Important complications of chronic kidney disease
The complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are dyslipidaemia, hyperkalaemia, metabolic acidosis, anaemia, and bone and mineral disorders. Dyslipidaemia may be treated with low-density lipoprotein lowering agents. Statins are ineffective in stages 4 and 5 CKD, but are indicated for preventing the progression of disease in the earlier stages. Chronic acidosis has recently been shown to be a risk factor in the progression of CKD renal dysfunction. Therefore, treatment is mandatory. Practically, this should consist of 1 - 2 heaped teaspoons of sodium bicarbonate 2 - 3 times per day, which is an inexpensive and safe therapy that does not raise the blood pressure in spite of the increased sodium level. Target levels of haemoglobin, according to international guidelines, are between 10 g/dL and 12 g/dL. The serum phosphate level is raised in stage 4 CKD, and especially in stage 5 CKD, which is associated with coronary carotid and other vascular calcifications and may result in ischaemic heart disease, myocardial infarction and stroke. A raised parathyroid hormone level (secondary hyperparathyroidism) is also a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is associated with increased hypertension and resistance to the treatment of CKD-associated anaemia.