South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajrs <em>Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Navorsing in Sport, Liggaamlike Opvoedkunde en Ontspanning</em> / <em>The </em><em>South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation </em>is published by the Southern African Alliance for Sport Science, Physical Education and Recreation. Contributions from the fields of Sport Science, Movement Education, Recreation/Leisure Studies, Exercise Science and Dance Studies will be considered for publication. The articles submitted will be administered by the appropriate Review Editor and evaluated by two or more referees. <p>This journal's own homepage: <a href="http://www.sajrsper.com" target="_blank">www.sajrsper.com</a> </p> en-US South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 0379-9069 Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Effect of physical exercise on muscle strength, static and dynamic balance and resiliency in women with multiple sclerosis https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajrs/article/view/205752 <p>Exercise is an essential component in the management of multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a combined aerobic and resistance training programme on muscular strength, static and dynamic balance and resiliency of women with MS. Twenty participants aged 20-40 years with an expanded disability status Scale Level of 2 to 5 were selected. Participants were<br>randomly divided into two groups: Experimental Group (age=36.1±2.2 years) and Control Group (age=34.3±5.4 years). The experimental group performed combination training that included aerobic and resistance exercises for eight weeks, three times a week, with an intensity of 40% to 55% heart rate reserve. The strength of knee flexor and extensor muscles, dynamic and static balance and resiliency level using Connor-Davidson were assessed. There were significant (p≤0.05) changes in all measured parameters for the Intervention Group, no significant (p&gt;0.05) changes were found from pre- to post-test in the Control Group. Eight weeks of combined training improved significantly (p≤0.05) for muscle strength, balance and resiliency level in the Experimental Group when compared to the Control Group. Combined training may inevitably aid daily functioning and mental health in individuals with MS.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Concurrent training; Endurance training; Multiple sclerosis; Physical exercise.</p> Fahimeh Bahari Naser Naghdi Mahmoud Sheikh Brandon S. Shaw Copyright (c) 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 43 1 1 11 Relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviours and quality of life: An analysis of high school licensed athletes https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajrs/article/view/205755 <p>This cross sectional descriptive survey study intended to assess the healthy lifestyle behaviours of high school students by investigating whether the development of healthy lifestyle behaviours on the part of the students, lead to an increase in their quality of life. Furthermore, understanding whether engagement in sports as a licensed athlete leads to any difference in terms of healthy lifestyle behaviours and quality of life was included. Data was collected from 824 high school students using “Personal Information Form”, “Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLPII)”, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL-Adolescent Form)”. The analysis included descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA), MANOVA and Pearson correlation analyses. In terms of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviour Total Score those who do sports with a license (χ=126.28) were significantly higher than those who do not (χ=116.14). The average total quality of life score was regarded as a high score. A weak correlation was observed between the healthy lifestyles and levels of quality of life. The students who engaged in sports as licensed athletes were found to have significantly higher levels of healthy lifestyle behaviours and quality of life.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours; Sports; Quality of life. </p> Gokhan Cakir Cetin Ozdilek Arslan Kalkavan Utku Isik Nihal Akoguz Yazici Halil Ibrahim Cakir Copyright (c) 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 43 1 13 27 Mis)representations of class and ‘race’ on and around <i>die braak</i> in Stellenbosch https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajrs/article/view/205757 <p>This is a historical narrative of recreational space in the 19th Century Stellenbosch, known as ‘Die Braak’. The development of sport in Stellenbosch dates back to 1866 and coincides with the influx of young white men who engaged with people across the racial divide on ‘Die Braak’ when they came into town for their studies at Stellenbosch Gymnasium, a forerunner of Stellenbosch University. The<br>methodological aim of this study was to decontextualise existing narratives in terms of race and class (mis)representations on ‘Die Braak’. A historical reinterpretation of the dominant narratives of Stellenbosch features in this article. Attention was directed specifically to historically marginalised minorities. The study covered a period from 1863–1886. However, several documented accounts point to there being sports activities in and around ‘Die Braak’ as early as the 1700s. Slight reference was also made to human and sport activity during the Stone Age period in the area referred to as Stellenbosch in the 21st century. In conclusion, the contribution of<br>marginalised groups, that is misrepresented in existing sport narratives of ‘Die Braak’ is placed at the centre of the research. This study thus intervened by providing new scrutiny of sport facilities in colonial society by rooting ‘Die Braak’ in a colonial context.