Important causes of chronic kidney disease in South Africa
In hypertensive patients without chronic kidney disease (CKD) the goal is to keep blood pressure (BP) at ≤140/90 mmHg. When CKD is present, especially where there is proteinuria of ≥0.5 g/day, the goal is a BP of ≤130/80 mmHg. Lifestyle measures are mandatory, especially limitation of salt intake, ingestion of adequate quantities of potassium, and weight control. Patients with stages 4 - 5 CKD must be carefully monitored for hyperkalaemia and deteriorating kidney function if angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are used, especially in patients >60 years of age with diabetes or atherosclerosis. BP should be regularly monitored and, where possible, home BP-measuring devices are recommended for optimal control.
Guidelines on the use of antidiabetic agents in CKD are presented, with the warning that metformin is contraindicated in patients with stages 4 - 5 CKD.
There is a wide clinical spectrum of renal disease in the course of HIV infection, including acute kidney injury, electrolyte and acid-base disturbances, HIV-associated glomerular disease, acute-on-chronic renal disease and side-effects related to the treatment of HIV.
Copyright remains in the Author’s name. The work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - Noncommercial Works License. Authors are required to complete and sign an Author Agreement form that outlines Author and Publisher rights and terms of publication. The Agreement form should be uploaded along with other submissions files and any submission will be considered incomplete without it [forthcoming].
Material submitted for publication in the SAMJ is accepted provided it has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. Please inform the editorial team if the main findings of your paper have been presented at a conference and published in abstract form, to avoid copyright infringement. The SAMJ does not hold itself responsible for statements made by the authors.
Previously published images
If an image/figure has been previously published, permission to reproduce or alter it must be obtained by the authors from the original publisher and the figure legend must give full credit to the original source. This credit should be accompanied by a letter indicating that permission to reproduce the image has been granted to the author/s. This letter should be uploaded as a supplementary file during submission.