South African Music Studies <p>SAMUS:<em> South African Music Studies</em> is the official organ for the South African Society for Research in Music (SASRIM). It gives priority to the publication of research on South African music, but continues to represent the wider field of research interests in the country and in the rest of Africa. The journal invites work from any of the sub-disciplines in music studies, including musicology, ethnomusicology, popular music studies, music theory and music education, as well as research that draws connections between music and other fields in the arts and humanities. </p><p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p><p>More information can be found on <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a> This journal is also indexed in RILM Abstracts, The Music Index.</p> The South African Society for Research in Music en-US South African Music Studies 0258-509X Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Music, Scholarship and Cultures of Care <p>No Abstract.</p> Juliana M. Pistorius Stephanus Muller Copyright (c) 2021-10-04 2021-10-04 40 1 16 Response to ‘Between the Musical Anti- and Post-Apartheid: Structures of Crisis in Kevin Volans’s String Quartet no. 5, Dancers on a Plane’ (2019) <p>No Abstract.</p> Kevin Volans Copyright (c) 2021-10-04 2021-10-04 40 17 22 On the Fragile Joys of Interpretation: A Response to Kevin Volans <p>No Abstract.</p> William Fourie Copyright (c) 2021-10-04 2021-10-04 40 23 28 Graham Newcater: Composing Untimely <p>Graham Newcater is a composer of twelve-tone music, one of very few South African composers to use this system and the only one to remain committed to it throughout his composing career. In his late seventies, Newcater began composing for solo piano for the first time, and has to date completed twelve works for the instrument, of varying scale and length. My practical engagement with&nbsp; the piano music between 2016 and 2018 is the entry point for research on Newcater’s biography and compositional aesthetic. This article traces Newcater’s development as a composer, from the early years of his development and discovery of the twelve-tone method, through his study years in the United Kingdom and his eventual turning to the piano as medium of choice. I study the&nbsp; composition Chromatic Serpent (2016) in some detail to highlight some aspects of Newcater’s style and aesthetic. Finally I propose an interpretive lens developed by Giorgio Agamben to help contextualise Newcater in terms of contemporaneity.</p> Mareli Stolp Copyright (c) 2021-10-04 2021-10-04 40 29 55 On Misreadings and Greatness: Thoughts on the Mature Piano Music of Arnold van Wyk <p>No Abstract.</p> Stephanus Muller Daniel-Ben Pienaar Copyright (c) 2021-10-04 2021-10-04 40 56 74 Jürgen Bräuninger Remembered <p>No Abstract.</p> Christine Lucia Michael Blake Copyright (c) 2021-10-04 2021-10-04 40 75 100 An Interview with Jürgen Bräuninger, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 12 August 2005 <p>No Abstract</p> Christine Lucia Jürgen Bräuninger Copyright (c) 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 40 101 124 Improving Professional Working Relations between Musicians, Musician Managers and Music Promoters in the Developing South African Music Industry <p>The South African music industry is a fast-growing industry in the country, yet its business processes and procedures are not well understood by the majority of musicians. A number of royalty and copyright cases have arisen as a result of this lack of&nbsp;&nbsp; understanding. There is limited material available on the South African music industry and this lack of information might be one of the factors that lead to misunderstandings, which create tension and mistrust between musicians, music promoters and musician managers. This problem negatively impacts the industry. Four factors that commonly lead to misunderstandings are identified in this qualitative research study and mitigation recommendations are suggested so that professional working relations can be&nbsp; improved. Musicians, music promoters and musician managers were interviewed to establish the challenges they commonly come across in the industry. The research objective is to minimise these misunderstandings in order to improve professional working relations between artists (musicians) and arts entrepreneurs (music promoters and musician managers).</p> A.D. Nkosi Copyright (c) 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 40 125 155 Dizu Plaatjies and the Amampondo: A Case of Music, Agency and Social Transformation <p>This article presents a case of how culture (specifically music) has been used by Dizu Plaatjies and the Amampondo musical group as a resource for social transformation. Theoretically framed by Bourdieu’s concept of habitus, the article narrates the story of Dizu Plaatjies and the Amampondo musical group from Langa Township, Cape Town. This story holds important lessons, as it challenges and suggests new directions for African music education and scholarship beyond its relegation to ‘context’, ‘signs’ and ‘rituals’. Plaatjies and Amampondo present a model and example of social transformation through the agency of African music and culture. This article draws from more than two years of research fieldwork (apprenticeship, interview and participant observation and&nbsp; archival work) in Cape Town to explain how Plaatjies and Amampondo’s traditional music practices had social, cultural and&nbsp; economic effects, and created a uniquely South African musical culture in South African marimba music. The research presented here suggests rethinking African music education and scholarship in terms of social, cultural and economic development.