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> History; ‘Die Braak’; Stellenbosch; Class; Race.</p> Francois J. Cleophas Karabo Abuki Copyright (c) 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 43 1 Effect of different dosages of zinc supplementation on nutritional status, aerobic and anaerobic performance in elite female volleyball players https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajrs/article/view/205759 <p>Zinc is an essential element for the performance of athletes. This study aims to determine the effect of two different dosages of zinc supplementation in elite female volleyball players on nutritional status, aerobic, anaerobic performance and fatigue. The research involved 20 female athletes who played in Gazi University Sports Club volleyball team. Subjects were divided into two groups equal in number. Different dosages of zinc sulphate were applied for four weeks: (1) Group 1 (220mg/day zinc sulphate; (2) Group 2 (440mg/day zinc sulphate). Athletes who were already engaged in their daily training routines were given a 20m-shuttle run test to create fatigue before and after supplementation. Also, a Wingate test was performed to determine the anaerobic power before and after the supplement. Zinc supplementation did not cause a significant change in both groups in both anaerobic and aerobic performance. However, zinc supplementation in both groups caused a substantial shift in plasma lactate levels (p&lt;0.05). Pre- supplementation exercise elevates plasma lactate levels, while zinc supplementation led to a fall in plasma lactate. Zinc&nbsp;&nbsp; supplementation caused a significant increase in daily energy, protein, and fat intakes in both groups.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Aerobic; Anaerobic; Female athletes; Nutritional status; Volleyball; Zinc.</p> Günay Eskici Copyright (c) 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 43 1 43 56 Perspectives of parents on health benefits associated with taekwondo for adolescents and young adults with intellectual and developmental disability https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajrs/article/view/205771 <p>&nbsp;Taekwondo may serve as an important therapeutic programme to promote physical, social, cognitive and emotional health among adolescents and young adults with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). Little research has explored the value of Taekwondo for health benefits among adolescents and young adults with IDD living in the United States. The purpose of this study was to capture health benefits associated with Taekwondo among adolescents with IDD from the perspectives of parents and observations. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews with eight participants, four salient themes were identified as health benefits that Taekwondo participation provided for their child: (a) emotional benefits, (b) social benefits, (c) cognitive benefits, and (d) physical benefit. The findings of this study indicate that Taekwondo can improve the physical, social, emotional, and cognitive functioning of adolescents and young adults with IDD and may be considered an effective mind-body exercise programme for promoting their health and well-being in these domains.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Health; Qualitative approach; Taekwondo; Intellectual disability; Developmental disability. </p> Junhyoung Kim Yongseop Kim Jennifer Piatt Minjoon Ji Copyright (c) 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 43 1 57 69 Effect of isokinetic shoulder performance, electromyographic activation and throwing velocity on shooting accuracy in elite male handball players https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajrs/article/view/205773 <p>In this study the isokinetic shoulder strength, muscular activation and throwing velocity parameters of elite handball players and their relationship with shooting accuracy was determined. Seventeen (17) male handball players (age: 23.17±3.10 years; weight:&nbsp; 85.52±13.48kg; height: 184.35±6.56cm) participated in the study. The isokinetic test was administered with an isokinetic dynamometer system in the shoulder internal and external rotation (IR-ER) movements during the concentric mode (90°/s, 180°/s and 240o /s). Electromyographic activations and throwing velocities were recorded during the shooting accuracy protocol. Simple linear regression and logistic regression analysis were used to determine the effect of the&nbsp; measured parameters on the shooting accuracy rate. Peak torque (PT) variables at the shoulder IRs 90°, 180° and 240° angular speeds had an adverse effect on the shooting accuracy (p=0.029; p=0.037; p=0.033 respectively). There was no relationship between muscular activation, throwing velocity variables and shooting<br>accuracy (p&gt;0.05). It seems to indicate that shoulder IR PT variables have an adverse effect on throwing accuracy. The development of shoulder area muscles with appropriate loads, which have a major effect during shooting, should be taken into consideration by personal trainers and coaches.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Handball; Shooting; External rotation; Internal rotation; Muscle&nbsp; activation; Velocity.</p> Yücel Makaraci Seydi Ahmet Aǧaoǧlu Copyright (c) 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 43 1 71 83 Gaze behaviour in basketball jump shot: Differences between expert and non-expert athletes https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajrs/article/view/205774 <p>The aim of this study was to compare the visual patterns of basketball players of two different levels (Under-16 vs. Senior). Twenty athletes, 10 U16 (15.2±0.4 years and 7.1±2.5 years of practice) and 10 Senior (27.6±3.7 years and 18. 