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South African Medical Journal

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Glomerular disease and acute kidney injury in Sudan: Demographics, histological diagnosis and outcome

EEA El-hassan, MB Ghalib, AIS Ibrahim, B Phillips, AO Phillips

Abstract


Background. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a relatively common clinical condition, associated with high rates of mortality. Although there is extensive literature on the nature and consequence of AKI in the developed world, much less is known in the developing world and more specifically in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
Objectives. To describe the demographics, histological diagnosis and clinical course of patients presenting with AKI to a single centre in Sudan.
Methods. Retrospective data were collected on 100 consecutive patients with AKI and an active urinary sediment, who underwent diagnostic native percutaneous renal biopsy.
Results. The mean (standard deviation) age of those biopsied was 33.6 (14.1) years of age, with a preponderance (58%) of females. The most common clinical  indications for biopsy were AKI associated with haematuria and proteinuria (72%), AKI and proteinuria (22.5%) or AKI and haematuria (5%). The frequencies of the most common primary glomerulonephritides (GN) were focal segmental GN (15%) and mesangiocapillary GN (8%). Lupus nephritis was the most frequent secondary GN associated with AKI (31%) and the most common overall histological diagnosis. Peak creatinine, but not oliguria, at presentation predicted likelihood of remaining dialysis-dependent. Age at presentation but not baseline renal function by  estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), was associated with the likelihood of having residual chronic kidney disease following an episode of AKI.
Conclusions. The data suggested differences in the pattern of intrinsic  renal/glomerular disease leading to AKI to those published and mainly derived from the developed world and patients in SSA.



http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.2016.v106i7.10392
AJOL African Journals Online