</p> Oladele Ayorinde Copyright (c) 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 40 156 184 Border-crossing, Impact, and Transformation Keynote Delivered at the Annual Conference of the South African Society for Research in Music, 2019 <p>No Abstract</p> Christine Lucia Copyright (c) 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 40 185 210 Akin Euba and Léopold Senghor: Intercultural Music, Négritude and Chaka Zulu <p>As one of the foremost scholars and composers of African art music, Akin Euba and his writings, research, and compositions are&nbsp; invaluable resources to researchers and performers today. Euba’s opera Chaka: An Opera in Two Chants (1970) is a study in interculturalism, with African materials co-mingling with Western compositional techniques. Euba (1989, 116) defined intercultural music as that which integrates elements from two or more cultures. The basis of most Chaka’s libretto is an English translation of Léopold Senghor’s poem “Chaka,” with added portions of Yoruba oríkì praise poetry. Senghor’s négritude and his views on&nbsp; assimilation could be viewed as an intercultural movement, much in line with Euba’s intercultural music, making Senghor’s poem an ideal libretto for Euba’s opera. The opera presents Chaka as a Pan-African figure; White Voice, representative of colonial and&nbsp; missionary activity in Africa, serves as both a cultural and musical foil to Chaka. Using the field of topic theory analysis, deriving from the work of Danuta Mirka (2014) and Wye Allenbrook (2014) on the contextualisation of styles, I analyse the ways in which Euba combines Western and African musical genres. By combining different idioms with clear Western and West African contextual&nbsp; associations, Euba creates layers of meaning which at times throw those idioms into stark relief and at other times provide nuance<br>or even blur the lines between musics. </p> Jennifer LaRue Copyright (c) 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 40 211 238 Postcards from the platteland: Avant-garde Aesthetics and Nostalgia in Poskantoor’s (2014) Paratexts <p>Following its premiere in 2014, the Afrikaans opera Poskantoor (2014) was the first full-length Afrikaans opera to grace the South&nbsp; African opera stage for some decades. The production’s musicological reception has been positive: Mareli Stolp argued, for example, that Poskantoor’s comic medium enables the work to offer political and socio-cultural critiques, ‘without adopting or&nbsp; supporting an openly political stance’ (Stolp 2016, 152-53). My reading of the opera will contend that, described as a ‘nostalgic story’ and cloaked under a satirical guise, Poskantoor dangerously flirts with nostalgic reflections of Afrikanerdom that may be regarded as problematic, especially considering the country’s apartheid legacy and the white elitism associated with the dissemination of opera in South Africa during the regime. In line with interdisciplinary approaches in global opera research that embrace the media of opera, this article focuses on Poskantoor’s YouTube trailer – a paratext that unsettles the opera’s nostalgic indulgences.&nbsp; Investigating the interactions between nostalgia and the avant-garde, this article explores the subtle interplay between references that indulge Afrikaner nostalgia (a prominent theme in Afrikaans cultural products post-1994), and an avant-garde aesthetic that attempts to distance Poskantoor from the genre’s apartheid legacy. I argue that the latter succeeds in acting as a catalyst that&nbsp; questions Afrikaans musical and cultural remnants. </p> Melissa Gerber Copyright (c) 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 40 239 268 Book Review <p><strong>Book Review</strong>: <em>The La Traviata Affair</em>. By Hilde Roos. pp. xiii + 264. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2018. ISBN 978- 0520299894</p> Zakes Mda Copyright (c) 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 40 269 280 Reflecting on the Absences in Opera <p>No Abstract.</p> Wayne Muller Copyright (c) 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 40 281 291 Black Experiences in Opera: Perspectives from South Africa, Europe and the US <p>No Abstract.</p> Naomi André Louise Toppin Patrick Dailey Njabulo Madlala July Zuma Copyright (c) 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 40 292 344 Resoundings: Transformative Practices in South African Music Studies <p>No Abstract.