Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies <em>Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies</em><span> publishes articles on a wide range of linguistic topics and acts as a forum for research into ALL the languages of southern Africa, including English and Afrikaans. Original contributions are welcomed on any of the core areas of linguistics, both theoretical (e.g. syntax, phonology, semantics) and applied (e.g. sociolinguistic topics, language teaching, language policy). Review articles, short research reports and book reviews are also welcomed. Articles in languages other than English are accompanied by an extended English summary.</span><div><span><br /></span></div><div>Read more <a href="" target="_blank">here</a>. </div> NISC Pty Ltd en-US Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 1607-3614 Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the publisher. Editorial: Putting paper into practice: Bridging the gap between research and language practice <p>No Abstract.</p> Herculene Kotzé Copyright (c) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 39 1 3 4 English language in African higher education: A systematic review <p>One of the features of the internationalisation of higher education is the increasing use of the English language as a medium of&nbsp; instruction&nbsp; and research in higher education. This growing use of English spurs this article’s attempt at systematically reviewing literature focusing on African higher education systems. The analysis of the selected literature focuses on assessing the main themes, theoretical assumptions and core findings. As a result, 30 articles accessed through continental and international research databases were included in the final analysis after a five-step selection process using relevant keywords related to the topic and the context of the study. The findings indicate that research on the English language in higher education in African contexts overwhelmingly focuses on the language as a medium of teaching and learning. The other aspects, such as the role that the language plays as a medium of research and archiving knowledge, seem to be overlooked. The findings of the majority of both empirical and review papers seem to present critical and, at times,<br>unfavourable views on the role English plays in the specific contexts studied. In light of these findings, the recommendation is that the role of the English language as a medium of instruction should be expanded to cover issues related to research, publication and archiving knowledge. This indicates that the continent’s higher education systems need more research on English language, which suggests that robust and pragmatic theoretical approaches might also be needed in future studies. A further observation is that the findings from the reviewed studies might be the result of using theories that are underpinned in traditions that are already critical of the use of the English language. Thus, more research attention could be given to strengthening the efficacy of using multiple theoretical perspectives to render the African contexts studied more intelligible. </p> Addisalem Tebikew Yallew Patrício Vitorino Langa Nelson Nkhoma Copyright (c) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 39 1 5 29 Teachers’ language ideologies, conflicting language policy and practices in Zimbabwean education system <p>To date, Zimbabwe does not have an overt and comprehensive language policy. Policy is inferred from language practices in various&nbsp; spaces and from pieces of legislation in education, the media and legal domains. In multilingual schools, teachers make and renegotiate&nbsp; language policy through practices and choices that they make to manage classroom multilingualism. This article examines teachers’ self-reported language ideologies and how they occasioned conflicting language practices with the top-down language-in-education policy in Zimbabwe. Drawing on Spolsky’s innovation in the theory of language policy, the article specifically discusses how teachers’ ideologies about African languages and colonially inherited English predispose them to naturalise and normalise English as the default language of instruction, contrary to the provision for the use of African languages in the Education Act. I argue that the mismatch between the top-down policy and bottom-up practices is mediated in part by a lack of broad-based considerations of the sociolinguistic, economic and political factors. Together, these engender language ideologies that inform the practice of foisting English on students in the classroom, thereby diminishing transformative educational outcomes for African language-speaking learners. Teachers’ views showed that&nbsp; translanguaging could be a welcome language management alternative to the ‘difficult to implement’ mother tongue instruction.</p> Busani Maseko Copyright (c) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 39 1 30 42 When language revitalisation transcends linguistic issues: Motivations for the revitalisation of Tonga <p>This article presents findings from research on Tonga language revitalisation. Tonga is a formerly marginalised indigenous language&nbsp; spoken in north-western Zimbabwe. It is part of Zimbabwe’s linguistic ecology comprising 16 officially recognised languages that exist in a polyglossic situation. The Tonga community recently embarked on a bottom-up language planning approach to revitalise their language, contrary to the traditional macro-level language planning, which is normally top-down. Through semi-structured interviews, the study&nbsp; explores the Tonga speakers’ motivations for the revitalisation of their language. The study also aims to test the usability of Karan’s (2008) taxonomy of language choice motivations as presented in his perceived benefit model of language shift. The findings point to the fact that the linguistic war that the Tonga community have been fighting is fuelled by various agendas. Although on the surface the Tonga people&nbsp; seemed to be dealing with a linguistic issue, the ripple effects touch on other pragmatic considerations such as political, social, economic and educational issues, issues that deal directly with end-user needs, both at individual and community level. Karan’s model was found useful in analysing motivations for