South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation <p><em>Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Navorsing in Sport, Liggaamlike Opvoedkunde en Ontspanning</em> / <em>The </em><em>South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation </em>is published by the Southern African Alliance for Sport Science, Physical Education and Recreation. Contributions from the fields of Sport Science, Movement Education, Recreation/Leisure Studies, Exercise Science and Dance Studies will be considered for publication. The articles submitted will be administered by the appropriate Review Editor and evaluated by two or more referees. </p> <p>This journal's own homepage: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>Content published in and after 2023 will now be freely accessible for this title. </p> en-US South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 0379-9069 Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Comparison of nerve conduction velocities of lower extremities between football players and controls <p>This study aimed to compare neuronal function in the lower limbs of elite footballers and an age-matched control group. Conduction velocity, response latency and amplitude following electrical stimulation were investigated. Thirty male football players and 30 untrainedmales comprised the subject and control groups, respectively. We showed that professional football players have significantly slower sural nerve conduction velocity than untrained controls(p&lt;0.05). Although we found no signs of neuropathy, mild changes in nerve conduction velocity were evident in the sural nerve of the players.&nbsp; Motor conduction velocity of tibial nerve was also significantly prolonged in this group when comparing dominant and non-dominant&nbsp; extremities (p&lt;0.05).The tibial nerve muscle action potential amplitude was lower in the players’ dominant limbs compared with the controls (p&lt;0.05). We&nbsp; found no statistical difference in motor conduction velocities, distal latencies and amplitudes of the common peroneal nerve when comparing players&nbsp; and controls in both dominant and non-dominant limbs (p&gt;0.05). Our results showed abnormalities of function in the sural and tibial nerves in football&nbsp; players compared with untrained controls, which may indicate early signs of neuropathy.&nbsp;</p> Elif Aksu Tuncay Çolak Hamit M. Selekler Enis Çolak Serap Mülayim Murat Son Belgin Bamaç Serap Çolak Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 45 1 1 10 Strategic planning in Gauteng grassroots football clubs <p>Strategic planning has become indispensable for organisations that seek to develop and grow, and grassroots football clubs are no exception. As large amounts of money are invested in football clubs, these entities may be prone to substantial financial risk if resources are not effectively deployed,&nbsp; underlining the importance of strategic planning and management. Against this background, this qualitative study explored the strategic planning&nbsp; processes of grassroots football clubs in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Interviews were conducted with representatives of 12 football clubs affiliated&nbsp; with the South African Football Association, and data were analysed thematically. The findings suggest that grassroots football clubs are like not-for- profit community organisations in their strategic planning approach (or lack thereof). Grassroots football clubs still have much to do in developing their&nbsp; strategic planning capabilities to create value and enhance the sustainability of football.</p> Kgaugelo Sammy Boya Peet Venter Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 45 1 11 27 The short-term effect of Kinesio tape application on running speed, agility and plyometric performance in amateur soccer players <p>Soccer is a physically demanding team sport requiring players to run fast, perform multiple changes in direction and jump, among other skills. Soccer players with optimal running speed, agility and plyometric abilities are more likely to be selected for team participation, as they will have enhanced on- thefield performance. Various exercise and rehabilitation protocols exist to ensure optimal player performance, but none focus on the immediate effect&nbsp; of Kinesio tape (Kinesio Holding Corporation, Albuquerque, NM, USA) on the stabilising muscles of the lower limb to influence important basic soccer&nbsp; skills.A one-group pre-test–post-test quasi-experimental design was used. Thirty-three male university-level soccer players aged 18–35 years with no&nbsp; history of lower limb surgery were included. Baseline testing was performed using the vertical jump test,Modified Illinois Change of Direction test and a&nbsp; timed 50-metre sprint. After a rest period of 1–4 days, the participants were strapped with Kinesio tape and the post-test, using the same objective&nbsp; measures, was conducted.Pre- and posttest analysis was performed using paired student t-test. Improvement was observed for running speed (p≤0.001,&nbsp; SD: 0.685), agility (p≤0.001; SD: 2.312) and plyometrics (p≤0.001; SD: 2.451). The application of Kinesio tape on the stabiliser muscles of the lower limbs&nbsp; significantly improved running speed, agility and plyometrics in amateur soccer players immediately after application.