Raising out of finite CP in Nguni: the case of fanele

  • Jochen Zeller Department of Linguistics, School of Language, Literature and Linguistics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa


The Nguni modal verb fanele can select a finite clause in the subjunctive mood as its complement. Typically, the thematic subject of this clausal complement remains in the embedded subject position, in which case the matrix verb fanele is prefixed with the expletive marker ku-. However, in another possible construction with fanele, the thematic subject of the embedded subjunctive clause is realised in the matrix subject position and agrees with both fanele and the embedded verb. In this paper, I provide empirical evidence that the matrix subject in the latter construction originates in the embedded clause but has undergone raising (A-movement) to the matrix subject position. I then offer a theoretical discussion of this type of raising out of finite CPs based on the concept of ‘defectiveness' and the theory of phases which underlie the analysis of raising constructions advocated in the Minimalist Program (Chomsky, 2000; 2001; 2005).

Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 2006, 24(3): 255–275

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eISSN: 1727-9461
print ISSN: 1607-3614