</p> Mareli Stolp Copyright (c) 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 40 345 348 ‘That Things are Status Quo is the Catastrophe’: Administrating the Arts of Exclusion in an Inclusive Age <p>This article takes seriously the imperative of decolonisation, not merely as an exercise in the radical transformation of&nbsp; institutionalised music studies, but as a first step towards understanding the power relations and bureaucratic principles by which the neoliberal university operates. The work that will be done as part of this initial step is for the largest part historical. Thus, in the first section, I ask about the history of the present of the university, specifically with a view on understanding the managerial turn by which many universities now operate. Taking a lead from Bill Readings’s (1997) work, the section commences with a consideration of Kant’s university of reason, the Humboldtian (cultural) university of the nineteenth century and the present-day techno-bureaucratic university, coupled with a cursory glance at the development of the idea of the university in South Africa. Extending the work of Readings into the domain of postcolonial critique, I argue in a&nbsp; subsequent section that (contra Readings) culture and bureaucracy developed simultaneously in the&nbsp; nineteenth&nbsp; century as imperial rule forged technologies through which to wield power at a distance&nbsp; (bureaucracy) and, through culture, rendered ‘ethical’ the physical and structural violence of colonial and imperial dispossession. In the closing section, I ask what lessons might be drawn from this history for the present-day university and music departments in particular, especially with a view on deep structural&nbsp; transformation.</p> Carina Venter Copyright (c) 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 40 349 378 Perspectives on Decolonisation and its Implications for Jazz Curricula and Teaching Approaches <p>Decolonisation of education, curricula, and issues of transformation remain at the forefront of academic discourse in South Africa. Key questions in this debate focus on defining decolonisation and directing the concept of decolonising curricula at universities towards global relevance. The normative ‘cultural mismatch theory of inequality’ (discussed in detail in this article) is another&nbsp; important issue to be addressed. This article reviews some of the diverse views on decolonisation, its elements, sub-groups of&nbsp; transformation, and the combined effect on curricula. The significance of curricula responsiveness as theory and practice (including curricula as transmission, product, process, and praxis) is extracted and reimagined to integrate decolonisation and transformation in current music teaching and learning practice. It is in teaching and learning practice that the notions of challenging and cultivating creativity are used as catalysts for the process. Further commentary is offered towards reimaged teaching and learning strategies within Tshwane University of Technology’s music programme. Association of practice was identified using a reflective research design relying on observation and reflection on the teaching and assessment strategies employed through cluster sample groups as compared through success rates. A case study approach was adopted to describe the purposive sample that included practical subjects. Decolonial values are embedded within learning strategies and intervention protocols and impact on the success rate. Association of practice was identified for non-normative and multicultural teaching and learning, and the andragogical non-Western implications in jazz improvisation, solo instrumental, and ensemble practices.</p> Roland Moses Janine Lewis Copyright (c) 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 40 379 418 Surveying Post-Apartheid Curricular Change at Four South African Tertiary Music Departments <p>Despite several recent contributions by South African music studies scholars regarding the lack of curricular transformation in South African tertiary music departments and the ongoing hegemonic superiority of Western art music ( Stolp 2015, 2016; Mapaya 2016; Viviers 2017; Fourie et al. 2018; King 2018), the extent, or lack, of post-apartheid curricular transformation at South African music departments has not yet been the subject of systematic scrutiny. This article begins to address this gap by means of a critical post-apartheid curriculum history of the music departments at four institutions – Stellenbosch University, Nelson Mandela University, the University of Cape Town and the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Following the work of Agbedahin and Agbedahin (2019), I argue that such a critical curriculum history can significantly contribute to curriculum transformation. I start by surveying existing literature on the state of the South African tertiary music curriculum. By means of an examination of yearbooks as well as interviews with current and past staff members, the curriculum at each of the included departments is then surveyed. I then focus on four particular areas of interest, namely the bureaucratic nature of many of the curricular changes, the continued marginalisation of nontraditional modules, the optimisation of choice as part of curriculum change strategies which then becomes part of a neo-liberal ethos (and within a certain environment runs the risk of the continuation of established patterns, albeit now as optional rather than&nbsp; mandatory) and the persistence of problematic terminology. Finally, I offer an analysis of the surveyed changes in terms of Cross's (2004) add-on, affirmative and critical transformative approaches to curriculum change.