Thyroid dysfunction in a cohort of South African children with Down syndrome
AbstractBackground. While international studies show thyroid dysfunction occurs more commonly in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) than in the general population, there is a paucity of available data from sub-Saharan Africa.
Objectives. To document the range of thyroid function in a cohort of South African children with DS, and to assess referral and treatment practices when thyroid dysfunction was present.
Methods. A retrospective file-based study of 391 children with DS seen at the genetic clinics at three Johannesburg hospitals from 2003 to 2008. Thyroid function test (TFT) results (thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine) and demographic details were collected for each child. Endocrine clinic files from two of the hospitals were reviewed for additional referral and treatment information.
Results. The majority (83.6%) of children had at least one TFT, in most cases performed between the ages of 2 and 12 months. The most common form of thyroid dysfunction was subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) (28.7%). Up to one-third of the patients, including several neonates with abnormal results, were not referred for further evaluation and were therefore not receiving the necessary treatment. Interlaboratory biochemical discrepancies and lack of population-specific reference ranges complicated the interpretation of results. The controversy surrounding whether, and how, to treat SCH influenced treatment practices.
Conclusions. Thyroid dysfunction is prevalent in South African children with DS. There is an urgent need to address the laboratory biochemical discrepancies, and to establish guidelines for surveillance and treatment to prevent further irreversible neurological and physical impairment.
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