Important causes of chronic kidney disease in South Africa
In hypertensive patients without chronic kidney disease (CKD) the goal is to keep blood pressure (BP) at ≤140/90 mmHg. When CKD is present, especially where there is proteinuria of ≥0.5 g/day, the goal is a BP of ≤130/80 mmHg. Lifestyle measures are mandatory, especially limitation of salt intake, ingestion of adequate quantities of potassium, and weight control. Patients with stages 4 - 5 CKD must be carefully monitored for hyperkalaemia and deteriorating kidney function if angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are used, especially in patients >60 years of age with diabetes or atherosclerosis. BP should be regularly monitored and, where possible, home BP-measuring devices are recommended for optimal control.
Guidelines on the use of antidiabetic agents in CKD are presented, with the warning that metformin is contraindicated in patients with stages 4 - 5 CKD.
There is a wide clinical spectrum of renal disease in the course of HIV infection, including acute kidney injury, electrolyte and acid-base disturbances, HIV-associated glomerular disease, acute-on-chronic renal disease and side-effects related to the treatment of HIV.