</p> Mieke Struwig Copyright (c) 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 40 419 462 Disruption: Gender, Jazz and the Lady Day Big Band <p>With the rise of the #MeToo movement in 2017, emphasis on disentangling patriarchal narratives of male dominance have found voice in popular culture as well as within the self-consciously insular world of academia. Yet despite the prominence of this&nbsp; movement, many industries remain highly male-centric. Jazz, and particularly jazz in South Africa, can be considered an industry and genre which – while certainly being at the forefront of decolonial movements based on race in both apartheid and postapartheid<br>South Africa – has not been similarly transformative in terms of gender. This is evident both within academic literature and in the social media activities of various prominent women in South African jazz, and indeed women active in areas of musical practice in wider contexts. The Lady Day Big Band, named after jazz singer Billie Holiday’s nickname, is an all-women big band founded in 2018 by Amanda Tiffin, Lana Crowster and Kelly Bell. The band started as a response to the highly patriarchal and male-dominated South African jazz scene, as well as in response to the traumas that women in music in South Africa had experienced, creating a safe space where musicians could create and be experimental without fear of judgment. This article explores how the Lady Day Big Band intentionally subverts and disrupts the historically marginalised position of women in jazz.</p> Marc Röntsch Copyright (c) 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 40 463 482 Higher Music Education and the Introduction of Music Business Programmes <p>As music educators it is our predominant objective to nurture not only the future talent of the music industry but also the&nbsp; infrastructure that will support that talent. This may be achieved by instilling, in the general population, a passion for music and an understanding of the music creation process, resulting in audiences that are more educated and professionals who will be able to deal with musicians with greater empathy. Based on earlier research, I determined that music degrees in South Africa are not adequately preparing graduates for all the eventualities they will encounter once they articulate into careers in music and there are presently no degrees offered in the country that cater to the training of future music business leaders. The value of higher education coupled with talks about the decolonisation of education have made it essential that higher music programmes are re-evaluated to ascertain their relevance in the new knowledge economy and the fourth industrial revolution. Whilst a place for higher music qualifications, in their current iterations, still exists, there is space for the creation of new programmes that will offer&nbsp; prospective students a greater array of entry points into higher music education. These programmes may assist in increasing participation rates in music departments at South African universities and generating music managers with a greater&nbsp; understanding of music creation and musicians, ultimately supporting transformation in higher music education in the country. In this paper, I will explore some of my research findings and suggestions pertaining to the prospective transformation of higher music education in South Africa.</p> Seldon Rocha Leal Copyright (c) 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 40 483 514 The Music Department in South Africa as a Mirror of Racial Tension and Transformative Struggle: A Critical Ethnographic Perspective <p>This position paper examines the phenomenon of White normativity in academic Music Departments in South Africa from a Black critical (auto)ethnographic perspective. The author argues that recognition for the value of, and struggle to achieve a Black&nbsp; normativity within Higher Music Education, reflects a systemic struggle for transformation that is largely rooted in the dismissal or devaluation of decolonisation and the ‘Black-on-Black’ teaching and learning experience. Using Fanon’s theory of lactification, the author suggests that a deeper probing is necessary to fully understand the Black assimilation or aversion to the normative White dominant and Black insubordinate roles and behaviours within Departments. The author postulates that more scrutiny should be given to the so-called ‘sound-whitening’ or ‘sound-straightening’ practices that are largely embedded in the praxis of Departmental identities and curricula offerings; and that who is reflected in the space as valuable, reinforces the notion that there is a racialised normativity at play within Departments. Finally, the author demonstrates how the vehicle of performative critical ethnography allows Black musicians and scholars a method by which they can begin to write-themselves-into the discourse and voice their&nbsp; criticism against White normativity by saying and doing the ‘unspeakable’ in order to shed light on the pervasive ‘conform but don’t transform’ hegemonic Departmental cultures they find themselves entangled in. The paper draws on the author’s lived experience to illustrate the point that racialisation and intersectionalities of race and belonging within Departments contribute to the tensions around advancing transformation and is intended to catalyse debate and solicit similar shared or opposing views.</p> Glenn Holtzman Copyright (c) 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 40 515 541