&nbsp;</p> Maria E. Cochrane Felix S. Nkuna Muhammad A. Dawood Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 45 1 28 38 Return to play and performance guidelines in rugby union <p>Models and guidelines on factors associated with the safe return to play (RTP) of an injured athlete have been established, but very limited research has&nbsp; been conducted on components necessary for returning an athlete to their previous level of performance, known as return to performance (RTPerf). The&nbsp; study aimed to establish guidelines applicable to RTP and RTPerf in rugby union. A mixed-methods study design using an e-Delphi survey was conducted&nbsp; to obtain the opinions of medical team members of the Currie Cup rugby unions across South Africa on RTP (Part 1 of the study).In Part 2, medical team&nbsp; members and coaches of the Free State Rugby Union were consulted for RTPerf guidelines. Part 1 of the study comprised a three-step decision-based&nbsp; RTP model used to identify RTP components in rugby. The e-Delphi questionnaire was compiled based on literature analyses and vast experience of the&nbsp; authors. Part 1 involved three steps of integrated guidelines for RTP decision-making in rugby union established by agreement (&gt;80%) (first or second&nbsp; round): Step 1: medical history; Step 2: evaluation of participation risk; and Step 3: decision modifiers. Part 2 focused on components to consider during&nbsp; the RTPerf decision-making process, including psychological readiness, limb symmetry index, acute:chronic training load, external load and internal load.&nbsp; Twelve key performance indicators (KPIs) to measure RTPerf in rugby reached consensus (&gt;80%). The comparison of performance profiles and current&nbsp; KPIs of a rugby player could be used to evaluate the player's performance level and whether they truly achieved RTPerf.</p> Frederik F. Coetzee Christine Wall Marizanne De Bruin Frederik F. Coetzee Mark Nicholls Annemarie Vermeulen Louis F. Lagrange Maralé Hoft Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 45 1 39 61 Validation of the teaching beliefs scale of postmodern physical education <p>For physical education (PE) teachers, teaching beliefs are vital to improving students’ aptitude, encouraging teachers and students to develop an equal relationship, and identifying and eliminating the differences between students’ perspectives and learning styles through consultation and dialogue to&nbsp; improve and advance teaching. Therefore, developing a PE-related teaching belief scale from a postmodern perspective is essential for PE development.&nbsp; This study adopted stratified random sampling to select 144 PE teachers for the exploratory factor analysis. We distributed a second round of&nbsp; questionnaires to 418 PE teachers from Taipei, who were randomised into two clusters for confirmatory factor analysis in terms of competing models&nbsp; (n=209) and cross-validation (n=209). The Teaching Beliefs Scale of Postmodern Physical Education demonstrated satisfactory reliability and validity. The&nbsp; internal model structure showed factor loadings of .70–.90, composite reliability values of .89–.94, and average variance extracted values of .62–.74. In&nbsp; adherence to the concept of postmodernism, all statistical data met the threshold conditions and hierarchy, and the four constructs (innovation,&nbsp; reflection, pluralism and criticism) were met. In the future, this scale can be applied to evaluate the development of teachers’ beliefs about teaching PE in&nbsp; the postmodern era.&nbsp;</p> Wei-Yuan Shih Yih-Lih Pu Tu-Kuang Ho Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 45 1 62 74 Body composition profiles of female acrobatic gymnasts of different age categories <p>Body composition, overweight or underweight, and adipose tissue are factors that determine social health status. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the body composition profile, adiposity distribution and body mass index (BMI) of acrobatic gymnasts of different age categories. A total of 129 women participated, divided by role: tops (n=54; X=11.23 years; SD=3.04) and bases (n=75; X=14.46 years; SD=2.08), and age category. Anthropometric measurements including skinfolds were collected, and BMI, body fat percentages through different validated formulas, and muscle, bone and remainder&nbsp; percentages were calculated. Descriptive and comparative analyses among categories were carried out. The results showed no significant differences in&nbsp; any variable among tops. BMI was only above the 50th percentile in the youngest gymnasts of age group 1 and in 9-year-old gymnasts of age group 4.&nbsp; There were significant differences among bases. In general, adipose tissue values were higher in senior gymnasts, but no linear relationship among categories was established. For BMI, almost all categories were above the 50th percentile, and only 16-year-old gymnasts of age group 3 presented grade 1 thinness. The tops group showed higher risk of presenting extreme thinness. Furthermore, no clear relationship was found between body&nbsp; composition and age category.&nbsp; </p> Yaiza Taboada-Iglesias Mercedes Vernetta-Santana Diego Alonso-Fernández Águeda Gutiérrez-Sánchez Copyright (c) 0 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 45 1 75 91