Epidemiology of conventional cardiovascular risk factors among hypertensive subjects with normal and impaired fasting glucose
AbstractBackground. Impaired fasting or glucose tolerance and/or diabetes can occur with hypertension, which theoretically predicts a worse cardiovascular risk profile, and consequently requires intensive cardiovasular risk management. Objectives. To characterise the frequency of the occurence of conventional cardiovascular risk factors among hypertensive subjects with impaired fasting blood glucose. Methods. We studied 120 hypertensive subjects and 80 ageand sex-matched normotensive controls. Relevant history, clinical examination, laboratory and other tests were undertaken. Body mass index was determined. Informed consent was obtained from all participants, and ethical approval was obtained. Results. There was no statistically significant diference between the age and gender of the hypertensive subjects and the controls (55.1±10.83 v. 54.7±10.89 years, p=0.76). The serum fasting lipids were higher, but not statistically significantly, among the hypertensives than the controls (triglycerides 1.23±0.50 v. 1.22±0.48, p=0.900; total cholesterol 4.51±1.52 v. 4.38±0.84, p=0.842; LDL 2.51±1.41 v. 2.4±0.63, p=0.811, respectively). The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance among newly presenting hypertensive subjects was 30.0%. Hypertriglyceridaemia (38.9% v. 6.0%, p=0.038), hypo-HDL cholesterolaemia (52.7% v. 31.0%, p=0.028) and visceral obesity (52.8% v. 27.4%, p=0.036) were statistically more prevalent among hypertensive subjects with impaired glucose tolerance than among those with normal glucose tolerance. Conclusion. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance among newly presenting hypertensive subjects is very high, and they have more clusters of cardiovascular risks than those without impaired glucose tolerance. The former therefore need intensive cardiovascular assessment and appropriate preventive and treatment modalities. Glucose parameters of newly presenting hypertensive subjects must be determined to evaluate their cardiovascular risk profile.
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