitsma <p>The recreation profession is a fast-growing, diverse, career field, creating unique challenges for academic institutions in preparing students. Not all the skills and competencies (graduate attributes) needed by entry-level recreation professionals can be achieved through academic curricula in classroom settings. Experiential learning pedagogy may address these challenges for recreation education. The Twin-Cycle Experiential Learning model (TCELM) can incorporate field- and classroom-based experiential learning into degree programmes. The purpose of this article is to investigate the experience of students in a recreation module that implemented an adapted TCELM. A holistic single-case is reported with qualitative data including student reflections, lecturer reflections and focus group interviews, subject to inductive coding. The merit of both cycles of the TCELM in student learning was examined. Group work and time management were two factors identified that may challenge the implementation of experiential learning. However, both these factors contribute to the development of essential skills for the workplace. It was concluded that the adapted TCELM is practically implementable within a recreation module at a higher education institution. However, attention should be given to student expectations, active learning opportunities and the time spent on experiential learning activities.</p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Comparison of intensity markers and cardiorespiratory responses in measuring maximum oxygen consumption between a non-motorised and motorised treadmill protocol 2022-09-24T01:46:41+00:00 Jana Storm Martinique Sparks Yolandi Willemse <p>The objective was to compare cardiorespiratory parameters between two graded exercise protocols to determine which one is most appropriate for training prescription for male university level distance runners. The graded exercise tests, namely the Adapted Incremental Speed Protocol (AISP), and the Adapted Non-Motorised Incremental Speed Protocol (ANMIP) was used to compare several cardiorespiratory responses, as well as two intensity markers: the ventilatory threshold (VT) and the respiratory compensation point (RCP). The maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O<sub>2max</sub>) value of the ANMIP significantly (p&lt;0.05) exceeded that of the AISP within a significantly (p&lt;0.05) shorter time frame (8:19±0:52 vs. 11:25±1:11min). The percentage of V̇O<sub>2max</sub> where VT and RCP were attained, was significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) on the ANMIP (84.11±4.25 vs. 97.16±2.35%) compared to the AISP (75.74±7.84 vs. 93.3±3.86%). Consequently, the ANMIP is perceived substantially more difficult, both physiologically and psychologically. It can therefore be considered an ideal training tool to intensify exercise load with more time efficient training sessions for a distance running population. However, the obtained V̇O<sub>2max</sub> results during the ANMIP could overestimate exercise prescriptions and should therefore not be used for these purposes.</p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Which type of physical activity should be recommended in childhood obesity considering vertebral curves and motor skills? exercise or sports? 2022-09-24T01:49:19+00:00 Zehra Güçhan Topcu Özlem Ülger <p>This paper aims to compare the effects of functional exercises and basketball training on forward head posture, lumbar hyperlordosis, and motor skills of 45 obese children aged 10 years with forward head posture and hyperlordosis. The children were randomly included to the functional exercise, basketball and control groups for 12 weeks. The angles of lumbar lordosis and craniovertebral were recorded as biomechanical variables. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency - Brief Form (BOTMP-BF) was used to determine motor skills of the children. Forty-two children completed the study. All groups had similar angles for lumbar lordosis after 12 weeks (p&gt;0.05), whereas craniovertebral angle significantly decreased in the control group only (p&lt;0.05). Both functional exercise and basketball were effective in improving speed and agility. There was a statistically significant increase in the total BOTMP-BF score of the functional exercise group (p&lt;0.001). Both types of physical activity may be a way of managing the progression of forward head posture, whereas they did not affect lumbar posture. Functional exercises and basketball affected different aspects of motor skills.</p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Information for Authors 2022-09-24T01:53:08+00:00 Hanlie Moss <p>The South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation is published by the North-West University, Potchefstroom. Contributions from the fields of Sport Science, Physical Education, Recreation/Leisure Studies, Exercise Science and Dance Studies will be considered for publication. The articles submitted will be administered by the appropriate Subject Review Editor and evaluated by two or more referees. The decision as to whether a particular article is to be published or not, rests with the Editorial Board.</p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)