revitalisation. </p> Jubilee Chikasha Anne-Marie Beukes Copyright (c) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 39 1 43 54 Translanguaging strategies in multimodality and audiovisual translation <p>Translanguaging practices are firmly embedded in South African communication practices given the country’s high levels of linguistic diversity. This approach represents a challenge to the institutional and educational system in the current decolonial discourse where&nbsp; English serves as the dominant language. The critical analysis of the relationship between translanguaging and translation resonates with recent studies in the domain of applied linguistics and language practice. This article aims at highlighting the practical implications of the use of translanguaging strategies in the subfield of multimodal and audiovisual translation, through the analysis of the cinematic&nbsp; adaptations of Alan Paton’s Cry, the Beloved Country, and Joshua Sinclair’s Shaka Zulu. The analysis suggests that linguistic normalisation, cultural substitution, domestication, and also the addition and deletion of isiZulu words, can foster discrepancy of communication, and generate macro-textual modifications, as in the case of identity markers. The field of language practice can benefit from a more careful consideration of the value and advantages of the translanguaging approach, posing critical questions regarding the actual need for translation. </p> Renato Tomei Rajendra Chetty Copyright (c) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 39 1 55 65 Do additional, visual elements in recorded lectures influence the processing of subtitles? <p>Given the recent and sudden transition from classrooms to online teaching during the Covid-19 pandemic, more emphasis is being placed on providing the same classroom experience to students on an online (or e-learning) platform. To increase accessibility to online content, subtitles are sometimes added to videos, but this may come at a cost. Not only is the addition of subtitles an extra source of information to be processed, the type of subtitle may differ (automatic or standardised) and subtitles are in competition with other sources of information that also need to be processed. This can result in subtitles becoming redundant, failing to contribute to accessibility at all. This study was conducted to determine how the processing of subtitles was influenced by redundant information (graphs, tables, etc.) on the screen, using eye-tracking data. Two different types of subtitles, automatic and standardised, were also used. Findings indicated that the standardised subtitles were 45% more likely to be processed than the automatic subtitles and that both types of subtitles were 24% less likely to be processed with redundant information. The findings suggest that great care needs to be taken when adding subtitles to videos and how these videos are structured. </p> Gordon Matthew Copyright (c) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 39 1 66 81 The extraction of terminology list using ParaConc for creating a quadrilingual dictionary <p>The lack of terminology and language resources for the under-resourced South African languages poses a serious problem for effective&nbsp; communication in specialised fields such as law, education, health, agriculture, science, and technology. The ability to use all South African&nbsp; languages in all contemporary fields requires the existence of relevant terminology and resources. The article aims to semi-automatically identify and extract terminology for creating an English, Xitsonga, Siswati, and isiNdebele quadrilingual dictionary. Given parallel texts in the four different languages, we use ParaConc to identify and extract terminology in one language and the corresponding translations<br>in the other languages. In this study, English is used as the source language, while Xitsonga, Siswati, and isiNdebele are the target&nbsp; languages. This process allowed us to identify specific lexical items in the source language (manually) and their translation equivalents in the target languages (automatically). The result was a collection of extracted terminology lists that can be used to compile a specialised quadrilingual dictionary for English and three of the under-resourced languages. We show the usefulness of ParaConc to semi-automatically extract quadrilingual terminology lists, which, by creating quadrilingual dictionaries, will contribute to the development and promotion of multilingualism in South Africa. </p> Respect Mlambo Nomsa Skosana Muzi Matfunjwa Copyright (c) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 39 1 82 91 The role of translators in cross-language qualitative research in psychology <p>Qualitative researchers in the field of psychology are increasingly conducting research in multilingual social contexts. Literature on cross-language research emphasises, however, that issues on the role of translators and information on translation processes in such studies are often neglected or omitted in research reports, which may affect the trustworthiness of such studies. The aim of this case study was to investigate the role of translators in cross-language qualitative research, specifically in the field of psychology. Five postgraduate students (master’s and doctoral students), enrolled at a South African university (SAU), participated in the study. Data were collected through semi-structured e-mail, telephone and/or face-to-face interviews and were transcribed by the researcher who collected the data. In addition, unpublished dissertations (five) and theses (two) were also uploaded from the SAU’s online catalogue to explore, from another viewpoint, whether postgraduates’ research reports made any mention of the role of translators and/or translation processes in their research. Data were analysed by means of thematic data analysis using a qualitative data analysis software program, ATLAS.ti. The main themes that emerged from this study are discussed in this article. Finally, recommendations are made for future translation research and practice.</p> Jaqueline de Vos Bulelwa Nokele Copyright (c) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 39 1 92 109 Book Review: Gewone taal – ’n Oorsig <p>No Abstract.</p> Herculene Kotzé Roné Wierenga Copyright (c) 2021-06-25 2021-06-25 39 1 110 111