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South African Medical Journal

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A multicentre, cross-sectional study investigating the prevalence of hypertensive disease in patients presenting for elective surgery in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

K van der Spuy, M Crowther, M Nejthardt, F Roodt, J Davids, J Roos, E Cloete, T Pretorius, G Davies, J van der Walt, C van der Westhuizen, M Flint, J Swanevelder, B Biccard

Abstract


Background. Hypertension is common, affecting over one billion people worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa, hypertensive disease not only affects the older population but is becoming increasingly prevalent in younger individuals. In South Africa (SA), >30% of the adult population has hypertension, making it the single most common cardiovascular risk factor and the predominant contributor to cardiovascular disease and mortality. Elevated blood pressure is the most common perioperative comorbidity encountered in non-cardiac surgical patients, with an overall prevalence of 20 - 25%, and it remains poorly controlled in low- and middle-income countries. Hypertension in the perioperative setting may adversely affect patient outcome. It therefore not only flags possible perioperative challenges to anaesthesiologists, but also identifies patients at risk of long-term morbidity and mortality. Objectives. To determine the prevalence and severity of hypertension in elective adult surgical patients in the Western Cape Province, SA. Results. The study population included all elective surgical patients from seven hospitals in the Western Cape during a 1-week period. Hypertension, defined as having had a previous diagnosis of hypertension or meeting the blood pressure criteria of >140/90 mmHg, was identified in 51.8% of patients during preoperative assessment. Significantly, newly diagnosed hypertension was present in 9.9% of all patients presenting for elective surgery. Although 98.1% of the known hypertensive patients were on antihypertensive therapy, 36.9% were inadequately controlled. There are numerous reasons for this, but notably 32.1% of patients admitted to forgetting to take their medication, making patient factors the most common reason for treatment non-compliance. Conclusions. The perioperative period may be an important opportunity to identify undiagnosed hypertensive patients. The perioperative encounter may have a significant public health implication in facilitating appropriate referral and treatment of patients with hypertension to decrease long-term cardiovascular complications in SA.

S Afr Med J 2018;108(7):590-595



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