4±4.6 years of practice) made a total of 50 jump shots in ten different positions (shooting angles of 0º, 45º, 90º, 135º and 180º and at distances of 6.80m and 4.23m, in each of the shooting angles). Measures of unpredictability or irregularity in biological time series were analysed through the Coefficient of Variation (CV%) values of Shannon’s Entropy. Results show that gaze behaviour of both age groups is characterised by an average dispersion (CV% values between 18 and 27). However, senior players presented greater jump shot efficacy compared to U16 (64.0% vs.<br>41.8%) and global mean values slightly lower than the U16 in the Shannon’s Entropy results. The visual patterns did not differ neither between the two groups nor between the shooting distances of the jump shots.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Variability; Eye-tracking glasses; Shannon's Entropy; Jump shot; Basketball. </p> Rui C.A. Marques Rui S.M. Mendes Fernando M.L. Martins Ricardo M.M. Gomes Manuel J. Coelho-E-Silva Gonçalo N.F. Dias Copyright (c) 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 43 1 85 95 Role of motor skills in physical education predisposition and social competence https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajrs/article/view/205777 <p>The aim of this research was to investigate the role of motor skills in secondary school students' physical education predisposition and social competence. The Körperkoardinations Test für Kinder (KTK), Physical Education Predisposition Scale and Social Competence Scale were used for data collection. The participants consisted of 523 (237 females, 286 males; mean age=12.97) secondary school<br>students from Trabzon, Turkey. The study was conducted during the 2017–2018 spring semester. The results showed that age and gender variables had a significant influence on motor skills. A significant influence was found in terms of physical education and physical activity facilities between the various school facilities. School facilities were categorised into three groups: good, medium and limited, and it was found that students with access to good (81.64) or medium (81.29) facilities had significantly higher KTK scores than those with access to limited (60.79) facilities. In addition, motor skill performance significantly predicted social competence (R2=0.22) and physical education predisposition (R2=0.33). These results suggest that children’s motor skills can have a positive effect not just on their physical competence, but also on their social competence and physical education predisposition.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Motor development; Motor skills; Middle school; Physical education; School sports facilities; Social development; Secondary schools.</p> Abdullah-Bora Özkara Arslan Kalkavan Copyright (c) 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 43 1 97 112 Relationship between BMI and physical fitness in college-age males: a cross-sectional study https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajrs/article/view/205786 <p>The purpose of the study was to analyse the association between BMI and fitness performance. The 117 male college students were divided into four groups according to their BMI: Underweight (UWG), normal weight (NWG), overweight (OVWG) and obese (OBWG). They performed five tests: One minute Sit-Up test (SU), one minute Push-Up test (PU), Standing Long Jump test (SLJ), 4x10 Shuttle Run test (SHR) and 1km Run test (1KM). OBWG scores were poorer than OVWG scores, whilst OVWG scores were poorer than those attained by UWG and NWG. There were only significant differences between UWG and NWG in PU. BMI correlated negatively with SU, PU, SLJ and 1KM, and positively with SHR. The BMI peak performance for each test was, SU (19.35±3.39); PU (17.63±1.49); SLJ (20.15±3.1); SHR<br>(20.71±3.03); KM (20.62±3.63). College age males with a BMI lower than 25 have a better fitness level than overweight and obese&nbsp; counterparts. Hence, fitness test standards should be designed considering not only age and gender, but also BMI.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: BMI; Physical fitness tests; College-age males</p> Pablo Prieto-González Peter Sagat Jaromir Sedlacek Copyright (c) 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 43 1 113 123 Kinematic variables of elite handball players during throwing from upward jumps https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajrs/article/view/205789 <p>This study aimed to analyse kinematic variables of motor action in throwing from upward jumps by first- and second-line players in an elite handball team. Threedimensional kinematic variables were analysed using the Statokin 3D Video Analysis system. The study sample (n=15) consisted of eight second-line players. The results showed statistically significant differences between players of the second and firstline in the length of the last stride (η2 =0.87, p&lt;0.001), horizontal velocity on the Yaxis (η<sup>2</sup> =0.51, p=0.003), average take-off velocity (η<sup>2</sup> =0.62, p=0.001), maximal horizontal and vertical velocities (Y and Z-axes) of the knee joint of the swinging leg (η<sup>2</sup><br>=0.53, p=0.002; η<sup>2</sup> =0.40, p=0.016), maximal angular velocities of the hip and knee joints of the take-off leg (η<sup>2</sup> =0.38, p=0.023; η<sup>2</sup><br>=0.23, p=0.050), angular velocity of the knee joint of the swinging leg (η<sup>2</sup> = 0.61, p &lt; 0.001), maximal extension angle of the elbow during backswing (η<sup>2</sup> =0.41, p=0.042), and average speed at which the ball was released (η<sup>2</sup> =0.71, р&lt;0.001). The kinematic variables of the motor action of the body joints differed between players from the second- and first-line during throwing from upward jumps.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: 3D-kinematics; Ball release speed; Jump throw; Handball</p> Qais B. Yaseen Irina V. Petracheva Yuri N. Kotov Rafat S.A. Eltibi Copyright (c) 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 43 1 123 139